An Evaluation of the Relevance of TheseBooks to Hollow EarthTheory

              Gerry Forster

 This evaluation is written by way of an answer to a recent irate response to my having been foolhardy enough to remark that some Hollow Earthers appear to regard these two antiquated books as genuinely true accounts of the adventures of the central characters   As if they were factually narrated to their respective authors, John Uri Lloyd and Willis Emerson, who then wrote them down.  Consequently, the idea is being disseminated among newcomers to the Hollow Earth theory that these books are to be regarded as some kind of “Hollow Earth Bibles” or “Holy Writ” and should be therefore treated with much the same sort of respect as is accorded by Christians or Muslims to the Bible or the Koran.   
Whilst I don't object to the books themselves as being interesting stories about the sort of thing one might conceivably encounter within the Inner Earth, I give them no more credence than I do to Jules Verne's “Journey to the Center of the Earth” or to Edgar Rice Burroughs “Pellucidar” and “At The Earth's Core” novels.  In my view, they are all equally entertaining as science-fiction adventure yarns but I accept them as nothing more.    However, having said that, I do feel that they may be of some help to the newly-initiated into this Inner Earth concept in grasping some sense of what a Hollow Earth might perhaps be like.   
  Previous Writings
     The actual historic legend and literature on the concept of a hollow Earth, dates back certainly to the time of the ancient Greeks.  But I suspect that, in actual fact, it goes much futher back than that, even beyond the time of the founding of dynastic Egypt to the era of legendary Mu and Atlantis and Hyperborean Thule.  In most of the world's mythical cultures there is invariably some reference to an Underworld which is comprised of a Hell or Hades and a Paradise!   Even Jesus Christ speaks of them in the Bible Gospels, when he refers to the poor man, Lazarus, who lay starving to death at the gate of a wealthy merchant, until he finally gave up the ghost and  was taken down to dwell forever in “Abraham's Bosom”. This was the ancient Paradise of the Hebrews, and it was separated from Hell by a deep and uncrossable gulf.  

 Christ's story relates how the rich man also died soon after, but went to Hell.  And it was from there that he was able, in his agony of suffering, to call across the gulf to the poor man in Paradise, asking him to bring him just one single drop of water to relieve his torment of heat and thirst.  The ex-“poor man”, who was now spiritually rich in God's blessings, had to reply sadly that he could not help since there was no possibility of him being able to cross the great gulf or pit between them.              
   Egypt and Greece
     Thus we find Scriptural support for an Underworld or an Inner Earth, which may be a stronger substantiation for Christians than all the others.  The existence of such an Inner World is well documented in the legends of the mythologies and religions of most peoples of the ancient world.   The Egyptians had their invisible Underworld of the Dead, which was ruled over by the Osiris, after his murder and dismemberment by Set, and the subsequent rejoining of his scattered body parts by Isis and Nephthys.   
The Greeks also had a dark Underworld of the Dead ruled over by Hades (or Pluto).  The fare of a dead person was a coin placed in the corpse's hand in order for the person's spirit to pay a ferryman, Charon, to take them across the Styx to this gloomy world of death.    Charon then poled the spirit in a punt across the black subterranean river which divided the land of the living from that of the dead.     
     The Norsemen, Teutons and Vikings had their Underworld, a place called Nilfheim - a cheerless world of ice and darkness that was their Land of the Dead.  The deepest root of Yggdrasil, the World Tree of Norse myth, reached down into Nilfheim, where a hideous dragon, monster, Nidhogg, gnawed at the root in an effort to kill the Tree and thus destroy the living world.  Nidhogg also fed himself upon the corpses of evil-doers. Nilfheim was ruled over by the grisly goddess, Hel. (A strange coincidence, or the actual origin of the anglo-Saxon term, Hell?)

    The Slavs
The Slavic peoples, and their migrant descendants, the Celts, however, believed in the Otherworld.   This was a magical place of  perpetual peace and contentment, where reincarnated, immortal souls could feast and enjoy music for all time.   It could only be reached by traversing deep caverns, subterranean lakes, and tunnels, or by being invited and taken or guided there by one of its many “angelic” representatives who mingled unnoticed with the people upon the surface.   

Similar in some respects to the Christian Heaven, this “Otherworld was an underground pagan Paradise.  It was variously called “The Plain of the Two Mists”, “The Land of The Young” or “The Living”, as well as “The Promised Land to The West(perhaps an early reference to the British Isles?).  In some references, however, it was the Land Of The Dead, the Underworld.

Here we begin to gain some real feeling of the legendary Inner Earth!

    North America
The Red Indian people, such as the natives of North America, believe that their Creator God, The Great Spirit, also known as Gitche Manitou, Maheo, Tirawa or Waka Tanka, lives in the sky, but that he is thought to have led the first human beings up from inside the Earth out upon the surface, which he had already prepared for them.   This inner region is known as the realm of the Creator Goddess, Shipap, the Womb of the Earth, out of whom humanity was born.  She is known by different names among the various Indian nations.    However, we see here the belief that our forerunners may have originally emerged from an Interior World within the Earth.  Their Paradise was The Happy Hunting Ground, a place of pleasure and plenty, not unlike the Norse concept of Valhalla.     The Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, are also said to have crawled up out of  the Inner Underworld, after the Creation.

In Mesoamerican legend however, special compartmented underworlds were set aside specifically for unworthy spirits. Xibalba, the Mayan underworld, for example, contained several deadly places, such as “The House of Gloom”, “The House of Cold”, “The House of the Jaguars” and The House of Fire”, etc. There was also a “House of Bats”! (Here one can be forgiven for being reminded of Count Dracula's Carpathian castle!)     The lowest of the nine-levelled Underworld of the Aztecs was Mictlan, the Land of the Dead, a dark, gloomy place of eternal boredom and depression, situated at the Earth's center! Its ruler was Michlantechupi, the Aztec Death God.   

    South America
Strangely, in Inca legend there seems to be no clear reference to an Underworld as such - except for the belief that the first of the Inca race were four brothers and four sisters who were said to have emerged from a cavern close to Cusco in Peru.  One of these brothers is said to have been Manco Capac, who became the first Inca ruler.  However, the Incas seem to have held  basically similar concepts of Heaven and Hell to those of the Christian belief.   

    Africa and Oceania
The African peoples also seem not to have had any concept of an Underword or Inner Earth.   Their people either emerged from a Cosmic Egg or fell from a heavenly realm in the sky.    Nor do the Australian aboriginal people appear to possess any definitive concept of an underworld.  For them, the sky is the final repose of the dead.    In Oceania, however, we find several mentions of an Underworld ruled by a Goddess of Darkness and Death.  The Polynesians had such a goddess in Hine-Nui-Te-Po.

    South-East Asia and India
In South-East Asia, the people had many mythical underworlds of varying degrees of horror, and many of them were the haunts of demonic Serpent or Dragon gods.  Naga Padoha, is such a one in Sumatra, as is Aso in Borneo.  There were also the Hantu Kubor, horrible underworld Demons of The Grave in Malaysia.    In India, the Vedic realm of the dead was ruled by the god Yama,  and the Hindu Underworld of Patala is said to be submerged under water!   
 The Shintoist Japanese have an underworld  “Land of Darkness” named Yomo no Kumi, although Buddhist Japanese believe in an afterlife called Emma-o.   

   The Middle East
Other such beliefs are found in various places. Irkalla was the Babylonian underworld of gloomy shadows, whilst the ancient Canaanites had a netherworld underneath a mountain range named The House of Corruption.   And in Persia, the Land of the Dead, Vara, was contained in a huge cavern under the earth.. Of course, the Heavenly Paradise and Hell of the Hebrews and Moslems needs no elucidation here.    
Having then established that there have been many many precedents in ancient myths, legends and traditions from all parts of the world for the strong belief in an Underworld inside the Earth since time immemorial, let us now return to our previous discussion regarding a brief review of the relevance of the two books in question, which are, by comparison, quite modern                                                                              works on the subject of  the Inner Earth or Underworld!  

Whilst I don't wish to take up the reader's time with a lengthy summary of these books, I shall endeavour to give the reader at least the bare bones of them.  The book “Etidorhpa(which the alert reader will immediately notice is the name “Aphrodite” spelled backwards) is a rather deep tome, written in the 1890s, that goes into a some extremely interesting realms of philosophy, and also has a convincingly scientific ring to it regarding the underground realms beneath the Kentucky Hills and beyond.   
It takes the reader along through some hair-raising encounters and adventures before reaching its final goal in the inner hollow Earth.    The only problem is that one doesn't actually get to this more intriguing part of the story until one meets the strange underworld guide, a good quarter of the way through the book, and even then the really exciting content doesn't begin to kick in until at least halfway through the book.     

The first section of the book mainly concerns the central character who mysteriously names himself “I Am The Man”, and his previous difficulties with the Masonic Brotherhood, whom he had somehow wronged. (You must read the book to find out how). However, he has much more to impart of a scientific nature, which eventually he does to the man he has chosen to be the writer of his story, one “Llewellyn Drury”, who in turn, finally hands the whole manuscript over to John Uri Lloyd to be made public by having it published.    I can't go too far into the plot of the book without spoiling it for would-be readers, so I shall avoid doing so.   Bruce Walton (who believes he has identified the “Man”, and thereby claims to have set the seal of factual truth upon its contents) has written an interesting preamble regarding the book's Masonic references which may help the reader to establish certain possible truths as to its initial veracity.     

    Why This Particular Name?
Someone recently remarked that “Etidorhpa” doesn't seem to sound verbally correct when pronounced as it is written.   They're quite right of course, except that the stress in the original remark  (page 257 of “Etidorhpa”)  is placed on “I Am The Man”                
correctly interpreting the backward-spelled name!  

This he could easily do by simply writing it down the right way round, or even by mentally visualizing the word.   One must ask oneself whether the entity who claims in the tale to be “Etidorhpa” pronounced it with an F or a P?  

However, as far as I am concerned, the thing that I find difficult to comprehend in all this, is exactly WHAT actual relationship the goddess “Aphrodite” (or “Venus”) could possibly have with a story about the Inner Earth?  And why would an entity purporting itself to be the Grecian “Goddess of Love” choose to reverse her name? We soon learn that she is actually a demonic temptress, and, in accordance with occult   tradition, Satanic rituals often involve the reversal of “Holy names” as a sign of Satan's rebellious opposition to all things of a Godly nature.   (Much as “reverse-speech” is often claimed to be used by some of the more un-Godly rock-singers).  But since when has the pagan “Aphrodite” been holy to Christians?
And how can we relate Aphrodite to the Christian concept of Love?  Yet, according to Chapter 51, of the book itself, the Land of Etidorhpa - that is, The Inner Earth - was essentially the “Unknown Country” - ("the undiscover'd country from whose bourn no traveller returns" as the Bard of Avon puts it).  By plain implication in the story it is meant to be “Heaven” or “Paradise - the Domain of Utter Peace and Tranquillity - free from all misery, distress, hatred, envy, jealousy and unholy passions of our mortal world!    The inference is, of course, that "I Am The Man" has passed over from this earthly realm.   He is dead, and so it is his spirit or ghost which has haunted Lewellyn Drury and has dictated the story to him.
(It is of some passing interest to notice that John Uri Lloyd is a typically Welsh name - as is that of the tale's “narrator” - Llewellyn Drury - and that the Welsh are widely renowned - certainly in Britain - as being both a highly religious and psychically-gifted, mystic people).    I should also add, before I forget, that the book can be compared to some degree in its overall intention to John Bunyan's classic “Pilgrim's Progress”, with perhaps even more than a touch of Dante's “Inferno” about it!    It certainly strikes me as containing some sort of barely-concealed religious message or meaning, and there is no doubt as to the intellectual and literary abilities of its writer.  (I would be interested to hear the readers'views regarding this “hidden message or meaning”)

But there is some kind of oddly obssessive aspect to this book which convinces me that it really is a science-fantasy-mystery yarn, and that John Uri Lloyd has striven to combine together several of his pet-subjects and concepts into it.  These include a curious blending of general physics, natural science, religion and occult mysticism.  Not to mention much deeply-brooding philosophy, a close knowledge of both geology and speleology, a sound comprehension of the HE concept (of his day), and his own personal vendetta of hatred toward the Masons - which shines like a beacon through his book. (Perhaps he himself might have been cast out of their Movement and even threatened with death for some major infringement of their then deeply arcane rules?)

There can be no doubt that Lloyd possessed an encyclopaedic knowledge of these subjects, and must have been a very brilliant scholar, with an excellent command of written English. I would have greatly enjoyed reading any real works of a genuinely scientific or philosphical nature that Lloyd might also have written.  

However, regardless of Lloyd's motives in writing this quite mind-boggling “story within a story”, the net result is a long-winded and often utterly confounding book, which ends up leaving both Llewellyn Drury and the reader, too, staring into a mirror in total bewilderment.  (Again we see the inference of Satanic “reversal” as well as a hint of “Alice Through the Looking Glass”!) There may well be some great, fundamental hidden “message” concealed in the book.  But if there IS one, it gets completely lost in the labyrinthine maze of its quite divergent events, as well as all the long rambling discussions and dissertations which pass between the main protagonists.

I know that I haven't covered all the intriguing aspects of this book here. But that was not my intent, since to do so would simply spoil the book for prospective readers, and I strongly encourage everyone who has a literary turn of mind to take up its powerful challenge, and see what they can deduce from its “story-within-a-story”.  A task in which I unhesitatingly wish them “Happy and Instructive Reading”!

In summary, despite its intriguing references to our own common interest - the Hollow Earth - “Etidorhpa” is very much on a par with Lewis Carroll's “Alice In Wonderland” - which was actually a political satire, told as a nonsensical child's story in order to avoid repercussions - as also were the “Gulliver” tales by Jonathan Swift - and it makes about as little coherent sense.   My own personal reaction to reading this frustrating book is that of finally being left “in the lurch” right upon the literal brink of some long-anticipated and momentous discovery - after I had invested a great amount of lengthy mental effort in trying to discover its concealed inferences.   In short, I can only view Etidorhpa as the convoluted product of an extremely intellectual, but curiously-distorted mind.    I must confess that plowing through this baffling book left me both mentally exhausted and completely thwarted.

But let me make one thing clear.   None of this comparatively mild criticism should be regarded as any suggestion that the book isn't worth reading.   Indeed, I would recommend it as a most intriguing read to anyone - whether interested in the “Hollow Earth” subject or not.  It is very well and eruditely written and there is much to learn therein, both from a scientific and a philosphical point of view - not to mention its background revelations regarding the early Masonic secret society!    However, I don't think it really gives as much information about the physical interior of the Earth, or its inhabitants, as might be imagined or expected from a Hollow Earther's standpoint.  

Call me overly-pragmatic if you like (even though I myself have often been described as a mystic and a dreamer), but I certainly couldn't, and wouldn't, base my own preconception of the interior surface of the hollow Earth, as an inhabitable and, hopefully, hospitable sphere, upon such a mentally-confusing and obscurely-contrived book.  Nor upon its verbal depictions thereof.  However, as I have noted previously; this comment is purely my own personal opinion.  Others will obviously differ on this point.

They might extract something of educational, inspirational or even spiritual value from it.   Many certainly appear to have done so, but unfortunately I myself just could not find what I'd really expected, and very much hoped, to find within its covers.

    Archaeo-Fiction of The Day….
I shall next turn my attention to the second book in this evaluation, Willis George Emerson's famous book:The Smoky God.   But first, let's take a look at the author.    Emerson, who although originally a writer of Westerns, apparently tired of his genre, and turned his pen instead to a subject that was all the rage around the turn of the 1900s, the fad for lost empires, mysterious tunnel and cavern worlds and hidden cities.  
 At that time, Sir Henry Rider Haggard more or less had the world by the throat with his ripping yarns about Allan Quartermain and friends discovering caves full of gold, as in King Solomon's Mines, or stumbling upon old civilizations, as in Allan Quartermain”, that somehow had managed to avoid the modern-day world, with their wondrously-built marble cities tucked away in the hidden seclusion of  inaccessible African mountain valleys whilst the  world passed them by.   

Haggard's book, “She”, was typical of such yarns, being the story of an ageless and beautiful goddess, Ayesha, or “She-Who-Must-Be obeyed”.  She ruled over a desolate ancient kingdom of dead, but wonderfully-preserved people, who lay in their  thousands in eternal rest inside her mysterious cavern-city of Kor.   In this tale the hero was an elderly English scholar, Horace Holly, who with is ward, Leo, went in search of this city, following certain clues and fragments left to Holly by Leo's dying father.   Leo's father had apparently discovered the city during his archaeological ramblings in Africa…. But I won't follow the story through here in any detail. The reader will get the general gist of it if I add that there was some reincarnation-connection between the heroic young Leo and Ayesha's centuries-lost husband, Kallikrates….and that in a huge subterranean realm of great caverns below Kor, there burned an eternal flame of pink fire which could confer immortalily upon those who dared enter and bathe in it …  

Others such as Herbert George Wells were writing of similar mysterious places - including the Hollow Moon!   Who can forget The First Men In The Moon”, or his famed The War Of The Worlds?     However, Jules Verne had already laid down the ground-rules for these incredibly prophetic “science-fiction” stories way back in 1872 with his Journey To The Center Of The Earth, soon followed by his Twenty thousand Leagues Under The Sea”.  (Not, of course, called “science-fiction” then!)   
But even earlier than Verne, Edgar Allan Poe in 1830 had written, a strange tale entitled MS Found In A Bottle” which hinted darkly at the existence of a giant maelstrom in the Indian Ocean, and how a sailing ship had been dragged down into it - possibly into a distantly-placed Southern Polar opening?   While the tale is inconclusive - since the last survivor found time to scribble the curiously long message, and insert it into a bottle prior to being sucked down with the ship - his general description of curious phenomena, such as a pallid watery sun by day and a red moon by night, an ancient Swedish crew-member - reminiscent of the Ancient Mariner - all tends to point toward Emerson's The Smoky God”.  The tailpiece of this story however, written by Poe, is most revealing, and I quote it here in full:   

“NOTE. -The “MS Found In A Bottle” was originally published in 1831 (1833), and it was not until many years afterwards that I became acquainted with the maps of Mercator, in which the ocean is represented as rushing, by four mouths into the Northern Polar Gulf, to be absorbed into the bowels of the earth; the Pole itself being represented by a black rock, towering to a prodigious height.    -The End-”

However, a later story by PoeThe Narrative Of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket, written in 1850, enlarges somewhat upon this in a very similar theme, insofar it involves another sea-disaster, this time in the South Pacific Ocean, where Pym eventually arrives aboard a trading schooner after surviving many incredible adventures, accidents, mutinies and shipwrecks.  Soon they are in the pack-ice where (woefully, due to Poe's poor knowledge of South Polar fauna) they encounter a 15-foot polar bear!     

Strangely, although still heading south, they encounter warm weather and land upon a well-wooded island, inhabited by a treacherous tribe of negro savages clad in furs. They trade with the natives in a friendly manner, but they soon discover that their trust is misplaced.  They are subsequently led inland to a great chasm which descends deep into the bowels of the earth…..but our hero and his friends somehow escape back to sea, but….well… read it for yourself!      However, as always with Poe's tales, the last chapters are mysteriously missing,  so we wind up again with the inevitable lengthy concluding “NOTE” which hints at all sorts of “Polar Hole” possibilities!

 As a final offering in this selection of antique polar mystery tales, I now direct the reader's attention to James De Mille's A Strange Manuscript Found In A Copper Cylinder” published in 1888.     It is couched in much the same style as Poe's “Arthur Gordon Pym” story, but at least it takes the reader upon a much more coherent adventure.  The tale unfolds with the discovery of a sealed copper cylinder afloat in the sea near the Canaries by a group of rich American youths who are enjoying a casual sailing-boat cruise across the Atlantic.   The cylinder is fished aboard and is found to contain  a rolled up manuscript, written by one Adam More.   

This is almost a sequel to Poe's “Pym” tale - even including the hero and his chum becoming lost in an open dingy and landing upon a volcanic island close to the Antactic continent.    They also encounter a tribe of almost subhumanly primitive inhabitants on this island, and soon fall out with them.  The hero's companion is killed but he escapes in the boat along a grim coastline until it is eventually swept into an inland channel, that leads eventually into a great chasm down which the channel falls like a Niagran cataract.    The boat and Adam somehow survive this plummet into the depths, and as it floats aimlessly upon a subterranean stream  he falls asleep.   

When he wakes, he finds himself entering a strange new world, sunny and warm and luxuriant with tropical vegetation.  He sees a great galley approaching and encounters the civilized locals of this lovely land, who welcome him aboard.  As they make for a nearby quay, beyond which lies a vista of great houses and palaces built in terraces up the surrounding mountainsides.   Adam sees many great cavern portals in the cliffs and it is into one of these that he is taken….. But this is only the beginning of the tale!                         

So from here on, I'll leave my inquiring readers to follow it up themselves, as this book, like most of the others mentioned above, are available for free download from the Internet.  (This one is courtesy of Gaslight Etexts).   De Mille's story however, is quite relevant to “The Smoky God since it has several similar features.  Its inhabitants are also of some curious Indo-Hebrew racial mixture, and are rule by a High Priest called the Kohen - and “Kohen” is Hebrew for “High Priest”!  

The Smoky God
      This then establishes that this book so highly venerated by Hollow Earthers, is but one of a long line of similar books which reach back to the 1830s, if not further.  What we have to ponder is just how much of it was actually the result of the influence of those previous tales, to which Emerson must have had ready access, especially since he was one of the leading lights in the Iowa Authors Society!     Or did he really meet up with Olaf Jansen, and later sit beside his death-bed taking notes, in Glendale, Cal?  

The big problem is that both of these “discovered-manuscript” or “deathbed-revelation” tricks are such well-used ploys by writers of that particular era that one is hard put to it in accepting yet another such tale at its face-value.  I Am The Man in Lloyd's Etidorhpa handed Edwin Drury a sheaf of handwritten manuscript, and The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym was allegedly handed to Edgar Allan Poe for editing and publication.  Even James De Mille's Strange Manuscript Found in a Copper Cylinder was found floating in the Atlantic, as was Poe's MS Found In A Bottle.   Similarly, even Rider Haggard's story of Shebegan with an ancient shard of Egyptian pottery covered on the outside with a block of ancient Greek text, and further inscribed on its inner side in Latin and mediaeval English - as well as bearing an Egyptian cartouche for good measure!   Why shouldn't we also accept these other writings on their face-value?      
God forfend that I should be a “Party Pooper” regarding such literary “Sacred Cows”, but where does one draw the line?    I confess to being a Christian, but I don't necessarily accept everything I've read in the Bible as “Gospel”.  Why?   Because the men who wrote them were only human and therefore fallible - as well as inclined to embroider and expand upon things. Thus I simply can't accept everything I read!    My old Grandaddy used to tell me when I was a small boy: “Son, believe only a half of what you hear and only a quarter of what you read.  That way you won't be too disappointed later on!”   I've always remembered his words of wisdom - and applied them, too.  (Maybe just as you should also with what I've written here!)

“Well,” someone might ask, “if you don't believe everything you read, how come you believe that the Earth is hollow?  Surely you must have read about it somewhere, and that got you interested?”     This is quite true.  I did read about it, and it did set me thinking, and - Yes!  I do believe that the Earth is hollow!    However, note what I said. I read something that started me thinking about the hollow earth.  (Actually it was an article about Byrd's alleged “secret and long-lost Diaries” concerning his mysterious polar flight in 1927).  I didn't believe what I read, holus-bolus.  I let the idea roll around in my mind for quite some time.   It seemed to strike a distant chord somewhere inside me, so I finally decided that it was worth following up a little.   
 I didn't come to the Hollow Earth theory directly.  I'd already read about places like Shamballah and Agartha, long before I ever heard about that possiblility.    I was always a keen student of world mysteries and lost civilizations, and I have a stack of books a mile high to prove that interest. I daresay that I have lost more books on old mysteries and the occult than many of my readers have got round to reading yet!   In my early years, I read several books by T. Lobsang Rampa about the mysteries associated with Tibet and its lamas, and almost became a Buddhist as a result. But not quite!

     No, I came to believe in the Hollow Earth by degrees, because even before I taught myself to use a computer, I'd read so many books by maverick adventurer-achaeologists like Colonel Percy Fawcett in his South American adventures, and David Hatcher Childress in his worldwide travels. They both gave so many “eye-witness” accounts of strange underground cities and vast tunnel systems under mountain chains like the Andes and the Himalayas, that I was “roped in” on the spot.   

     A “Young Shaver” Mystery
Also I should mention that my interest in things of this kind had been fired ever since, as an artistic child, I studied the fantastic line-engravings and wash-drawings in my first “Boy's Own Annual” at the tender age of five or six, then subsequently read the hair-raising stories that accompanied them a few years later.   By then I was an 11-year old kid in 1939 pre-WWII Britain, but thanks to a youthful uncle, some seven years my senior, who shared the same interests, and could afford to buy books, I grew up on a basic diet of “Wide World”, “Amazing Stories” and “Weird Tales” pulp magazines.   
There was one particularly memorable short piece in one of the “pulps” which spoke of the interior of the Earth being inhabited by a race of strange giants - or some such.   How I have wished I could find that magazine today!   It left me totally mind-boggled to contemplate that there could be another, upside-down world right under my feet!   So you could say that it was really at that point when I became pre-conditioned regarding the concept of a Hollow Earth!   

When I eventually acquired a clapped-out computer, fumbled my way around it, then graduated to the Internet (some fifty-seven years later!) I was able to pick up that old mental thread again.   After reading about Byrd's so-called “flight into the Inner World” via the North Pole, I next read Dr. Raymond Bernard's The Hollow Earth”, which, because it was so eruditely written, I was gladly prepared to accept  - till some fool told me that his real name was Walter Seigsmiester and that he was considered a fraud!   After that let-down, I guess I trod very cautiously around the whole subject.   Then along came Jan Lamprecht, who struck me as being a pretty stand-up guy, and I think the fact that he was South African or Rhodesian, helped a lot, since I felt he would be neutral toward American ideas.   Most of the writers I'd read thus far on the subject were Americans - from Poe, Symmes, Teed, Reed and Gardner through to Rice Burroughs and onwards.   Jan Lampecht, I'm happy to say, has since gone on to write the most completely definitive book yet about  (and entitled) Hollow Planets!

Strangely, I never recalled hearing of Richard Shaver - although I now believe that he was the author of that first short article I read in “Amazing Stories”!    But was he old enough?   How old was Shaver in 1939?   I since learned that he was born in 1907, as Richard Sharpe Shaver, and that his brother, Taylor, wrote adventure stories for boys' papers.   Richard was also a born writer, and established an association with Ray Palmer, editor of Amazing Stories, among other pulp-fiction mags, in the early 1930s.  So it was probably one of his very first published pieces that turned me on!  

This means that I really owe my present considerable interest in the Hollow Earth and Planets theory initially to Richard Shaver - and I only wish I could send him an email to thank him today!      Sadly, however, I learned that he died back in 1975 - about the same time as his mentor, Ray Palmer.   

    “The Smoky God” Story
Anyhow all this isn't really explaining my doubts about “The Smoky God” as being a genuinely credible accout!    The actual story itself starts off conventionally enough, but in a very familiar style.  The author writes an introductory foreword to “set the stage” as it were for what he knows is going to be an incredible tale to swallow,  by remarking in advance upon its very incredibility in the very first line.   To an old and experienced reader such as myself, this immediately set the hackles rising.    Then my disbelief is aroused even further when I encounter the old “woken in the wee hours of the morning by a messenger bearing an almost indecypherable note” line, summoning the great writer to the deathbed of an aged Norseman, named Olaf Jansen, and furthermore, one who still adheres to the old pagan Norse gods, Odin and Thor.  

It is then revealed that the author had been attracted to Jansen's Glendale home near L.A. in California, by the homelike appeal of his bungalow and well-tended garden.  But he “can hardly say” what exactly had motivated him to pause in his constitutional stroll and stand chatting to a 90-odd year old Norwegian ex-fisherman.  However, they establish a relationship and the old man more or less prophesies that the author will pay him a return visit one day, and that he will then be shown the old man's library and be told unbelievable things.  The author assures him that he will return and that he will believe whatever he cares to tell him about his travels and adventures.

This hardly seems to be the way to begin writing what one hopes will be a convincing yarn, does it?  But are we perhaps being sucked into some sort of clever “double-bluff”?  I can only say that by this time, my hackles are fairly crackling with suspicion and distrust!     However, on with this potted version of the introduction.

Old Olaf is rather impatient at the tardiness of the author's arrival and tells him tht he won't last the night, so he must hasten to relate his strange tale before he gets whisked off to Valhallah.   Then after two hours or so of rapid-fire talking, Olaf gives the author a bundle of drawings, data and maps, to substantiate his story.   “These I leave in your hands.” he says. “If I can have your promise to give them to the world, I shall die happy,” he says,” because I desire that people may know the truth, for then all mystery concerning the Northland will be explained.”    

  But before relating Olaf's tale, Emerson reflects to himself upon the influence other writers have had upon him regarding the hollow mysteries of the Frozen north - specifically that of William F. Warren, who wroteParadise Found, (1885) and suggested that the North Pole was once the site of the original Garden of Eden!   He then goes on to mention various polar myths about this Arctic Eden and how, according to Olaf Jansen, the Four Rivers of that famed Garden, the Euphrates, the Pison, the Gihon and the Hiddekel, flow around the inner surface of the Earth from the top of a high internal plateau, the Edenic “Navel of the World”.   

He also goes on to mention that the Inner Earth's diameter is 600 miles less than the external diameter, and that in the “center of this vast internal vacuum is a mammoth ball of dull red fire - surrounded by a white, mild, luminous cloud, giving out uniform warmth and held in place by the immutable law of gravity.  This electrical cloud is known to people as the abode of “The Smoky God”.   They believe it to be the Throne of “The Most High”.”    The Lord God of all Creation - Jehovah Himself!
Here, we strike a considerable paradox, especially since Olaf was a pagan who worshiped Odin and Thor. Why then would he refer to Jehovah as the Most High God?
 But that's not the only paradox. Emerson goes on to say that “Olaf reminded him of how, in the old college days, we were all familiar with the laboratory demonstrations of centrifugal motion, which clearly proved that if the earth were a solid, the rapidity of its revolution upon its axis would tear it into a thousand pieces.”   
Here one feels compelled to wonder from which American Ivy League college Olaf graduated?    Also one can't help but be amazed at the marvellous way that Olaf, during his truly incredible sea-voyage with his father, Jens, had been able to even guess at the diameter of the Polar Hole,or that there even was one, let alone estimate it at “about 1400 miles across”!   According to the alleged dying narrative he dictated to Emerson, he recalled so much minute detail about the start of their voyage. How they'd sailed through mysteriously ice-free seas up past Franz Josef Land, then how en route northward they came upon a small island covered with giant washed-up tree trunks,  after examining which, they had set sail again.   And how, after a hearty meal, he and his father fell asleep, only to be aroused in the night by a dreadful storm.  During this, their sloop somehow was caught in the undertow of a great maelstrom, and they were surrounded by white spraying waves and mountainous seas, that whirled the ship around for some three hours or so. For a dying man, Olaf's memory, was pretty astonishing!  

Then, upon finding themselves suddenly in a calm-water channel, 10 to15 miles   wide, they discover that the seawater is now fresh. They at once refill their water-kegs with it.     Eleven days later, after setting their sails again and being born along north by northeast, they discover that the sea had once again become salty.  They sail on, carefully rationing the remainder of their precious fresh water, and sleeping much oif the time.    Soon after this Jens rouses Olaf to look at a giant red sun which has now appeared before them, and which he claims to be a mirage which he has heard of before from other Arctic sailors, and that “it will soon pass away”.

However, instead of this red sun fading away, it gets stronger instead of dimmer, and once again we hear of Olaf being woken vigorously by his father, Jens, telling him that “there is LAND in sight!” (I have to remark here that, for a pair of hardy experienced Arctic fishermen, this father and son duo spent an awful lot of their time asleep in dangerous waters!)      However, apparently there really is land, covered with trees and vegetation, and the two are elated at the discovery - so much so that Jens prays in thanksgiving to his ancient Norse Gods.   Here, too, we find one of Olaf's constantly recurrent references to their compass and in which direction it is pointing - this time due north - even though they are sailing due south!   

This harping on about the compass is one of the really irritating aspects of the tale - especially when Emerson himself keeps on interjecting with italicised paragraphs about the famous and real Arctic explorers like Nansen and Peary and others, regarding their experiences with aberrant compasses.  Quite frankly, I find these feeble attempts to prop up the credibility of the rambling tale not only pathetic, but quite destructive to its integrity as a coherent whole.       However, to return to the story.

The two Jansens continue sailing along this coastline for several more days, only putting ashore here and there to collect nuts from the trees, until they find a river-mouth  and turn their vessel into it.  Before long, they hear the sound of many people singing, accompanied by harps, and soon a large and strange ship glides downriver toward them.

Here, I think we really need to “Cut to the Chase” or I'll be repeating the whole story, verbatim!   A boat is lowered and six gigantic men row out to their sloop. We learn that they stand around twelve feet tall, wear full, but carefully trimmed beards, and speak in a curious tongue.  However, they appear kindly disposed and take the Jansens on board their huge craft, and even hoist their sloop aboard it, too.   They are all fair-skinned but with ruddy complexions and vary in their hair-coloring, between black and blond.  It appears that there are also a number females on board also.    

Anyhow, they are so impressed with the two midget Norsemen, that the captain - - who is a good head taller than any of the rest - orders that the ship, which is a highly-powered motor-driven vessel, be turned around and headed back upstream.  The pair are shown every kindness by their hosts - whom they now notice are strangely clad in lavishly embroidered silk and satin tunics,with knee-breeches and gold buckled sandals.

Very soon, travelling at railroad-express speed, they notice that the outer sun's rays have ceased to shine down (presumably through the 1400 mile Polar hole - though if so - How?  The sun can never be directly overhead in the Arctic region!) but there is still a soft radiance emanating from the “dull-red sun” and its inexplicably “white light”.  We are then told that in twelve hours, this cloud of white light would pass out of sight, and that the following twelve hours would correspond to the external hours of darkness.

Fortunately, the ship is illuminated by what Olaf later realizes is electricity, but which was at that time (in 1829) unknown to them.   But, to continue.  Two days later, they arrive at a large city called Jehu , which he says signified “a seaport town”.  It has large and varied, beautiful houses, uniform in appearace but without “sameness”.  It is also judged by Jens that this city must be directly underneath London or Stockholm.  (But they haven't yet been informed that they're actually inside the Inner Earth!)   

The principal occupation of the population seems to be viniculture and grain-growing, to which the surrounding hillsides and valleys attest.    The grapes however, are as large as oranges, and apples the size of a man's head demonstrate the wonderful growing conditions that apply here.    The trees surrounding the area are far taller than even the giant California redwoods - which would look like mere underbrush by comparison.    And the hills are thronged with vast herds of dairy cattle.   
As things turn out, the Jansens are kept at Jehu ( a very Hebrew-sounding name) under the care and instruction of one Jules Galdea and his wife, who are charged to teach them the local tongue.  (This language is later revealed by Olaf to closely resemble “Sanskrit”! How would he know?)     Emissaries arrive from the Inner Earth government to learn all they can from Olaf and Jens, who have to draw the rough maps of the outer world, including naming all its features. Then at last, they are conveyed on a sort of high-speed gyroscopic monorail transport system to the city of “Eden” where they are conducted into the presence of the High Priest who rules all the land.  

(I couldn't help noticing the odd comparison between this aspect of the tale and that of the rulership of the inner world of  James De Mille's Strange Manuscript Found in a Copper Cylinderwhere a High Priest called the Kohen ruled the nation!   
De Mille's story was published in 1888, so Emerson would have had ample opportunity to consciously or subconsciously absorb its plot, setting, and characters over the intervening twenty years!    Unfortunately, his High Priest is given no Jewish title, but we can see that there is some curious kinship between the two.  One appears to have sprung from the other; in subconscious memory, at least!)     However, to continue.

The High Priest's temple is situated in the heart of Eden, which, as we learned earlier, sits upon the loftiest mountain plateau of the main Inner Continent, and is surrounded by a very beautiful garden - Edenic, in fact!    Four rivers share their source here in a huge artesian fountain and they run off in the four directions of the compass.  This place they are told, is the “Navel of the Earth”, the “Cradle of the Human Race” and the rivers are those in mentioned in the Bible - Euphrates, Pison, Gihon and Hiddekel!  Thus we must concluded that the population are Hebrews - and quite probably represent the long-missing Tribes of Israel!    

Olaf and his father are surprised to find that even their sloop has been transported up to this garden for the High Priest's inspection!   Their audience with this fifteen-foot tall dignitary him lasts for some two hours, during which he questions them politely and considerately.  At the conclusion of the talk, he asks them whether they would like to remain there, or return to their own outer world, if it were at all possible to re-cross the ice-barrier, which he tells them encloses both Polar openings..  

Old Jens then requests that they be allowed to remain a while to learn something more of the land, its people, colleges and palaces of music and art, as well as its fields and forests , and then be allowed to return home to their kinfolks.  The High Priest says that he fears that they will never manage to return home, as the way is too hazardous.  But they can certainly stay on with Jules Galdea and that he will be appointed to escort them around the different  countries.  And that, when they are ready to leave, their sloop will be replaced in the river, and made ready for them - “ and we will bid you Jehovah-speed!”  Thus ends their one and only interview with the high Priest.

After this, there follows a lengthy description of all the aspects of life and the land of this amazing land.  People get married at between 75 to 100 years old, and they generally live for up to between 600 and 800 years, and in some cases even more.

This of course, tallies very well with the ages of the antediluvial patriarchs from Adam to Noah, so it comes as no great surprise, especially given their Edenic surroundings, and that Jehovah Himself allegedly resides in the vicinity of the haze-surrounded Red Sun - (hence His title of “The Smoky God”!)  At least, having founded his tale upon such an Hebraic-Biblical plot, Emerson is nothing if not consistent!)

I shall avoid reiterating all the imaginative details which are set forth in Emerson's tale, regarding the nature of this world, apart from some passing mention of the presence of many surface-type animals and birds, and even the hint of an amphibious dinosaur, much like the plesiosaurus - plus the vast herds of mammoths which roam across the plains and forests!   I must add here, however, that I would expect nothing less than the odd Behemoth and Leviathan in such an Edenic setting!   
Suffice to say that it was filled with a great many such wonders - as well as a great deal of pure gold in nugget-form that lay strewn around like pebbles everywhere!

The father-and-son team were shown many incredible things, especially how the inner landmasses and oceans were opposed to those on the outer crust.  Where there was fourth fifths of ocean and only one of dry land above, so was the opposite true below. The ocean of the Inner World only occupied a fifth of the inner surface, so that the actual land mass was vastly greater than that of the exterior!      (This, however, is not such  a new idea, and has been proposed many times in previous literary and theoretical concepts of the interior of our globe.   Not that it necessarily makes any valid scientifically orthodox geological sense, but it certainly sounds pretty convincing - which is all that really matters in a novel!)      

Sadly, it is precisely because Emerson elected to incorporate so many seemingly convincing features into his story, that so many easily-persuaded Hollow Earthers tend to believe it to be a true and factual account!  One might as well believe The first Men In The Moon to be true, for exactly the same reason!  “Cavorite” definitely seems to work!   As I've mentioned before, this trick of introducing elements of pseudo-science into these old stories was a very commonly-used ploy in most tales of this genre.  And it was what made these old-fangled books so much more intriguing than much of our modern Hi-Tech science-fiction!   If you don't believe me, try reading a few more!   (To aid the doubting reader in this, I'll add the URL of a site where other Hollow Earth and Lost Races book-titles  can be found at the end of this article).

   Farewell to The Smoky God
Anyhow, let us now move right along, and try to conclude our “not-so-brief” dip intoThe Smoky God”!    
 Eventually, however, Olaf and Jens begin to weary of their travels around this enchanting land, despite its “intoxicating, electrically-surcharged air” and the constant sweet “fragrance of bud and blossom” and pine to be on their way Home to wife and mother regardless of the risks.     Their wishes are reluctantly but promptly followed, but not before their hosts have presented Jens with various maps and charts of the entire Inner Earth - in addition to a load of bags of gold nuggets the size of goose-eggs!  

The day finally arrives when the giants launch their sloop into the river, and there is a sad farewell scene as they prepare to get under weigh.  Old Jens swears by Odin and Thor to their large friends that he will try to return in a year or two to pay them another visit.. and so they bid their fond adieus and hoist sail.  However, there is a minor hiccup in their departure since the wind, which constantly blows from the north polar opening to the south, holds them back for three days.  Finally, Jens resolves that the only answer is to head for the  southern Polar aperture.  (But not without some further confusion and rigmarole over the compass which points steadfastly “North” despite the fact they are heading due south!)   The first intimation of their approach to the south opening, is when they land upon a small island  and discover penguins upon it.- except that these penguins stand nine feet tall!   

As one might have anticipated, their next hundred days are a living hell of uncertainty in an open and iceless sea, as their ship is driven before a terrific warm wind that issues from the polar opening, and they fear the hull being smashed upon hidden rocks.  But soon, they find themselves among the Antarctic ice-packs which threaten to crush their little sloop to matchwood, and again their compass behaves in a drunken and erratic fashion as they ascend the vast curvature out from the vicinity of the opening.

Grimly they battle their way onwards through a seemingly endless narrow channel, narrowly avoiding being crushed between the vast icebergs which loom on either hand. The bergs grind noisily together cracking great slabs off each other, with reverberating cracks like artillery, and they fear the slabs falling upon their ship.

But eventually to their immense joy, and relief, the channel steadily widens and soon they can hoist their full sails to a favoring breeze, and set forth like an ocean racehorse.   And so they go for the next month and a half, dodging icebergs and seeking channels.   
However, Fate hasn't freed them yet!   Just as they are congratulating each other on the fact that they'll soon be heading home to Stockholm - especially with their hold full of gold nuggets - they hear a deafening roar like the firing of a thousand cannon.  It comes from a giant iceberg that they are just passing, which has just split in two, and now it is rolling over, and lifting their little boat up on a great jutting spur of what had been submerged ice!    Their boat is thrown into the air like a football as the spur lifts up from the sea, but luckily it falls back upon the iceberg.  In the event, Olaf has been thrown clear of the sloop but his father is snarled up in the rigging.    Then, before they can even think, the berg completes its roll and Olaf swoons away as the icy waters envelope him.

When he awakes from his faint, Olaf finds himself lying wet, stiff and frozen upon the iceberg, but his father has completely vanished, together with their fishing-sloop. It's then that Olaf realizes he is a castaway, and is overtaken by grief and horror.  Grief for his beloved father, and horror at the hopelessness of his situation.  Thus he crouches back against the ice, resigned to an awful lonely death by freezing.  He awaits the inevitable in total, black despair.   

Of course, no self-respecting novelist would leave his hero in such a plight for long, and this holds true for Emerson, too.   Suddenly Olaf is aroused by  the firing of a signal-gun!  And, lo!  There, only half a mile away he sees a Scottish whaling-ship bearing down upon him with all sails set!   He is delivered!

In due course he is tucked up in a warm bunk under the supervision of the ship's surgeon.  His efforts to explain that he had come with his father from the Earth's interior are simply regarded as the ramblings of a man who has survived a great ordeal. Some days later, when he Olaf  climbs out of his bunk and goes up on deck, the skipper again quizzes him about where he had come from, but when Olaf sticks to his tale, he is dismissed as being “Mad as a March Hare”.  It takes him some time to convince the captain that he is sane and will never mention the Inner Earth again, and after that he is allowed to join the crew, and work his way to Scotland and thence to Stockholm.

When he finally arrives there, it is to discover that his mother has been dead for a year.  He then makes the mistake of entrusting his tale to a relative, and this lands him in the madhouse, where he remains for the next twenty-eight years!    Subsequently, upon his release at the age of around fifty-one, Olaf returns to his life as a fisherman, and after working hard and saving his money sedulously, for a further twenty-seven years, he at last has the means to go to America, and to finally settle in quiet  retirement in Los Angeles.   However, despite his amazing adventures, he still regarded the climax of his life as being when the Scottish whaler took him off that iceberg in the Antarctic.

There is a “Conclusion” to his tale, to the effect that he “firmly believed science was still in its infancy regarding the cosmology (or should that be “cosmogony”?) of the Earth.  There is still so much unaccounted for by the world's accepted knowledge of today!  (how true!)  and it will remain so until the land of “The Smoky God” is known and recognized by our geographers.”
“It is the land from whence came the great logs of cedar that have been found by explorers in open waters far over the northern edge of the Earth's crust, and also the bodies of the mammoths whose bones are found in vast beds on the Siberian coast.”

“Northern explorers have done much .  Sir John Franklin, De Haven Grinnell, Sir John Murray, Kane, Melville, Hall, Nansen, Schwatka, Greely, Peary, Ross, Gerlache, Bernacchi, Andree, Amsden, Amundsen and others have all been striving to storm the frozen citadel of mystery.”

Olaf (or Emerson) then ends by remarking: “I firmly believe that Andree and two brave companions, Strindberg and Fraenkell, who sailed away in the balloon”Oroen” from the northwest coast of Spitzbergen on that Sunday afternoon of July 11, 1897, are now in the “within” world, and doubtless, are being entertained as my father and I were entertained by the kind-hearted giant race inhabiting the inner Atlantic Continent.”

       (There's another page or so, but I won't include them here as  they concerns scientific matters)


Thus we also arrive at the point where we must arrive at our own conclusions as to the veracity or otherwise of Emerson's tale of the Inner Earth.   First we must decide who really told this story.  Was it Olaf Jansen, or was it Willis George Emerson?  To try to cast some light upon this question of true authorship, we have to go right back to the beginning of the story.     Let us begin by considering Emerson's account of how he first became acquainted with Olaf Jansen.    Was it in the flesh or was it in his imagination?

By his own words, Emerson tends to betray himself regarding the credulity of the whole thing.   I feel that right on the opening page in his Foreword, Emerson vaccilates upon his own actual belief in its veracity.  He ponders his own credulity in accepting Olaf's tale as true fact, several times within the span of a single page.  If he was really that uncertain as to the narrative's veracity, he should never have put pen to paper in the first place!     This, as I have remarked earlier, immediately raised the hackles of my own belief.   When an author begins a story by patently disowning it, I know instinctively that he is about to stretch my credulity to snapping point.!   Nor were my literary suspicions proven wrong!   

During his introduction of Olaf Jansen, Emerson was clearly upon “shaky ground” - and not just because he was in Southern California!   He backed and filled more often than any of the subsequent winds and gales his heroes were to encounter in the polar fiction that followed !   his account of first meeting Olaf is clearly an invention.   And I must admit that I find it hard to credit that such an elderly Swedish fisherman in that day and age, could have raised sufficient funds to pay his fare from Stockholm to America, as well as purchase a neat little bungalow in Glendale, Los Angeles, whether or not unpretentious.  Not to mention an extensive library of fine books!  Glendale, (next door to Berverly Hills) was, by Emerson's own admission close to the Los Angeles business district, and must therefore have cost Olaf more than a pretty penny to acquire to acquire a home there!     Then we have the question of Olaf's age when he emigrated to America.  By simple arithmetic, since he was a boy of only 18 or19 when he set out on the fateful voyage with his father, then the outward voyage may have taken anywhere up to six months - after which he claimed to have spent two years inside the earth - he must have been 21 when he left Eden.     

Allow another twelve months for the period between leaving the south Polar hole and arriving back in Sweden, since the whaler would not have gone directly back to Scotland - and even when it did, he would also have had to get from Dundee to Stockholm - and we have him at the age of around 22 to 23.   Then, presuming he was at liberty in Stockholm for say some six months before his uncle had him committed to the asylum, he would surely have been over 23 at the time of his incarceration.   Now add the 28 years of his confinement in the madhouse, and we see that he must have been at least fifty-one at the time of his release.  But then he became a fisherman again (and we can only assume an ordinary deck-hand at that), since his uncle had no doubt sold his mother's house whilst he was inside the asylum.    As nefarious a motive as any for having him committed!  

Thus working as a common deckhand for a further 5 years, he saved every last dime, and steadily accrued enough capital to buy his own fishing-brig. Then he worked 22 years for himself, fishing around the Lofoden (actually “Lofoten”) islands, and gradually, over the long years, increasing his fleet of boats.   In 1889 Olaf sold out his fleet, and acquired what was to him, a fortune, sufficient to last him for life.   He must have been around 78 years old when he decided to go to America .  

There, he lived in the state of Illinois, near Batavia, for twelve years, where he gathered most of his extensive library, although he had brought many choice volumes with him from Stockholm.   Then he retired to Glendale, Los Angeles at the age of 90 where he bought a comfortable bungalow.  He had lived in it, surrounded by books, for another 5 years before he met Emerson..   So here we find this old man of 95 years of age, who after a tough lifetime of extremely hard work at sea - not to mention of also suffering in a madhouse, who is now a dedicated intellectual scholar surrounded by his own magnificent library!    How did he become a scholar?     

The final closing tailpiece of the story which follows Olaf's conclusion to his tale, depicts a man of very high intellect who has obviously had access to higher learning.  This is reinforced in Part Two of Olaf's story, where he explains that he was a bookish, studious child, who attended a private school in Stockholm until he was 14.  

If Olaf ever really existed, Emerson might conceivably have “bought” that story, but I don't!    No, I guess, I have to say rather sadly, that the clues still just don't add up in my mind.   There are far too many weird and unexplained things involved.     For example. Does anyone who is a Christian really buy into the concept of the Lord God of all Creation having His Heavenly Throne and all of Paradise hidden away inside the crust of the humble little planet Earth?   

Not only that, but we are given the idea that  the population of that Inner World were Hebrews - one can't help but assume this.  Especially taking into account their general appearance, priesthood and the names of themselves and their cities and rivers, as well as their apparent relationship to the ancient Biblical patriarchs, in both size and lifespan).  Not to mention that they were living in Paradise - in the Presence of God!   
Why, then, I ask, in the name of all that's holy, did they speak in Sanskrit?     Surely that was the ancient language of the Hindus of India, who worshiped a totally different Vedic pantheon of gods?     

Then, of course, we have that strange matter of coincidence concerning other such tales as James De Mille's A Strange Manuscript Found in a Copper Cylinder”! Could it be that Emerson was simply a plagiarist who culled other old adventure books for material to include in his complicated story?   There were certainly hundreds of them around in his time!   It's also easily possible that Emerson did encounter an old Scandinavian who had some sort of tale to tell - I myself have personally met many ex-seamen who could tell some wonderful tall stories about their travels - and the amazing adventures they had encountered on them!    

Thus, I find that there is too much room for doubt, and too many paradoxes and conflicting aspects in the story to see it as anything other than simple sensational fiction and not all that well put together, either!   As one reviewer wrote: “It's a long way from deathless prose, but it seems to have been lost in time.  People who like to read the old stuff - the science-fiction that pre-dates even the term “science-fiction” - may find the story of more than passing interest”.   I guess that he neatly sums up my own view, too!

Olaf's Last-Page “Evidence”
Let me conclude this evaluation with a few final observations on the “scientific evidence” presented by Olaf Jansen in the “Conclusion” of “The Smoky God”.  

As to Olaf's talk of cedar tree-trunks washed up on Arctic islands, and of vast beds of mammoth remains along the Siberian coast being from inside the Earth.   These are known facts, but they are easily attributable to such earth-shaking events as ancient meteor-impacts in the Pacific (or even to pole-shifts and tilts) that sent enormous tidal waves sweeping northwards in a swirling, sluicing curve across the Asian plains.  These repetitive waves carried with them the remains of the huge herds of mammoths that used to graze there, as well as whole forests of trees of all kinds - including cedars.  

All of these were smashed and frozen among the floes and ridges of the Arctic icefields or deposited upon the coastal tundra of Northern Siberia.  Topsoil was also carried by subsequently-rebounding tidal waves and dumped over the remains and detritus already deposited, and was snap-frozen by the intense Arctic cold.   Hence the phenomenon of “fresh” mammoth carcases lying buried under the permanently frozen earth (now known as “permafrost”), as well as those which lie frozen inside permanent ice-sheets on the Siberian-Arctic islands.  Fresh treetrunks and even green-leaved boughs and other ancient vegetation have also been found “snap-frozen fresh” in these same locations.    
They are therefore not conclusive evidence of “Polar Holes”.  In any event, according to my understanding of a Hollow Earth scenario, since such polar holes would be in the ocean floors and therefore submerged, the Northern polar hole would be
an inflowing maelström, often surrounded by a revolving, atmospheric hurricane-like storm, into which ships, and even aircraft can be sucked down, whilst the Southern aperture would be an outflowing upthrusting maelström, from which Inner Earth detritus would be disgorged.   It too would be hidden by a rotating atmospheric storm.   

Thus it follows that any “Inner-Earth” ejecta would only be found near the Antarctic!  So in this regard, it would appear that either Olaf Jansen or Willis Emerson had “done their homework” pretty thoroughly!  Incidentally, as a matter of further interest, these enormous “maelströms(or oceanic whirlpools) have been recorded for millennia in the Earth's oceans, both in fact, as temporary but recurring phenomena, and in the legends and myths of not only circumpolar lands, but of Greece and Asia.   Curiously enough, there is a relatively minor but permanent maelström, caused by conflicting North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean currents, which revolves just off the coast near the isle of Moskensby, one of the southernmost of the Norwegian Lofoten Islands on which Olaf's father, Jens Jansen, is reported  to have been born!     

I think it extremely likely that, since this is the best-known permanent maelström in northern oceans, Emerson chose it as his primary model, and also included its surroundings as a good location for some of the early action in his story.  This would also account for his choice of Scandinavian fishermen as his principal characters.   There was no shortage of such ex-Swedish and Norwegian seamen who jumped ship in America in his time, and they were renowned as notorious tellers of uncanny sea stories!    Even Edgar Allan Poe was a sucker for such tales some 70 years earlier!  One should read his story A Descent  Into The Maelström” - and hisMs Found in a Bottle (1833) shows the same “whirlpool” influence upon his story-telling - even including an old Swedish companion!    It is quite possible that Emerson was also heavily influenced by Poe, as well as by James De Mille.   

However, be that as it may, I remain convinced that both The Smoky God and Etidorhpa are simply cleverly-conceived works of pure fiction - and nothing more!
 © Gerry Forster 2001

Some of the books discussed here, which readers may be interested in printing out as hard copy can be
 found on the Internet as free downloads.    Anyone seeking a fuller and more comprehensive
       list of kindred books about the hollow earth, lost races, and similar topics
  should check VIOLET BOOKS website at the URL given below:


A New Wide-Ranging Hypothesis on possible Racial Origins of Mankind, and other Associated Thoughts, Theories
and Ideas relating to Our Past and our Future.

Gerry Forster

     This work is primarily not so much a work focussing upon one single topic or subject.    To be perfectly frank and honest, it started out that way, but I soon found that, as I worked upon my primary hypothesis, and sought corroboration from other sources and disciplines of science, that many other spin-off notions were occurring to me all along the way.  And it suddenly struck me that, if I didn't examine and record  them right there and then, they might just fall by the wayside.  Or worse still, they would simply become forever lost in the bibliomaniac's nightmare which is my studio!  However, after examined these byproduct notions, I found it more expedient to add them into the ongoing work in progress, pro tem, in the forlorn hope of someday sifting through them and separating them out for separate articles.   

Perhaps before going on, I should maybe briefly describe my lair, then perhaps you'll understand!  It's an untidy den, edged with looming cliffs of books ancient and modern, where my trusty computer stands out like an island.    But it's a lonely island of orderly logical sanity, amid a chaotic ocean of print-out drafts, notes, ever-open reference-books, and overflowing waste-paper baskets of old e-mail messages.   In short, all the paraphernalia of the word-smithing Seeker (usually in vain) after the Philosopher's Stone of Ultimate Wisdom.      
So, where else could I safely squirrel away these potential acorns of idea until, hopefully, they might burgeon forth into mighty oaks of mature hypothesis?  Then it occurred to me that they might find more fertile soil in younger and less overcrowded minds than mine in which to grow.   Perhaps your own!

Thus you find here this rather miscellaneous, resultant repository of these hopefully-viable seeds of useful thought.  Ideas which would otherwise probably have withered in the already overgrown jungle of my mind, lain gathering dust in fading binders, or vanished slowly from disintegrating floppy-disks.    So if my readers find this assemblage of hopefully worthwhile observations and data interesting, I can only trust that some of them will have the initiative and fortitude to delve through it and glean some of the hidden treasures that I may have left embedded therein!  
As for myself, I've already enjoyed doing the pick-and-shovel work.  I found the ground-breaking effort rewarding enough - even if only as mental exercise to keep my wearying brain from decaying any faster than it needed!  Too many wise old heads take their knowledge and ideas uselessly to the Great Beyond with them, where All Wisdom waits to be finally revealed to them.  So I'm leaving mine here!   Enjoy!
Now, with regard to the inquiry that started this whole body of work rolling!    It's long been an interest of mine as to why we have separately distinguishable races of humanity on this planet, especially when it is so abundantly clear that we are all of the same genetic stock -  as demonstrated by the fact that the three (or as some prefer, five,) basic races, although characterized by colour and other physical differences  -  are perfectly compatible from a genetic standpoint, and are capable of interbreeding with each other and producing healthy, genetically-intact, if hybrid, offspring without any apparent difficulty.  This being the case, why, if we are truly all of the same human species, should there be such marked differences between the three principal races: i.e. Black, Yellow and White - or, if one prefers - Negroid, Mongoloid and Nordic-Caucasoid?

Whilst it sounds feasible to suggest that skin-colour and other physical attributes are connected with the climatic regions in which the races are supposed to have originated - this doesn't seem to stand up to closer scrutiny when we look more carefully at the amount of differential between intensities of sunlight and other weather factors in different continents or geographical zones.

Negroid peoples are assumed to be black or dark-brown because they come from Africa, where the climate is consistently sunny and hot, hence, over countless generations, they have adapted to deal  with the tropical radiation of the sun by secreting large concentrations of melanin pigmentation in their skins.

     Mongoloid peoples, since they are thought to have originated in the harsh, inhospitable climatic conditions of the central Asian steppes or tundra, are believed to have developed suitable physical characteristics - like broad, fat faces with squinting eyes - to cope with the constantly driving, dusty winds and inclement weather encountered there.   However, this does not adequately account for their yellow-brown skin colour, unless the central Asian sunlight was once far more intense than it is today - within the span of human existence upon the earth!

     White Caucasian peoples, because they live largely in temperate to cold areas of the globe, have had no apparent need to secrete much melanin in the skin at all, since the sun is often obscured by cloud, or is lower in damaging radiation in such northerly (or southerly) latitudes.  However they do tend to possess more hair on body, head and face, presumably because of the colder climate and the rigours of circumpolar winters.

     All of these explanations seem to make sound enough logical sense at first glance, and one may be excused for wondering why they shouldn't be perfectly adequate to satisfy the most inquiring of minds.    Yet, as one examines the evidence, other questions spring to mind, which make one think more deeply about the whole curious business of racial disparity.    When we study the different races more closely, we find that there are other basic differences which seem to have little or no bearing upon climatic habitats or the amount of solar radiation they are subject to, especially over the past two or three centuries.

     For example, Negroid people now live and work in all parts of the world - seemingly without suffering any greater discomfort or ill-effects than the whites or Orientals who may be indigenous to those lands.   Yet they appear to be quite perfectly adaptable to cold and heat alike, and still retain a generally better standard of good health and vitality than the native inhabitants of their new lands.   Virtual freedom from dental caries and great physical stamina and strength, are only a couple of noteworthy attributes of the Negroid race, apparently regardless of diet and surroundings.   Is this because Negroes are physically superior to the yellow and white races?    Or is there perhaps some other factor at work here, which is not so readily apparent?

     Mongoloid people have also spread far from their original homeland into just as many varied regions of the globe, especially into most of South-East Asia , where they have taken to a tropical habitat like ducks to water - despite their often frigid and forbidding original surroundings in the Mongolian tundra and the central Asian deserts.   However, they tend to be a far less hardy race in these new tropical environs, than the Negroids, and are often sickly and lacking in general physical fitness and strength.   Dental caries runs rife among the poorer peasant-classes of Mongol Asiatics, as do various malnutritive diseases and tuberculosis.  To a large extent, they're dependent upon white, Western nations for economic aid, food subsidies and health support.      
Of all the Yellow race, the Japanese and Chinese appear to have the best assured chance of survival in today's world - mainly because they have learned from the white race how to survive.

     White Nordic-Caucasoids are generally better nourished, so avoid many of these kinds of problems, although, as a race, they still fall far short of the physical fitness and natural good health levels of the Negroids.   Whilst they are naturally more resistant to extremes of cold, their decadent Western life-style has largely ruined them as an athletic and healthy race - apart from those relatively few, dedicated athletes and health-fans among them.   Without all the extensive public health-care available to Nordic peoples, most Western nations would probably be well along the road to extinction by now, mainly through cardiovascular disease, cancer and sundry degenerative diseases.  They are basically kept going by their technological and medical support systems, which in turn, are kept going purely by their wealth.  

     In addition to all these concerns, the Nordics' fair complexions are now proving to be another great problem, since the increase in UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface has caused an enormous upsurge in the incidence of melanomas and other skin-cancers among Nordic- Caucasoids.   It would seem that the Earth is no longer a safely-tenable place for the white race - if, in fact, it ever really was!   With all the current interest in extraterrestrial intelligence, it's probably only right that we  should wonder if other humanoid races live elsewhere in the universe around us - and, given the curious problems we seem to face living upon our own planet, it's perhaps a fair question to ask if we humans might not, in fact, be native to it ourselves!

In the following pages, I shall endeavour to demonstrate that this could indeed be a possibility, and that it might be the reason why we find this illogical division of our human species into three (or five) distinctly different races.  Their alleged geographical origins do not seem to be sufficient reason for such marked disparities of skin-colour and other racial characteristics, yet, at the same time, the fact that we are all of the same genetic species - as proven by our DNA blueprints - must also be taken carefully into account.  

I will start with a brief look at all the major racial differences, physical and other traits, before outlining a couple of reasonable theoretical scenarios of what could possibly have brought about this singular state of affairs regarding our human species, and perhaps lay out some sort of likely alternative paradigms of what might lie in store for us as a result of not only past cataclysms, but also future ones  which are likely to bring about radical changes in our terrestrial environment and, by adapting to them, in ourselves, and the other lifeforms with which we share this planet.   

However, let me also hasten to point out that in my discussion of racial differences and associated subject-matter, absolutely no racial discrimination or pre-eminence whatsoever is implied or intended in this dissertation.  It is simply an honest search for new anthropolological and other related scientific enlightenment, quite regardless of race or colour!     

 Above all else, please bear in mind that although much of the following is entirely speculative and theoretical, it's my sincere hope that it will provide interesting reading, and perhaps give much food for thought to all those intelligent free-spirits whose minds have not yet been hermetically-sealed by institutional orthodoxy against new ideas and concepts!   Or by racist ideologies!

© Gerry Forster

A New Theory of The Possible Racial Origins of Mankind

          Gerry Forster
Primary Considerations.
     If we accept Creation as a fact, and believe that Man, along with all the other creatures, came into being by Divine Fiat, instantly, as a complete and non-evolved species, we are still left with the problem of there being three disparate races of Homo Sapiens, and perhaps two of "Homo Neanderthalensis" (for lack of less Darwinian classifications).   These are:    

Homo Sapiens:       

1   Caucasioid (Cro Magnon)         White - light-skinned

2   Mongoloid  (Mongolian-Asiatic) Yellow - light-brown         

3   Negroid    (African)                    Black - brown      

Homo Neanderthalensis: (Nearest clear surviving types ?)         

1   Possibly Australoids; Dravidians; Ainus?    

2   No longer a distinct classification, but still extant through early interbreeding with Homo Sapiens races?   Heavy-featured, more brutish build, lower intellect.  Sports and "throw-backs" from Homo Neanderthalensis seem to occur in all modern groups of Homo Sapiens;  Nordic-Caucasian, Mongolian, and Negroid.           

Biblical Racial Origins:      
     According to the Bible, the sons of Noah, after the Flood,gave rise to three separate races of humanity, named after their progenitors. Noah's three sons were Ham, Shem, and Japheth.  Thus the Bible explains the races as being:               

     1   Hamititic:   Negros, Egyptians, Ethiopians.    
     2   Semitic:     Jews, Arabs, other Middle Eastern races.              
     3   Japhetic:    Europeans, Balts, Slavs, Turks, Russians.      
Problem!   However, no Biblical explanation can be found for the origin or derivation of the yellow Asiatic or Mongolian race from the descendants of Ham, Shem and Japheth.  Where then did the Chinese, Japanese, Red Indians, and Eskimos originate, and why do they have flat faces, slanting eyes and yellow skin pigmentation?   Perhaps we should concentrate our attention upon each race and study its characteristics and differences?  At the same time we should remain cognizant of the fact that they are all genetically compatible and thus able to interbreed. This indicates they are all of the same human species, and are derived from a common original stock.                                                        

(Special Note!   Whilst it is currently fashionable in anthropological circles to split humanity into five separate races - Caucasians,  Mongolians,  Ethiopians,  Americans  and Malayans -  in the interests of simplicity,   I have elected to focus upon the three more obvious racial divisions of Caucasians, Mongolians and Negroids.)  

1. Nordic White Race.  (Caucasians / Northern Europeans)

Physical Characteristics.
     Skin:  Pallid white and dry to ruddy pink, depending upon exposure to weather.  Nordics are easily burned by over-exposure to full sun. Some individuals are a little more sun-tolerant and tan easily, due to racial interbreeding with Mediterranean-Negroid types, or adaptation.

     Hair:   Nordics tend to have soft blond, red, or brown hair.  However, inbreeding with Mediterranean races throws up some darker oily-haired individuals.                   
     Eyes:  Nordics: blue, grey and hazel-green.   Southern interbreeding may produce dark-brown eyes in some tribal groups and individuals.                   
     Skull: Nordics are usually long-faced and dolichocephalic.   Southern genetic influences can produce square or round- brachycephalic individual hybrids of the two.   
     Skeletal: Nordics usually long-boned, broad-shouldered.   Southern genetic influences may produce short-boned, sloping-shouldered hybrids.                  

     Physique: Nordics usually tall and spare with wide-shoulders, long limbs, bodies and necks, whereas Southern European and Mediterranean races are often shorter or squatter in stature and of more solid build.

     There are, of course, many variations and combinations between these two extremes of the white race due to migration and interbreeding between regional groups. However, Caucasian-Nordic people in general are entirely and visibly disparate from Negroids or Mongoloids, even when there is a measure of racial interbreeding.      

     The white race, especially the Nordic strain, have pigmentation that is suited to lower ultraviolet radiation levels than those found on much of this planet.  Their eyes and hair pigmentation also reflect this. The only regions of the world that are still reasonably tenable for such a lightly-pigmented race are Northern Europe, northern U.S.A. and Canada, and northern Asia.  However, even those areas are now rapidly becoming hazardous to whites due to depletion of the ozone layer.  

     Contrary to earlier expectations, Negroids find no special discomfort living permanently in the temperate and cold sectors of the planet and thrive there as well as other races, if not better.  However, whilst the Negroid people appear to be equally at home anywhere on the earth, the same does not apply to Nordic people.   This could be a strong indicator  that the white races are not really indigenous to the Earth and may possibly have their origin upon a planet further removed from the sun and its harmful ultraviolet radiations, such as Mars - or the "asteroidal" planet, which we here nominate as “Astrida”.     

2.  Mongoloid Yellow Race.   (Asiatics/American Indians?)         

     Physical Characteristics.     
     Skin:  Pale ivory yellow to yellow-brown, depending on climatic zone.  Those closer to the Equator, as in S.E.Asia, tend to be much browner than their more northerly counterparts.  All appear to be very sun-tolerant and  even normally pale Japanese tan easily in warm regions, like north-eastern Australia, during holidays.
      American Indians, however, tend to have more coppery-red coloured skin than other people of the Mongoloid race - even though they are thought (by some anthropologists) to have migrated from Asia via a land-bridge believed to have anciently existed at the location of the Bering Straight and the Aleutians into Alaska. However, there is no definitive evidence that the Amerindians ever crossed such a land-bridge, or even that they had their origins in Asia!  This notable difference in skin colour might indicate a different origin for Amerindians than is currently assumed.   They may very well prove to be entirely indigenous to the American continent**               

     Hair:  Jet-black and straight in all Mongoloid peoples.     

     Eyes:  Dark-brown to jet-black. Very occasionally, the North American Indians may have hazel / grey eyes, however they, too, are normally dark-eyed.  True Mongoloids have a marked slant to their eyes and pronounced epicanthal skin folds at the inner corners of the eyes. However North American Indians tend to have squinting eyes rather than slanting ones.              

     Skull:  Usually brachycephalic round heads, but there are many Chinese and Japanese with dolichocephalic skulls. Generally the cheekbones are set high in the face and the jaws and teeth tend to be somewhat prognathous.     

     Skeletal:  Generally Asiatics are short-boned with sloping shoulders, but again, some dolichocephalic Chinese and Japanese are long-boned and wide-shouldered.   North American Indians tend to be more the latter, whilst Eskimos (or Innuits) are basically similar to oriental Mongoloids in skeletal structure.  (It is most likely these who crossed the Bering land-bridge).           

     Physique:  Mongols are short and of slim build, except for the longer-boned Chinese and Japanese,mentioned previously.  North American Indians, however appear to be more similar to Europeans in stature and build. (Perhaps this may be another contraindication of their assumed Mongoloid descent?)              
     Although there is a deal of variation between national groups of Mongoloid /Asiatic people, there is much more distinctly marked racial similarity among them in general than exists between groups of white Caucasians. Hybrids between Mongoloids and Negros, however, are less noticeable than crossbreeds between whites and Negroes. This may be due to the fact that there are some similarities of racial type between Mongoloids and Negroids.      An example of this lies in the skull and facial structure of the two races. Both have highset zigomatic arches (cheekbones) and prognathous jaws and teeth.  Also the Kalahari  bushmen and Hottetots of south-eastern Africa often display Asiaitic Colouring and features.            

**Special Note.
     The American Indians cannot clearly be proved to be of true Mongoloid descent, despite popular agreement upon this among some anthropologists.    They are virtually a separate Red race on their own.   However, the possibility of a Caucaso-Mongoloid mixture in their distant ancestry prior to crossing into America, cannot be entirely ruled out.             

     The Mongoloid races generally have a golden skin pigmentation which is conducive to strong tanning under a hot sun, though why there should be any difference in colour between them and negroes is not explicable in terms of ultraviolet radiation tolerance here on the Earth.
     However, Mongolians are certainly far less prone to skin-damage from solar radiation than are Nordic whites.   But there is no clearly definable advantage in having yellow skin colour, as against brown or black.   It can only point to either a racially genetic diminution of brown skin pigmentation, or an extraterrestrial origin.          

3. Negroid Black Race. (Africans)

     Physical Characteristics.

     Skin:  Blue-black to light yellowy-brown.*  The palms of the hands and soles of the feet are frequently pink, like the skin of white Caucasians.†    The dark skin colour is ideally suited to the intensity of UV radiation on the Earth, and is not a handicap in colder climates, since it absorbs far more sunlight than white skin, thus helping to warm the body more readily.    Of the three  races of human kind, the negroid race is the best suited, both in skin-pigmentation, and in every other way to the natural environs of this planet!

     Hair:  Black, short and curly “Peppercorn” to lank and/or even wavy.   Negroes tend to have little or no body-hair, and few can grow strong beards - unlike Caucasians, who are the most hirsute of the three principal races.  However, negroids are generally able to retain their head-hair longer than the higher percentage of either Caucasians or Mongoloids.

     Eyes:  Dark brown, and wide-set.   Usually wide open, though some, like Kalahari bushmen  tend to have narrow, almost Asiatic eyes.  There is a tendency toward genetic ophthalmic diseases.

     Skull:   Usually long (dolichocephalic), both front to back and facially, with high, strong cheekbones and very prognathous jaws and teeth.  Males generally have longer skulls than females, who tend to have rather more rounded heads.        

     Skeletal:  Very strong, long-boned, with wide shoulders. Generally much more strongly built than either of the other two races.         

     Physique: Short to very tall, with slim to powerful musculature. Heights and physiques vary depending upon the tribal groups. From 4-foot tall pygmies to 7-foot tall Watusis.   Southwest African Bushmen are generally less than 5 feet tall.          

     There are many shades and variations among Negroids in both colour and physique, perhaps due to environmental adaptation, diet, and lifestyle.  However, Negroids are easily the strongest and fittest of the human species, and are capable of the same mental acheivements as the Nordic or Asiatic races.  They also tend to have greater physical and psychlogical stamina, which makes them magnificent athletes and sportsmen.  However, due to past racial inhibition, many tend to lack some of the socio-economic ambition and drive of their white and yellow counterparts.  Comparatively few acheive high status in professional and business ranks because of their naturally philosophical and unpretentious attitude toward life.  Racism cannot  be blamed for black under-achievement in today's largely racially-liberated world.      

The black race is far and away the best suited to life on this planet, and it is a fair assumption to make, that they, of all the three major human groups, could be the truly indigenous aboriginal people of planet Earth.    The white and yellow races seem constitutionally weaker and more prone to sicknesses and allergies in comparison to the negroes, which could be an indicator of a still-incomplete adaptation to what was once an alien and hostile planetary environment.

     If Darwin's theory of "Survival of the Fittest" has any credence at all, the comparison of blacks with whites and yellows, must surely demonstrate it to be so.  Under equal opportunities and conditions, negroes are a fitter and more robust race.  Their dentition and general good health in a mixed-race society speaks for itself.   Hence they make the best athletes: runners, boxers, footballers and basketball-players.          
Whilst also athletic, whites lack the greater stamina of black athletes, and prefer sports which require more skilful and mental prowess. The Asiatics are generally poor at strenuous athletic pursuits, and major instead in cultural physical activities, like gentle mind-relaxing or body-discipline gymnastics and dancing.                  

     It would seem reasonable then, to conclude that, although all three races are genetically related and compatible, we can assume that, if the human species did originate on another planet or planets, the Negroid races were here long before the Caucasians or Mongoloids (in much the same way that the aborigines were in Australia sixty thousand years before the white Europeans arrived there), and had adapted themselves wonderfully well to Earth's environment.         
     Despite the passage of aeons of time, both whites and yellows are still coming to grips with life here. Whether they will ever make it is a moot point, since they are both responsible for the enormous damage that has been sustained by this planet, due to their pollution and depredations in the name of "ecomomic progress".        

     It may well have occurred before on other worlds - or even upon our own planet Earth, possibly more than once - as I will endeavour to postulate in my following theory. We can only trust it will not be a case of "Three Strikes And You're Out" for the human species!      

*Note concerning a possible direct link between the black and yellow races.
Some anthropologists have lately espoused the possiblity that the yellow races may in fact have their origin in an offshoot variant branch of the negroid bushmen in the far distant past. However, I personally consider this to be extremely unlikely, since Asiatics generally lack many of the major distinctively strong physical and genetic characteristics of the negroid race.  

Important note concerning pink skin on palms and soles in negroids.        
     This signifies that the dark skins of negroids are adapted from the same original pink-white lightly-pigmented skins as Nordics. The increase in melanin has occurred only in the surfaces that have been constantly exposed to hot sunlight, which include most areas of the body, head and limbs.  

The palms and  soles of the feet, however, are usually concealed from the UV radiation of the sun due to normal pronation in everyday activity, thus they do not require pigmentary protection and have remained pink in most cases.   This, however, only signifies that all humans, regardless of present racial diversity, are sprung from the same basic original stock, but not necessarily on this present planet.    

Astrida.  Original home planet of Homo Sapiens?

The Theory Propounded.        
     It has long been thought by many astronomers and scientists that the Asteroid Belt - a zone of assorted rocky fragments that orbit the sun between the planets Mars and Jupiter, are the shattered remnants of an earth-sized planet which was overtaken by a catastrophe in the distant past.    Not all astronomers subscribe to this belief, of course.   Many believe that the asteroids are nothing more than left-over debris from the formation of the sun's planetary offspring or that the asteroids are simply “space-rocks” and meteorites that have been captured by sun's gravity.   If this is so, is it not rather strange that they should be gathered rather tidily into a fairly well-defined zone, instead of being generally scattered, willy-nilly, all around the entire solar system?  True, there do appear to be a number of large meteors orbiting at different locations in the solar system, but these may, in truth, be captured space-wanderers.     

     In the absence of any actually hard evidence to refute the shattered-planet theory, I believe it is quite legitimate to theorise, as many astronomers already have, and still do, that the asteroids are the remnants of a fifth terrestrial planet, which met with an accident of literally earth-shattering proportions.     
What could have caused such a catastrophe?  Was it a collision with a huge rogue meteor?  Was it some gravitational “tug-of-war” between the distant sun and nearby Jupiter?   Sadly, we have no way of knowing the answer to that yet.    However, the “Voyager” series of space probes sent back information, which, when added to telescopic and spectrographical studies, showed that the asteriods are composed of the same general elements from which all the  innermost planets are formed; rock, iron, carbon, and so forth.     Some even have frozen gases and water-ice upon their surfaces.       It is conceivable that, at some future time, when our own earthly reserves of metals and minerals begin to peter out, astronauts might be able to mine some of these reserves of precious ores and minerals.      
     Most authorities seem to agree that the asteroids are comprised of same materials as the Earth and Mars, so it is perfectly within the bounds of feasibility that they are the broken remains of a regular earth-type planet.   The fact that traces of a gas-atmosphere are still detectable on some of the larger fragments - notably Vesta, whose high albedo indicates that there may well be a frozen coating of ice over its surface - tends to confirm that these could indeed be pieces of a destroyed planet.     
If  this is indeed the case, there is reasonable justification to believe that the original planet might well have once been the home of life-forms, just as scientists are coming more and more believe was the case with Mars.      Much scientific attention and speculation has been paid to the possibility that Mars was once an earth-type planet in more than planetary classification.   

Many scientists are hopeful of discovering traces of intelligent life having once arisen upon that planet.   I would venture even further.  Since Mars has clearly had a similar atmosphere to our own at some time in the distant, past, and since its surface shows clear evidence of water-erosion similar to that of the Grand Canyon, but on a much grander scale, I venture to speculate that it was once a planet that abounded with life, probably in similar forms to those we see today our own earth.    The evidence for a once oxygen-rich atmosphere can be found in the red rocks of the Martian surface.  They are mainly ferruginous rocks that have taken up oxygen through the chemical action of water, to form ferric oxide  -  common rust!      
No astronomer can deny the presence of frozen water at the poles of Mars, and it is conceivable that there may even be abundant free water far below the planet's surface.  There is no real evidence to show that Mars is cold right through from surface to core, since no underground studies or siesmic tests have yet been made there.  There may well be many surprises in store for future human explorers of the Martian surface and what lies underneath it. They may find that there are extensive caverns and pothole systems still harbouring pockets of dense atmosphere and possibly even struggling lifeforms that have adapted to the rigorous conditions!   

We just have no way of knowing until exploration teams of astronauts actually land upon Mars.  However, this should not deter us from making educated speculations about the possibilities.   If it were not for scientific theorists (and even sci-fi writers) and their speculations about such things, man would never have entered space, let alone walked upon the moon!     

     A proposal has already been mooted in scientific and political circles in the United States and other countries that some consideration should be given to the possibility of colonizing our moon and Mars.   Our planet is already being stretched beyond its capacity to maintain even the present population.  In view of the complete failure of all attempts at population - even in the most advanced nations - this situation will inevitably lead to a complete breakdown of human society, resulting in wars and the total destruction of the natural environment of our beleagued planet, and ourselves with it.  
`     The only other options open to humanity are either mass-sterilization programmes and /or Hitlerian mass-euthanasia of surplus people  -  or an attempt to transport its surplus people to another world.    It has been suggested that such a colonization should be undertaken in the same way that Australia was colonized, by designating the new worlds initially as penal colonies where the gaol populations of the world, especially those on "death-row" or those serving life-sentences for serious crimes, could be removed well out of society's way and at the same time be put to useful work in pioneering and terraforming their new prison-planets.        
This may sound harsh in the extreme, but such criminal “castaways” would at least be made to expiate their crimes in a truly productive way that would really benefit humanity, rather than treated to lives of leisured ease and comfort at the expense law-abiding citizens.    The benefit for condemned prisoners who would otherwise be executed, needs no further elaboration!
     Once such a satisfactory self-contained colonial base had been established,  opportunities would be offered to prospective free settlers with appropriate scientific and technical qualifications, to migrate there with their families.   However, whilst it would most likely turn out that some substantial financial salary and other inducements would encourage a  sufficient  number of suitable applicants to migrate, there would doubtlessly be  many  who would be prepared to undertake such a great  adventure purely for its own sake!

     Meanwhile, the convict pioneers would press on with constructing further bases and facilities, now with the full guidance and assistance of the newly-settled scientists and technicians.     I could go on outlining all the technical and logistical ramifications of such an exercise, but this is a topic that's already been exhaustively researched and written about by many well-known space-scientists and science-fiction authors, such as Arthur C.Clarke, Carl Sagan, Isaac Asimov and their ilk, so I'll leave the reader to seek out the appropriate books in the local library or bookstore.

     To return to the main thrust of this thesis.   If one looks at this proposition in reverse, and  imagines an ancient Martian population having already been in the same plight as we might easily be in ourselves within a few decades from now, the whole picture is suddenly presented in a totally new and different perspective.   What if that had already happened in the far distant past?    What if the Earth had been seen as the ideal refuge to escape from a swiflty dying Mars?      In such a scenario, it might well have been a beautiful, densely-vegetated planet, populated only by animals, of which primitive anthropoid apes might have been the highest life-forms.   Or perhaps their may even have been relatively primitive humanoids here, in a few scattered, nomadic tribal groups   -  rather like the Australian aborigines were in Australia, when Cook first visited that continent?         
Therefore, I ask you, dear reader, to bear with me now, whilst I allow this line of thought to unfold into a speculative “history” theme of sorts.    A  fable, if you like, but one which is well worth theorizing upon.....  I will entitle it: -

Refugees From a Dying World
In such a circumstance, the Earth would have seemed like an oasis of plenty to a desperate race upon a planet from which all vegetation had vanished and whose very air and water were almost gone.   No doubt the Martians might have destroyed their environment in much the same way we are destroying our own today, by an excess of technological zeal in creating machinery and creature-comforts at the cost of their surroundings and their atmosphere.
If their technology was sufficiently highly developed for it to impact the Martian ecology to the point of denuding their planet of all the fundamental necessities of life  - air, water, soil, minerals - then it is logical to expect that they would also developed sophisticated craft capable of leaving the planet's surface.     Perhaps they had already attained the capability of space-travel - having been spurred on in this by the growing necessity to seek another home-world?     

Maybe they had already sent reconnaissance teams to the Earth and found that it was suited to their physical requirements?   There is no reason to assume that, because they came from a different planet, they were not of human stock,   What if  they and the primitive men of Earth were both from one single, original race of men?    This idea is actually not really as far-fetched as it may first sound.  Both Martians and Earthmen could have been the descendants of a common, ancient humanoid race that came from elsewhere than either of those planets - but still within our own solar system!

The Astrida Concept.
      What if the destroyed planet, which is now called the Asteroid Belt, was the original home not only of the human race, but of many other animal, and even plant species?   Admittedly, this is yet another seemingly  far-fetched notion, but how can we really know that we are not literally a "far-fetched" species?    Consider this possibility, if you can.  A new scenario.  This time we have a large planet where the asteroids now orbit.   For want of a better name, let's call it Astrida.   It's an big earth-type terrestrial planet and the home of abundant life-forms; animal, vegetable and fungi / bacterial.   At the apex of its animal phylum is mankind, but a highly-developed species - far higher in intellect even than Homo Sapiens.  
He is at the absolute pinnacle of all animal creation in this quadrant of our galaxy.   His achievements have been marvellous, both in technological science and in the arts, and he is cognizant of the universe around his home planet.   He has totally perfected the science of astronomy and is fully conversent with space-travel - within the solar system, at least.  Why only the solar system?  Let's pause for a moment and consider the following exercise in simple logic.

     Man has already discovered the fact that interstellar space-flight is totally impracticable, because of the impossibility of achieving light-speed - and even if light-speed were attainable, there wouldn't be any way to slow down and stop the ship once it reached its destination.  Unbelievable reserves of braking fuel, or power, would need to be carried in order to provide sufficient reverse-thrust.   Even if it were feasible to carry such an enormous supply of additional fuel (besides all that required for the return-trip and return-braking),  the braking-force would have to start being applied at least by the halfway-mark.
A spacecraft travelling at light-speed would take an enormous amount of stopping.  Thus, half the journey would be spent in attaining light-velocity - then the remaining half would need to be occupied in losing it again  -  both efforts burning impossible amounts of fuel or propulsive energy - and with the same amounts needed to be spent on getting back again!    The time actually spent travelling at light-speed would be so infinitesimal it would render the whole exercise completely pointless!
Despite all the fantastic capabilities of such magnificent craft as the Starship "Enterprise" in "Star Trek", we have not yet stumbled upon the secret of "Warp-Engines" or found the wondrous "Dilithium Crystals" to power them with.   Nor, I fancy, are we ever likely to.  It's now thirty years since we first launched a man into space, and though we may appear to have made marvellous strides in other areas of scientific and technological endeavour, we still have not sent astronauts any further than our own moon!
Sadly, it seems we may have to work out our human destiny within our own solar system; certainly for the immediate future, at least.   Who knows what amazing technological discovery may be already all about us, under our very noses, waiting to be stumbled upon?        There might be some preposterously simple method of propulsion lying within our grasp, that will carry man out to the stars effortlessly.  But until the blinding scales of our own ignorant conceit fall from our eyes, we can resign ourselves, as a technological species, to existing, and probably dying, at the dictates and vagaries of our own local star, the Sun.

Spacecraft Planets.
     There is one alternative to all the various methods of deep-space travel thus far considered.  We are, to all intents and purposes, already living on a huge space-travelling craft which is entirely self-contained and self-sustained.  (Apart from the single, but all-important requirement of sunlight!)    I refer to our planet, the Earth.  It is already travelling through space at enormous speed, in company with the sun, around an unimaginably vast orbit through our own local galaxy, the Milky Way.  
This is confirmed by astronomers who have studied the way that the background of stars in the heavens has varied over the centuries since the beginnings of methodical astronomical observation, and the making of star-charts.  It has been estimated that the sun rotates around the centre of our galaxy once every 220 million years. This is a "Cosmic Year".   However, when one considers that our Milky Way galaxy is 100,000 light-years across, the 220 million earth-years become almost a wink of time in comparison!  
             The sun orbits around the galaxy at some 30,000 light-years from its centre, and, since one light-year is equal to 10 million kilometres, we end up with the staggering orbital circumference of about 1,880,000,000,000,000,000 kms - a circular path of close to two trillion kilometres!  The sun travels on this incredible journey at the unimaginable speed of  8,760 million kilometres a year.         
What this means is that, we, on planet Earth, are not only being whizzed round our planet's axis at 1670 km an hour, beside being whirled in orbit round the sun at 2,600,000 kms a day - or 108,000 kms an hour.  We're also hurtling through galactic space, with the sun,at the hair-raising rate of 24 million kilometres a day, or 1,000,000 kilometres per hour!  That's 280 km a second!   
One would expect that we'd surely feel some sensation of movement at such an enormous speed, but because we are travelling at a competely unvarying and steady rate through the near-perfect vacuum of space, and because there's nothing close enough in the skies that might give us some visual point of reference, we actually sense nothing.
The only way we can tell that that the sun is moving through space at all is by comparison of modern star-charts to those of earlier surveyors of the heavens.  However, we needn't delve any further into this area of astronomy.  We already have sufficient data to work from in developing the theory under consideration!

Spaceship Earth?
     We were discussing the earth as being a sort of giant space-vehicle upon which most of us are unwitting astronauts.   Let's imagine what might happen if the earth could, somehow, be sped up beyond its present orbital velocity of 108,000 kms per hour.   Obviously, our planet would spiral out from its present orbit, away from the sun, until the sun's gravitational attraction again equalled and cancelled out the earth's increase in speed.    
However, if the increase in orbital speed were great enough and continued to accelerate, the Earth would very soon attain a velocity which would take it completely beyond the sun's gravitational hold, thus allowing it to escape.   One need only consider our own man-made satellites, and how their angular velocities are calculated to exactly counter-balance earth's gravity so that they will remain in stable orbits.  Any change in velocity would cause them to either spiral back to the earth or outward to escape into space.   Our planet is held on a similar invisible leash of gravity by the sun.
     There are several scenarios that could persuade humanity to contemplate using the Earth as a “space-craft”.   The gradual dying of our sun, for example, or an advance-warning of the sun going nova.   A giant meteor on a certain collision-course with Earth, could present another reason for us to try shifting our planet out of its orbit.   We could, of course, try building a great fleet of space-craft, but there would be the problem of how many people could be saved, and where could they be taken to?   There is no other planet in our solar system that would be hospitable to life as we know it!
Our time (provided that there was sufficient) would be better spent in modifying and restructuring our planet so that we, and the other lifeforms, could survive in interstellar space without the benefit of either sunshine or atmosphere.    We would also need to think up some method of thrusting our planet out of its orbit.   This, as one can imagine, would easily be the hardest problem of all!  
However, even if we were able in some way to jolt the earth out of its solar orbit, we'd soon find ourselves facing an enormous and catastrophic situation.  Once out of range of the sun's radiation, the earth would be cast rapidly into a profound night with only the pale illumination of the stars for light, and all the plant life on the open surface would swiftly die through lack of sunlight for photosynthesis, as well as from the fearful cold of deep space.    

Life would be totally annihilated from the surface of our planet, which would rapidly become a cryogenically-frozen wasteland.   Not only that, but the atmosphere would rapidly disappear as the water vapour and any residual life-gases turned into ice.  We should also remember that, even before the atmosphere itself froze, without animals to exhale it, free carbon dioxide would rapidly vanish, as also would free oxygen in the absence of plant life.     
Presumably, if we developed such technological ability as to be able to shift our planet from its orbit, we would also be able to ensure survival of a large proportion of the human population, as well as plants and selected animals, by excavating huge underground tunnel-systems and  chamber-complexes, lit and heated by whichever means might prove most accessible.  Possibly geothermal heat-wells, or even fossil-fueled power-stations within the crust.  Alternatively, massive hermetically-sealed and insulated domes containing cities could be constructed in sheltered mountain-valley locations upon the surface.
Maybe both options could be taken up together?  In either case, vegetables and other plants could be cultivated hydroponically.  Even small farms and parklands could be maintained in this way, and within them, many species of animals could also be preserved in reasonably comfortable surroundings.   Powerful lighting, such as that used at night-time outdoor-sports venues, would furnish all the radiation needed by plants for photosynthesis.

What about our Moon?
     There remains another good option for this “planetary-spaceship” escape concept.  That is to use the earth's moon.  Since we already have the capacity to travel to, and work upon, the moon, the logistics of tunnelling, furbishing and stocking the moon, as I have suggested for the earth, are within the bounds of present technology.   It would not be an insurmountable problem, once the underground or domed cities had been constructed, to chemically engineer a suitable atmosphere within them, and to produce water for drinking and irrigation.   As far as we know, the moon might even already be hollow at its centre, and we know that it contains many of the ores and minerals found in the Earth - with the obvious exception of those materials that originate from the decay of organic vegetable or animal matter, such as coal and oil - so metallic ores could be mined on the moon and processed into structural components on site, without having to ship them up from Earth.  

     The moon would also present a more feasible chance of being moved out of its orbit than the earth, since it has only a small fraction of Earth's mass - around one eightieth.    Nevertheless, it would still require a tremendous amount of energy to nudge it out of its present earth orbit.   How this could be achieved is hard to imagine, although there is a possibility of employing controlled nuclear explosions, carefully directed, after the manner of attitude-control thrusters on spacecraft.   No doubt, given the huge advances being made in technology year by year,  some marvellous new propulsion principle may be soon be found that will make it easily possible to accelerate the moon to an escape-velocity.   
In the case of our earth,  the velocity at which any object can escape the pull of earth's gravity is about 11.3 km a second, (7 miles a second).   However, spacecraft are sent into orbit by using a sort of trajectory-principle, like that of firing a shot from a cannon, except that the space-"shot" is kept accelerating until its "trajectory" carries it right around the globe at a pre-calculated height.  Once the required height has been reached, propulsion is ceased and the satellite continues to go round at a steady speed in a regular orbit.  
Required orbital speeds diminish with height above the earth.  For example, the orbital speed necessary to maintain a satellite at a distance of 160 km above the surface is almost 28,000 k.p.h.  At 800 km distance this would fall to 26,650 k.p.h, and at 16,000 km, the orbital speed would only need to be around 15,000 k.p.h.  
Our moon orbits at 382,000 kilometres (237,000 miles), from the Earth, and its orbital speed is a mere 3,620 k.p.h. (2,250 m.p.h.)   It should therefore be obvious that, if we could increase the moon's speed - even minimally - it would escape the Earth's gravitational grip and become a free wanderer in space!  

     Let's briefly reconsider what we've found out so far regarding this "Planetary Space-ship" concept.  We have examined the possibility of using our Earth as a "space-life-boat" should some great catastrophe become imminent for our sun, and we've taken all the principal logistics into account to ensure survival of all possible lifeforms on or in the planet after it had lost its atmosphere and the benefits of solar light and heat.   However, what we haven't taken into consideration, and which could prove an insurmountable impediment to the entire project, would be the seemingly impossible task of pushing the Earth out of its orbit.        The massive amount of sheer force that would be required to overcome the balance between solar gravitation and orbital speed would be virtually incalculable; short of some major impact with a giant meteor or planetoid - and even that would need to be huge!   The required velocity for the Earth to escape from the sun's orbit is not presently available but should be easily computable, given the appropriate data; but the method and amount of propulsive energy required to speed up the Earth to such a velocity cannot be so easily determined.         

Carefully-directed nuclear explosions, or sustained thrusts might be one way of achieving this, but they would need to be so utterly huge and yet so precisely arranged, that one cannot imagine how such tremendous impacts might affect the inner structure of the Earth itself, let alone its precious cargo of fragile life forms.  Also, the loose materials on the planet's surface, such as the oceans, rocks, vegetation, etcetera, would be flung around by the combined effects of the explosive shock and disruption of the earth's axial rotation, creating devastating tidal waves and avalanches.   Violent displacements of the tectonic plates which cover the Earth's magma under-crust, would most certainly occur, resulting in unprecedented huge earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.  
As if this were not enough, catastrophic atmospheric displacements, which would create unimaginably enormous storms and hurricanes, would sweep around the planet.  The overall results of such a nuclear-explosive method, therefore, would seem to indicate total destruction of the Earth as a livable planet - even if it were successful in shifting the Earth from its orbit. We have no choice but to discard any notions about moving the Earth, and look elsewhere for the answer!

The Moon - Our Life Capsule?
      However, there is still that good alternative. We don't need to think of using the Earth as a space-vehicle, when we have the moon out there in orbit.  As discussed earlier, men have already been on the moon, so it should present no impossible problems to ferry all the required scientific and technical personnel across, with the necessary supplies of basic plant and equipment to begin shaping it to space-travel requirements.   

I won't delve again into all the technical and technological ramifications of re-vamping the Moon into an habitable "spacecraft", and if it is hollow, the job is already half-done.   Instead, I'll now explain why I have taken all this apparently circuitous, and perhaps long-winded, ramble away from our original theme of humanity "planet-hopping" from an "asteroidal" planet to Mars, then from Mars to Earth.
Having established the possibility of using the Moon as a sort of space-lifeboat to escape from Earth, let`s consider a reverse hypothesis.  What if the inhabitants of a doomed planet about to be struck by some wandering meteor - such as we have postulated might have already happened to that planet which is now the asteroids - had done exactly the same with their satellite in order to escape to Mars, and eventually to Earth?   

What if our moon isn't really the Earth's own original satellite at all, but was placed in orbit round the earth by some such means as described above?    Is there any evidence to support this?   What do we really know about our moon and other planetary satellites in general?  Could they all be minor planetoids that have ventured too close to the larger planets and been "captured" and held in orbit?    If so, where did they come from to begin with?  These and more interesting questions will be considered in a later chapter, but for the moment, having planted the idea of an advanced humanoid race evacuating a dying planet, let's turn our attention to the refugees for a while, and consider the implications and results of such a mass-evacuation of so many people - and possibly animals, too.  

Escape From A doomed Planet.
     It would be so much easier to think of smaller, fabricated space-craft carrying only a handful of people, fleeing from the planet in some sort of "Noah's Ark" situation, before it was destroyed.   But perhaps they may have been a highly altruistic and humane race, who would not settle for the survival of only a select and privileged few.   
A highly-civilized, technologically-advanced society would wish to save as many of their population as possible, as well as whatever animal and plant species could be rescued with them.   One would imagine that a race such as those living upon a doomed Astrida, might already have explored the inner planets, Mars and Earth, and found them both tenable - within certain tolerances.  

     Mars might have seemed a pleasant prospect, being closer to the sun, but it may already have had a population of its own, who were prepared to fight to the death to defend their planet against intruders from space.  Perhaps the Martians too may have been human-anoid, and just beginning to develop basic technological skills - perhaps enough to be able to producing weaponry worthy of respect, thus giving the Astridians cause to look elsewhere.

     Being even closer to the sun, Earth might well have seemed like a steaming jungle-world at that time, and could have been passing through its Triassic or Jurassic period.  The planet might have been teeming with dinosaurs and carnivorous mammals that roamed through its jungles and swamps, seeking prey of any kind.  Imagine the entire Earth as one enormous and fearsome "Jurassic Park"!     

Maybe there were no humans on the planet - only anthropoid apes and monkeys?  At least the dinosaurs would be the only really serious threat to be contended with for the territory.  Them, and the torrid, steaming heat of a world 320 million kilometres closer to the sun!     
Fortunately, at that stage in Earth's history, the high concentration of water-vapour in the atmosphere would have filtered out some of the Sun's ultra-violet radiation, so the planet would not be entirely inimical to colonisation by the men from Astrida.   However, they would need to adapt and acclimatise swiftly to both heat and residual solar radiation, in order to make the Earth a permanent abode.   

This would call for physical, pigmentary and metabolic adaptations over a fairly short period of time. Maybe ten or so generations might have sufficed?  If they succeeded in this, their physical strength and stamina would have increased to contend with a fiercely dangerous environment.  As would the melanin pigmentation in their skins, to protect them from the UV radiation of much stronger sunlight.

A Negroid Super-Race?
      What we could expect them to eventually look like as a result of such change would be a dark-skinned race.  From a genetic point of view, most of the adaptation would be cosmetic and a strengthening of physique.  Genetically, they would still remain essentially compatible with the Astridian colonists on other planets as the same human species. Adaptation is not evolution, so there'd be no need to alter the basic human DNA structure.     

     To give an example.    Although the crocodile has probably had to undergo a good deal of adaptation since the Jurassic era, one would probably be surprised to discover that a modern specimen could breed perfectly well with one of its Jurassic ancestors - were such an encounter possible!    Many of the intriguing hypotheses Michael Crichton suggested in his book, "Jurassic Park", are entirely feasible in a really scientific sense - and not just for the saurians, either!    This, of course, would not be possible if evolution were involved.   
Fortunately, there is still not a single solitary shred of clear evidence to support the evolution of one species into another ever having taken place.  However, there is clear evidence of the crocodile having existed in its present form  during the Jurassic reign of the dinosaurs, and having actually been a dinosaur itself!   It still is!
Many so-called extinct species that are claimed to be only found as ancient fossil remains, are being discovered to be still alive and well, and living upon planet Earth!   The coelacanth is a typical case in point.    It was assumed to have been extinct for millions of years, until it was found to be frequently caught by native fishermen off the coast of South Africa in the mid-1900's!    Similarly, many other allegedly long-extinct species are probably still extant in isolated pockets and niches around the globe.   There have been far too many  thousands of sightings reported world-wide for them to be lightly dismissed as nonsense!
The so-called lake-monsters, such as those of Loch Ness in Scotland, and those in deeper lakes elsewhere around the world, especially Canada, could very likely turn out to be adapted plesiosaurs, whose ancestors were trapped by plate-shifts in land-locked bodies of sea-water.  Over long ages, the sea-water would have become fresh due to the inflow of  rain-water. The plesiosaurs would have had no trouble adapting to the resultant fall in salinity, even if they possessed gills.  But since they were (or are) air-breathing reptiles or amphibians, such adaptations may  have been minimal - probably more dietary than physical.            
However, I digress.    What we are essentially considering is the possibility that the Earth might well have become the new home of a race of humans from another world, who, after a period of adaptation, became the progenitors of the negroid race!   It is possible, if we pursue this hypothesis further, to envisage these “immigrants" re-discovering their “other-world” technological skills and spreading out into all areas of the Earth.
Some evidence is now beginning to emerge that the mysterious race who were responsible for such amazing scientific and technological marvels as the original Great Pyramids of Egypt (not the subsequent third-rate mud-brick imitations built by the ancient Egyptian pharaohs), and the ancient Olmec structures discovered in South and Central America, which pre-date the Mayans, Incas and Aztecs by several thousand years, were in fact, a negroid race possessed of highly-advanced technological knowledge and skills!     
Graham Hancock, the popular scientific investigative writer, in his intriguing book, "Fingerprints Of The Gods", examines the possibility of such a people having existed long before mankind is popularly assumed, in orthodox scientific circles, to have emerged from his alleged "brute-beast" state.   In his book, Hancock makes specific mention of these negroid Olmecs being the precursors of the better-known, but far-less technologically-wise Toltecs, Mayans, Incas and Aztecs, and that it was their building technology which was adopted by these later Amerindian peoples.   Just as it probably was also adopted, in a similar form, by newly arisen Middle Eastern civilizations, and even those of the Far East!

     There are a number of astounding architectural similarities between such widely separated sites as Teotihuacan, Babylon, Angkor Wat, Deccan, and the Nile Valley. The apparent ease of cutting and manipulating massive slabs of stone with micrometric accuracy seems to be one of the more amazing factors that several of them share in common.  Other writers, like Eric Von Daniken, tend to attribute these almost magical skills to “aliens from the stars”, but I personally believe that we need not look so far afield.   Certainly no further than our own Sun's terrestrial planets, at any rate!    Von Daniken postulates that his “interstellar visitors” came from across the gulf of space to show humanity how to advance their technological and other abilities, whereas I am endeavouring to present the possibility that these skills were brought here by refugees from one of the Earth's neighbours, and that we ourselves are, in all likelihood, their direct descendants!

Onward And Outward.  Spiralling Orbits.
     Having established - within the confines of this hypothesis, at least - that the first great civilisation of this earth might have been a negroid race, descended from Astridian convicts or colonists, let us now briefly consider another factor that could have triggered this "planet-hopping" activity.    It is generally assumed that the orbits of the planets around the Sun are fixed and immutable for all eternity.  However, recent scientific studies have shown that they may well be steadily moving outward and away from the Sun in very gradual spiralling motions.
This really makes sense when one considers all the implications of the Second Law of Thermo-dynamics - the law of entropy - by which all of Nature's energy will eventually "unwind" and  dissipate until it reaches a point of stasis and stagnation in a sort of universal heat-sink    
If the whole universe is slowing running down, like an electrical toy with a dying battery, then so too must our Sun be losing its gravitational grip on the planets.   As the Sun's strength and mass gradually wanes, the planets will slowly widen their orbits and drift further away from its life-giving warmth, light and radiation.  

It may well be that, in the full vigour of its youth, the Sun held its family of planets a lot closer, and that all of them were like balls of semi-molten matter.    Now we see them at a far more mature stage, with only two planets left to emerge from the furnace-heat field of our star.   Mercury and Venus.
Mercury and Venus.
     It's impossible to say whether Mercury and Venus will ever get the chance to spiral out far enough from the Sun to be able to undergo all the necessary metamorphoses to make them in any way capable of sustaining any life-forms that we currently know, because we really have no idea how long the Sun itself will continue in its present state before experiencing one of those “bonfire-like collapses” we discussed earlier.   
However, if one of the two remaining so-called “terrestrial” planets should perchance make it to the life-bearing stage (notice I didn't say “life-evolving”), then the obvious candidate will be Venus, since Mercury appears to be largely as barren as our moon, with only a very tenuous atmosphere of sodium and potassium - although large ice sheets have been recently detected in its polar regions. But whether these are of frozen water or “dry ice” has still to be established.  

     Venus, on the other hand, has a much more complex chemical make-up, with an atmosphere consisting largely of carbon dioxide and a tiny percentage of nitrogen. Dense clouds of  sulphuric acid gas float high above the planet's surface, which would produce “acid rain” on an enormous scale if they were able to discharge their contents, but the surface heat prevents precipitation.  In fact, the entire planet seems to have been subjected to a runaway greenhouse effect, and any oceans it might have had, probably evaporated into the atmosphere aeons ago.
So we find a rather similar atmospheric constitution there to that of Mars, with  a mainly carbon dioxide atmosphere and an oxidized land surface.     However, that is where the  resemblance ends.   Because of this concentrated “greenhouse-effect”, the planet's average surface temperature is enormously hot - around 460 degrees Centigrade, and the atmosphere is incredibly dense, with a barometric pressure nine times higher than that of the Earth.     We can safely forget about any notions of Venus being amenable to terraforming.   The task would be humanly impossible, given its enormously hot environment at present.   We must leave it all to natural forces over long ages of time.
Perhaps in several million years, Venus may have cooled down sufficiently to permit landings upon her surface, but then the concentrated acid-rain would have begun to fall, creating an appallingly poisonous and corrosive atmospheric environment which would be totally inimical to most terrestrial life-forms - though we should not overlook those curious sea-creatures which live around volcanic lava vents in the earth's ocean abysses, and appear to thrive upon discharged sulphuric materials!
     It is also worth noting that Venus rotates about its axis very slowly, opposite to the direction of Earth, and that the Venusian day is longer than its year!   It orbits the Sun in 219 earth-days but takes 243 earth-days to revolve about its own axis!    In addition to all these odd features, Venus completely lacks a magnetic field!    So, many aspects of life upon the planet - were it ever possible  - would be totally and completely alien to those of our own planet.  Without any discernible seasons or natural planetary magnetism, most earthly life-forms could never exist there.     

Therefore, rather sadly, we have little other choice than to strike both Mercury and Venus off our “planetary visiting-list”!

Other Possibilities.
     However, even now, all is not yet lost!    The giant planets of the Solar System all have satellites of their own, some of them of quite notable size.   Jupiter for instance, has sixteen satellites, the four largest being Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.   Were they orbiting the Sun itself, these four would qualify as planets in their own right, especially Callisto which is close to the size of Mercury, and Ganymede, which is actually larger!   

However the one moon of Jupiter which is of most interest to us, is Europa, a planetoid of about the same size as our own Moon.   Europa is a smooth world, covered with a layer of water-ice, and it is believed that a deep ocean of water lies underneath this icy surface!  The Hubble telescope has already detected a thin atmosphere of oxygen on the satellite, and this makes it the fourth moon in the solar system known to possess an atmosphere!   Scientists are now pondering the possibility of Europa's oceans being the home of some form of aquatic life.    

This is certainly not a possibility to be sneezed at, or dismissed with an airy wave of the hand  -  especially when one considers that by far the largest preponderance of life-forms here upon our Earth live in the oceans, which cover four fifths of the Earth's surface!      If dolphins and other aquatic mammals are anything to judge from, there is an excellent prospect of creatures with intellects which at least equal our own, dwelling in water-worlds elsewhere in space, if not in the frigid seas of Europa!      Nor need such aquatic creatures necessarily be mammalian.    Because we have no clear way of measuring  the intelligence of, say, a shark or an octopus, there's no reason for us to assume that such sea-creatures possess no cerebral faculties beyond simple survival or food-catching skills.   

     Nor is there any real reason for us to dismiss the possibility of humanoids being able to adapt to a marine environment and develop gills, should such a need arise.     However, I suppose, in all fairness, one is entitled to ask if this really were a feasibility, surely sea-going mammals would probably have developed gills themselves by now, particularly the whales and dolphins, which live out their entire lives in the oceans?  Why they have not done so, I cannot imagine, except to suggest that they obviously were never intended to make such a transition!     

In my view, this lends additional support to my earlier contention that evolution is patently bunkum, since whales and dolphins would appear to have so much to gain by developing gills and evolving into regular fishes.   Why then haven't they evolved themselves accordingly?

     Before leaving this interesting side-track, and rejoining the main track of our quest, I believe it`s worth taking a few moments to consider the very real possibility of life having developed in such unlikely places as this theoretical ocean of Europa, as well as other seemingly impossible places in the solar system - and thus the entire universe.    I am quite firmly of the belief that, wherever an opportunity avails itself, life, of some form or other, will find a foothold - even in the most seemingly inimical situations and circumstances.     We have many classic examples of this tenacity of life to exist wherever it can - right here upon this planet - deep in the abyssal depths of the Earth's own oceans!    

Life in Sunless Regions.     
In 1977, a team of American marine biologists descended to the floor of the western Pacific ocean some 280 km off the Galapagos Islands, to study a section of seabed where oceanographic research-vessels had detected some small temperature variations in the depths near the ocean-bottom.   Sturdy, pressure-resitant underwater-cameras which were subsequently lowered, had revealed a huge blanket of giant clams covering the ocean bed - which was 2600 metres  (8530 feet) deep at that point - over a mile and a half down!  
This discovery was almost unbelievable, since marine scientists had thought that no life could possibly exist at such frigid depths, where light from the sun could never penetrate!   However, the three-person team aboard the “Alvin” submersible were astounded to find that the giant clams were not the only forms of life on that region of seabed.  They also encountered many other strange life-forms hitherto completely unknown to exist!    

They saw five-foot long tube-worms with blood-red crests of plumes, waving in the deep ocean-floor currents, and eyeless shrimplike creatures picking over the rocks, whilst snowy-white crabs scavenged over the pillows of mounded lava, that surrounded a cluster of hydrothermal vents which emitted super-heated water, heavily laden with inorganic chemicals.  Foot-long, pink fish, which resembled giant tadpoles, foraged in the cracks and fissures, where pallid yellow mussels clustered closely around to harvest the strange bounty which thrived around these semi-volcanic vents in the ocean floor.    

     Most life on earth depends in one way or another upon photosynthesis direct from the Sun, via green food plants which provide food-energy to herbivorous creatures, and then on to carnivores, by using solar energy to change carbon dioxide and water into carbo-hydrates -such as sugars, starches and cellulose.    However, the sun's radiation does not penetrate deeper than about 1000 feet through seawater, so it was always thought that “bottom-feeders” only subsisted upon food-scraps falling down from the sunlit upper layers of the ocean.
Yet here they found that there were hitherto unknown creatures which relied upon a totally different source of chemical-energy, produced by the internal heat of the earth's own molten mantle through the oxidization of inorganic chemicals (hydrocarbons)  just as our own bodies burn up carbohydrates for energy!  Where we and all surface or near-surface life depend upon photosythesis for our energy via green plants - these new forms depend upon another process - chemosynthesis, by courtesy of some special bacteria which swarm around these hydrothermal vents!
Since then, it has been discovered that many other similar life-forms also exist in caves, subterranean rocks, volcano-craters and even in oil-wells!  Micro-organisms have even been found thriving directly upon the hot gases vented by volcanoes!    

If life can (and does) exist in such harsh environments here on the earth, surely it will very likely also be found to exist in equally inimical situations among the planets of our solar system, where similar conditions might be encountered -  including Jupiter's ice-covered oceanic moon, Europa?      
Pressure and Heat-resistant!
     The species mentioned earlier must also cope with the extreme pressure found at the bottom of the ocean, and apparently can withstand temperatures of up to 400ºC where the highly-superheated water just can't boil because of the intensity of the water-pressure at such great depths.    These hydrothermal vents form wherever crustal plates are separating and semi-molten magma is rising up the cracks to form ridges in the ocean floor.   Seawater enters these cracks, and when it comes in contact with the heated rocks, it produces iron oxides and hydrogen sulphide - the same chemical which makes rotten eggs smell!

     This chemically enriched water, because it is now heated, rises to leak out upon the ocean floor through clusters of vents which form oases of nutrient for these bacteria, which then become food for the denizens of the deep mentioned above.    Some of the hottest vents form “chimneys” of crystallized metal sulphides.  Because the fine particles of crystallized metal resemble smoke as they emerge in clouds from these vents, these “chimneys” are called “black smokers”.    Theses can grow extremely swiftly.  The “Alvin” submersible accidentally collided with one which was 33 feet tall, off Acapulco, Mexico, and knocked it over.  Three short months later, it had already re-grown up to 20 feet tall again!  

     I could go on discussing these amazingly resilient and virtually “alien” life-forms, but readers wishing to learn more on the subject should read the appropriate literature about life around deep sea vents and volcanic springs, as well as in deep underground caves.  Suffice to say that modern scientists now believe that such microorganisms could, and possibly do thrive very deep down in the earth's crust, perhaps even down to many kilometres, until the heat from the earth's core finally becomes too much for even the toughest of these sturdy bacteria.

     Thus it isn't hard to understand why exobiologists are interested in studying Martian rocks for signs of such micro-organisms!     However, they may have to look further beneath the planet's surface, since the desert sandstorms of Mars may well have long since eroded away all traces of them from the surface rocks.    My own personal belief is that astronaut areologists and archaeologists will probably have to perform proper in-depth excavations into the Martian subsurface to find any traces of meaningful life-forms like animal-remains, or of any archaeological remains of intelligent civilization.      
The fact that the alleged “meteorite from Mars”, found in the Antarctic in 1984, revealed traces of organic compounds compatible with life-forms, really should not be counted upon too heavily, since its actual origin on Mars cannot be conclusively proved,  by NASA or anyone else.  It might well have come from another planet, or even elsewhere in the galaxy!        Also, by the same token, the fact that the testing of Martian soil carried out by the last Viking project showed no evidence of microbial life, cannot be taken as indicative that there is no such evidence anywhere on Mars, or that Mars has always been a sterile world.  

As I have already mentioned above, I believe that scientists WILL have to go there in the flesh and personally conduct deeper excavations in a variety of sites, before we can arrive at any iron-clad definitive conclusions regarding any sentient life having existed on Mars.    The latter-day Martians may very easily have been compelled to live far beneath the planet's surface, in underground cities, where there was still air and water, during their final  few centuries!   In fact it's possible that they may very well still do so - for all we know!

     Unfortunately, interesting though all of this sort of speculation may be, I fear we have rambled pretty far away from our main opening-theme, so I must now endeavour to get the original dissertation back on track again, in search of our original human roots!   (I shall, however, be making every effort to come back to these intriguing and exciting speculations a little later on in this hypothesis!)

     In reference to the “spiralling orbits” mentioned earlier.  It's quite conceivable that all the terrestrial planets (including Astrida) have passed - or will pass - through the stage our own Earth is still in at present, and become tenable for life in its many forms.   Astrida and Mars may well have once occupied the present orbital position of our Earth, relative to the Sun!

Exploration or Escape?
     Harking back to our previous hypothesis of Astridian space-voyagers having explored the two inner planets long before there was any sign of a threatened collision with a large meteor or planetoid.   It's not inconceivable that, at that time, they might even have established a permanent colony on Mars.  Mars may well have been a pleasant prospect then; much like Earth is today, but without a race of destructive humans wrecking its environment and atmosphere.   It's feasible that they could have used Mars initially as a penal colony for social outcasts - just as Britain did with Australia.  Maybe, once Mars had been sufficiently “tamed” to be attractive to free settlers, the convict misfits who pioneered it, might have been transported further on, to the far more savage and sweltering environment of Earth, possibly in its late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous period?  ( I know we are looking at long periods here, but as I indicated at the outset, I neither follow in Darwin's evolutionary footsteps, nor do I subscribe to the outrageously enormous palae-ontological time-scales conjured up by him and his contemporaries, Wallace and  Lyell.)
Perhaps the free settlers on Mars eventually wanted freedom from the rule of the home-planet, Astrida, and formed their own republic, severing all ties with the Astridian governing body.  One can well imagine those who remained at home on Astrida, living lives of cultured idleness and growing weak and decadent from a surfeit of leisure and excessive technology - as the rich nations of earth are today.  Too effete to be a match for the tough frontiersmen of Mars.  A parallel with the Georgian British and those hardy American colonists who so forcefully rejected Westminster's hidebound regulations.  
How can we ever know?    We can't, but it's interesting to speculate and hypothesize, isn't it!   Most of our present technological acheivements and triumphs began as mere conjectures and suppositions.    Somebody somewhere said: "I wonder what would happen if..." or "It ought to be possible to..." and everything followed on from there!  "Invention" doesn't only mean scientific creation or discovery.    It also means fabricating from the mind and the imagination.  Science fiction is all imaginary fabrication, but how often it has led us to scientific fact!   Man would never have conquered space if he hadn't first fired his imagination with mental ideas in the realms of science-fantasy.  So let's continue to  speculate!
Race and Environment.
Maybe our hypothetical settlers on Mars were segregated for a long enough time to adapt to its planetary environment and distance from the sun - just as we speculated earlier may have happened with the settlers upon the earth?  This could have meant a midway adaptation of skin pigmentation to suit the sun's radiation as it affected Mars.  Being some 88 million kilometres further from the sun than the earth, solar radiation would have been less, and a lesser amount of melanin would have been needed to safeguard the skins of the Martian group. Therefore, as the Earth colonists became dark-brown to black, the Martians became a light golden-brown colour, while those who still remained on the homeworld, Astrida, kept their original pallid hue.        
This is one explanation of why we have such very marked skin-colour variations between the three races of man, which are so hard to square with the different zones upon the same planet!   Also their physiological and physiognomical differences seem to be better accounted for by such a theory than simply by living in different regions of the earth!  If the squinted eyes of Mongolian people are a defence against cold terrestrial winds and dust-storms, why don't really cold-climate, white-skinned Nordics have these features?   Many Negros hail from desert countries where sand and dust-storms are common, yet they normally have wide-open eyes. Why?   Yet, in spite of all the clear disparities between the three racial divisions of humankind, there is still a common bond of genetic compatability.  All three are undeniably sprung from one original stock and share the same basic D.N.A!   

It's clear that something far more than a relatively few geographical kilometres closer to or further away from the sun must be responsible for the sharply-defined pigmentary and physiological differences between Negroid, Caucasiod and Mongoloid humans. It indicates that millions of kilometres of difference in distance would be necessary to effect such considerable pigmentary and physical variations between the three!    Doesn't that make much better sense of it all?   

Strangers On A Savage Planet.
     However, let's put that aside for a while, and consider further the two principal ways in which our theoretical Astridians may have come to occupy Mars and Earth, and perhaps decide which would appear the more likely.    Firstly, we postulated the possible destruction of Astrida by a rogue meteor or planetoid, and that, if the inhabitants were sufficently technologically advanced, they would have had a reasonable amount of warning and time to make escape-plans for a substantial proportion of their people, and their flora, and fauna.  Given the technological "know-how' to effect such an escape - where would they have made their escape to?   Mars, or Earth - or perhaps both?
We contemplated the possibility of Mars having perhaps been colonized already, with a burgeoning, self-reliant republic that might have been at political odds or even at war with their home-planet.  If such were the case, and they were refused admittance by the Martian colonists, the only place they could go to would be Earth.   However. What if the Earth, too, had already been colonized by those ex-transportees we considered, who'd originally pioneered Mars?  How would they accept the sudden influx of a large number of Astridians and all their animals?   Would they have been able to resist such an invasion, or had they perhaps let their own technology and civilization to deteriorate as they struggled to cope with the savage young planet's environment and wildlife?   
It's obviously impossible to be certain what may have happened, or what state of civilization or technological development could have been reached by the now-Negroid inhabitants of planet Earth. They might have taken pity on their effete and pallid refugee cousins, and permitted them to inhabit the less hospitable regions of the Earth, in exchange for goods and technology.   Perhaps we should be charitable and imagine that they did?  

     It's conceivable that Earth might have encountered its own lesser cataclysms in the interim, and had already begun to develop infant polar icecaps and the beginnings of continental drift.  By now, a change in climate might have killed off the bulk of the giant saurians, and allowed mammals to become more abundant  -  or, conceivably, the Astridian refugees may have brought many of their own mammalian animal species with them from their doomed planet?  This could explain the sudden emergence of mammals at this juncture! The permutations and possibilities of such a great scenario are legion, but some-where amid these theoretical alternatives the real truth might lie waiting to be discovered!

Racial Diversification on Planet Earth.
     Let's assume then - since all of this is pure speculation - that the two “races” were able to settle down and live together on the Earth without undue friction or strife.  One could imagine that the negroid humans would continue to be the dominant group, although, as time passed, and the white Astridians began to adapt to their new wilder environment and became stronger and tougher, the odds might have gradually become more even, permitting the whites to develop their own spheres of influence.   Borders would naturally be drawn between the two "races" and each would have to respect the other's territory.  
The negros might prefer to continue to occupy the warmer, tropical zones, whilst the caucasians would cling to the temperate and colder climes.   Perhaps the newcomers  also experienced a slump in their technology and civilization, as has since happened with so many great empires on Earth within historical memory, and degenerated to a savage or semi-savage state.   There is actual archaeological evidence to support this as having actually been the case when well-developed archaeological recognized civilizations were already extant elsewhere; in Africa, parts of southeast Asia, and South America!
In his engrossing book,"Footprints Of The Gods", Graham Hancock suggests the likelihood of there having been a super civilization of technologically-advanced people, living on an ice-free Antarctic continent - the poles then being located elsewhere - thousands of years before any of the recognized great empires of antiquity, like Egypt or Babylon, were even dreamt of.   As I've mentioned before, he discusses those enormous Olmec stone carvings of negroid heads found in the jungles of Central  America, which were clearly objects of veneration many centuries before the Mayans and Aztecs built their empires.   The Mayans are said to have claimed to have gained their knowledge of science and astronomy from “a very ancient and mysterious civilization” which existed at least fifteen thousand years BC, and  possible a great deal earlier!    
The Mysterious Olmecs.
There appears to be a fairly strong case to be made for that same civilization being the origin of the high technology which led to the building of the Giza pyramids and those of South and Central America, among other great constructional engineering marvels of the ancient world.    
The Olmecs seem to be the key to this whole mystery, and if these negroid Olmecs were descendants of those pigment-adapted people from Astrida, we can see where all the ancient technological secrets originated.  In this, we also find an explanation of all the long-lost secrets of astronomical knowledge and mathematics which are evidenced in the pyramids of Egypt and Central America - and probably China, too, when theirs are explored!
We can also see how such accurate maps were able to be made as if plotted from above - like the one which the Turkish pirate-admiral, Piri Reis, was able to draw from an ancient copy of one that had come from the Great Library of Alexandria.  Professor Charles Hapgood, an English scientist, published a work on ancient maps in 1966, "Maps Of The Ancient Sea Kings",  which caused a furore in geographic and archaeological circles.  He pointed out that the Piri Reis map clearly showed the actual Antarctic continental land-mass, which is presently hidden beneath a two-mile thick layer of polar ice!  

Professor Hapgood's findings were subsequently verified by the U.S. Air Force Strategic Air Command's Reconnaissance Squadron as being in agreement with their own views and the findings of  the Scandinavian-British Antarctic Expedition of 1949!   This seems to prove that the great antiquity of the original chart must have pre-dated the beginning of the last alleged "Ice Age"!  
I should mention that there are other copies of ancient maps of the south polar continent which depict the land free of ice and show mountains and rivers!    It's also worth noting that Hapgood had the full endorsement of Albert Einstein in his belief that the poles are subject to shift due to sudden changes in the axis of rotation of the earth.
There is a growing body of evidence and support for the possibility that the Antarctic continent really was the original fabled land of Atlantis, and that its inhabitants, the Atlanteans (who were reputedly the most technologically advanced people on earth), were the direct descendants of those whom we here refer to (theoretically) as “Astridians”!
Even the baffling giant and curiously technical-styled-graphics of animals and birds and the arrow-straight lines which cover the giant Nazca plain become explicable - if we accept the presence of a technology which had crossed the gulf of interplanetary space!     Surely a race who could cross space would have aerial craft!   

According to Vedic history, the ancient Raman Empire of India warred against Atlantis, and both the Atlanteans and themselves had aerial ships called "Vailixi" and "Vimanas", which resembled small airships or zeppelins, and could travel vast distances.  (In this particular context, incidentally, I would suggest that we can safely forget about "flying-saucers" from outer space!)
     We have considered the necessity for our Astridians to adapt to the environments of Earth and Mars, as well as their closer proximity to the sun, with corresponding increases in UV radiation on each of them.   No doubt they would also have had to adapt to a change in atmosphere, too. This could have necessitated the use of some kind of breathing-apparatus for a while by some, if not all of them.   However, one thing we shouldn't lose sight of in contemplating such adaptations, is the change in gravity from one planet to another.  
According to those scientists who have studied the asteroid belt and believe it to actually be the remains of a shattered planet, the size of the original planet, calculated roughly from the visible debris of asteroids that comprise the belt, might have been close to the size of our own earth, or maybe even a little larger.   Most agree upon a mass fairly close to the Earth's, anyhow.   This is a very important consideration, because the mass and consequential gravitational pull of the planet would have had a considerable effect upon the size, build, and stature of the original Astridians.  
If it was much larger than Earth, its inhabitants would be shorter and stockier, and the increased gravity would also have had a strong effect upon the atmosphere, making it considerably denser and deeper than ours is upon the earth.  Such considerations would have had a profound effect upon Astridians landing, say, upon Mars, which is about a fifth smaller, in both size and mass, than our own planet.    A native Martian would probably have been a tall, spindly creature with a far greater lung-capacity than his terrestrial counterpart.    Humans, while enjoying considerable weight-reduction, would have found breathing difficult on Mars because of the thinness of its atmosphere, due to its lesser gravity.  How much worse then, would be the plight of an explorer from a larger, more massive planet than ours?
However, the human race has proved to be one of the better adaptable species, so there is no reason to suppose that a thin atmosphere would have proved to be an insurmountable barrier against them being able to get used to the changes in environment and air density.    The people who first occupied the Peruvian Altiplano, around Lake Titicaca, originated on the low-land plains, yet today, their descendants enjoy a healthy enough life in a very attenuated atmosphere that severely distresses the breathing of most visitors from lower altitudes.

This is a point, incidentally, which raises another interesting question, concerning that universal breathing disorder, bronchial asthma, that afflicts so many people today.  I must digress briefly to make some mention of this, as it has relevance to the subject under consideration!

Shortage of Air ..... and Hair?
     Bronchial asthma is an affliction which almost exclusively affects humans.  Though a rather similar type of respiratory affliction is often found in domestic mammals, such as dogs or cats, it isn't quite the same, in either origin or effect.   True asthma is produced in humans by three principal causes:-   (i) Changes in barometric air-pressure;   (ii) Sudden attacks of anxiety or stress; or  (iii)  Inhalation of allergens, such as plant-pollens.    Having been a long-term asthmatic, I believe that I can speak with some personal authority in this connection!
     Of the three possible causes, the first is by far the most common, and is rapidly on the increase, as people move about much more readily in this day and age than any other, to and from places, and even countries, that differ greatly in altitude, climate and atmosphere.  The second, psychogenic asthma, is usually only one of a range of symptomatic reactions to nervous shock or stress, and has little to do with the density or moisture of the air, so it can be eliminated from this discussion - as also can the third, allergic form, which is again simply one type of reaction to an irritant factor affecting skin or other delicate tissue.
Barometrically-induced asthma can, I believe, be considered as indicative of the likelihood that the human species is not truly indigenous to this planet.    Even though many people can go through their lives without displaying obvious symptoms of asthma, this does not imply they are immune to it.   It merely means that they've probably not been subjected to causative conditions for a long enough period  to produce symptoms, or that their particular progenitors succeeded better in originally adapting to this planet.   
Barometric, or true asthma is, as a rule, unique to humans, although if it is eventually proved to occur in other mammals, such as dogs, for example. It might very well indicate that these are creatures which humans brought with them from elsewhere.  Perhaps if we take a lateral-thinking approach to the problem, we might find many more such hidden indicators regarding our origin!   There are many awkward questions one could ask.   So why don't we?

Other Intriguing Questions!
     Why is mankind the only species that has found it necessary to wear additional protection over its natural skin?    Ever since the alleged "Dawn of Time", when humans are supposed to have descended from the trees and moved into the caves, they have had to cover themselves with garments of some kind.   At first with animal-skins, then later with manufactured clothing.  But why should we need to?    If humans are truly native to this planet and its vicissitudes, surely they would have grown a naturally protective fur coat like most of the other mammals?    

What little body and head-hair we do possess is totally inadequate to protect us from either sun or frost.   In any case, why are men hairier than women - and why don't women grow beards?  Many theories have been advanced for these curious differences, but none have yet  been convincing answered!     I'll concede that head-hair may offer some protection from the sun, or even cushion blows to a minor degree, but if so, why do many men lose their hair at relatively early ages?   Why lose it at all?    And if the beards of males are some sort of protection for the throat against animal-bites, why are women not likewise protected?           

Darwin tried to prove the descent of men from apes, but when gorillas are compared with men, we find men have hair where apes don't - on the face and chest!   Apes and monkeys, whilst having certain similarities to ourselves, are no more related to us than wilderbeeste are to horses.  They're simply patterned upon a similar creative-design concept.  If you've studied skeletons of dinosaurs, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals, plus their general internal-organ arrangements, you will probably have been astounded, just as I was, to realize that all of them are simply variations upon one single, basic structural theme, or formula!  
 Designed by a Super Intellect?
     It might well turn out that this basic structural formula for life-forms is common, not only to our own solar-system planets, but to all terrestrial-type planets across the entire universe!    Even though they may differ in appearance, shape, and size through an infinite range of variations!   I don't entertain visions of slobbering, three-headed monsters, or the other bizzare entities which seem to people science-fiction  these days!  (I could just about bring myself to accept "little green men" - or possibly even "pink elephants"!)     
I make no apologies for believing that the whole of the universe and everything within it has been planned, designed and engineered by a “Super Intellect” - whom I choose to call God.  Others may prefer to call this creative force or entity “The Architect of the Universe” or even “Mother Nature, but these are all really euphemisms for the same enormous creative force that lies behind the entire universe and all of nature, including all the laws of physics and nature by which it all operates and is governed!
Charles Darwin, who rejected the notion of Divine creation, wrongly named this driving creative force, “Evolution”.   But had evolution ever occurred at all, it would have been aimless and blind, since whatever was evolving, without a guiding intellect, would have had no way of knowing what it was supposed to evolve into!     Evolution, by Darwin's own definition, would have operated entirely at random, and been totally devoid of any plan or objective.    To accept the philosophy of Darwinian evolution, one has also to accept that the universe came into being by blind chance, along with everything it contains!    If readers are happy to believe that they came into being because of a chaotic sequence of glitches” or “happenstances” in nature, they are welcome to do so.    I prefer to consider myself to be the product of an intentionally-purposed Divine creation and that I'm here, as is everything else, because I am part of  the Creator's great scheme of things -  regardless of how random, or capriciously chaotic, Nature might appear on the surface.   
Look for The Design!
     Despite the seemingly uncontrolled, chaotic state of the world and the universe, I believe that there is a Master Plan and a pattern underlying everything.  It's not visible to our blinkered sight because we aren't really looking for it.  Perhaps, to illustrate this, I can draw my reader's attention to the amazing successively-repeating patterned intricacies seen in the Mandelbrot Set of fractal computer-images.  They're like Alice's Wonderland.  The more we look into them, the curiouser they become - and the more wonderfully astonishing the effect!   This is a classic illustration of how created order can be discovered in the most seemingly disorganized system, as this so-called “Chaos must surely be!   
Study a tree  -  especially after it has shed its leaves in the fall.  Note how its branches and twigs seem to grow entirely at random, in a willy-nilly chaotic fashion.   Yet, on closer inspection, we can see that every twiglet has found its own special space to allow its leaves and blossoms to develop,  and when we step back, we notice that the entire tree has a purposely-defined shape and form to it, because all the branches and twigs have followed a certain ordered arrangement.    If we dug up the tree, we would find that its roots have also followed a very similar “chaotic” yet orderly pattern of growth.
Entropy.  Death-Knell of Evolution!
     Even entropy, the great levelling thermodynamic force which is the death-knell of evolution, is really the restoration of ordered simplicity from tangled complexity.   Everything in the universe appears to be winding down and unravelling to an eventual steady-state of total inertia and homogenity.   It seems that the Creator's Plan is operating within a set “time-frame”, which, having run its course, returns, like a clock. to its starting-point.  It may be a constantly repeating, universal cycle!      
This “run-down” effect is borne out by the accelerating extinction of species of animals and plants on our Earth.    Contrary to the views of the evolutionists, they are not being improved upon, or evolving into new species.  Everything in nature and the universe has a finite span of life of existence, a “Use By” date, if you like.   Even our own sun is swiftly burning itself up, and will one day go out in a final blaze of glory, just like all those others which “Go Nova” every day, throughout the universe.  Like the evolutionists, many astronomers believe that new stars are constantly being evolved within the clouds of interstellar gas and dust that lie between the galaxies.  
Sadly, there's no proof whatsoever that this is really happening, and we can only conclude that the law of entropy is quite literally universal and that it will run its inevitable course.   Perhaps the  Creator has tired of this particular model and wishes to replace it with a new and perhaps improved one?    Who can tell?   Who can read the Mind of God?   As the Lord God of Israel said, through the prophet, Isaiah: "For My Thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways My Ways"!

Living In Two Universes!
     However, I believe that there's one element in all creation which cannot become extinct and that is the immortal soul.  Just as God is perceived as a spiritual entity, so I feel certain that all living things possess a spiritual form in another dimension than the customary five - length, breadth, depth, place and time - with which we are all familiar.
     I believe there's another, unseen universe, parallel to,and coexistent with, this material one which we can perceive with our five normal physical senses.  But that other, equally real universe can only be perceived under particular circumstances of psychic sensitivity, or by those endowed with keener psychic perception than most of us have.
     One hesitates to speak of a spiritual universe, because the term immediately conjures up ideas of spooks and ghosts, and all kinds of bogeymen and “things that go bump in the night”.  However, the spirit world has been a major part of man's heritage of myth and legend since time immemorial, and there is not one race or nation upon the face of the earth which does not have its own mythos about gods and spirits.   Why?   From whence did all this concern over spiritual things originally stem?
     We certainly cannot attribute it to our archaic forerunners, if (as the evolutionists insist) they were merely anthropoid brutes, only newly descended from the trees!   However, even palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) man is believed to be responsible for the paintings and carvings of animals, found in caves in southern France and Spain, which are clearly of some kind of magical significance.   “Magical” rituals obviously indicate a belief in spiritual matters.  A drawing of an elk or reindeer pierced with spears is clearly an attempt to cast some kind of mystic spell which would ensure good hunting on the morrow.   Clay effigies of cave-bears covered in stab marks demonstrate a magic death-wish upon the monsters which must have presented the greatest threat to their domiciles.

     All of this points to the human race having been deeply concerned about spiritual matters since the beginning - and, since spirituality is also closely linked with the psychic aspects of ourselves and our lives - indeed, of our universe, too - we ought also to accept that spirituality and psyche are just as much a part of our whole being as is the flesh and blood of our outer corporeal body.
If we accept that we, together with all sentient life-forms, are living in two planes of existence, the physical and the spiritual, concurrently, many uncanny things which  otherwise seem apparently incredible, become explicable and acceptable to the rational, scientific mind.  In fact, as soon as we grasp the full significance of our existence in two universes simultaneously, many new doors to wonderful possibilities open up before us!    Today there seems to be a large and growing body of evidence to support the possibility of our psychic or spiritual selves being able to operate independently within that other realm.

The Hidden Power Within.
     An ever-growing number of people are coming forward with documented evidence of psychic or spiritual cognition and ”astral travel” today than ever dared to admit to such experiences before.  I'm not speaking of "flying-saucer” abductions or of sightings of "little green men", but of telepathy and precognition - of communication between minds without electronic or normal physical organo-sensory means!  Hamlet says: "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy"! Shakespeare was certainly a thinking-man's thinking-man!    Can it be such an unbelievable concept that we have natural abilities of telecommunication, when we accept man's own technological ability to invent and develop artificial electronic methods of so doing, by means of the telephone, television and computer?   What will be next?   Teleportation and telekinesis?   Or has humanity already possessed these mental or psychic abilities in the far distant past?  

Psychic Powers of The Ancients.
     If ancient peoples had this telekinetic power to move objects around purely by psychic means, then we have the answer to many great archaeological puzzles - such as how the huge masses of stone used in constructing the great pyramids of Egypt and Central America, and the giant megalithic structures in other regions of the ancient world, came to be placed with such apparent ease and precision?         Even some of the cruder megalithic temples, like Stonehenge and the stone circles and menhirs of  northern France, might have been teleported over long distances by this same, seemingly "magical" means!   

We live today in a world where all the mysteries of yesteryear are steadily being unravelled and revealed to be attributable to what would have been considered as pure magic only a century ago.   Even our own modern inventions and technology, especially those involving unseen and intangible radiations, would be regarded as pure magic by our not-so-distant-ancestors.   One need only think of colour-television and how one's own great-grandparents would have marvelled at it!

     There seems to be little doubt today that psychic powers are a reality, and that there are particularly gifted people who actually are able to tap into this arcane source of mental energy.   Perhaps it has always been so.   Maybe, in past ages, it was a much more commonplace source of power than we currently think.   It would certainly account for the plethora of legends and myths which have come down to us in human folklore, concerning great wizards and magicians - not mention those mighty, legendary heroes of of ancient times, like Hercules, Jason and Ulysses.  It appears that most legends and myths are founded in fact somewhere in the distant past, and even after all the overlaid embellishments and exaggerations have been stripped away, there is usually a kernel of solid truth hidden inside them.   It's always an error to discard a theory before all the evidence is in, regarding its validity or otherwise.  It's also very poor science.  Fortunately, we have a new breed of scientific enquirers arising today who are questioning the old dogmas of a past generation of closed-minded scientists, and are now daring to pose those questions which were totally tabooed a mere century or so ago.  This is what we need now if we are ever to re-discover the lost secrets of the ancients.  The big thing is to always keep an open mind about everything until it's been conclusively proved  to be erroneous!

Proof, Truth, and Assumption.
     I recall something Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had his wonderful character , master-detective, Sherlock Holmes, say in this particular connection, in his great detective novel: "The Sign Of  Four".   Holmes said  this to his doubting friend, Dr. Watson:- "When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth!"   Even though this was only the remark of a fictitious character, it's still not a bad general rule for the open-minded scientific investigator to follow!    
However, I should add (before the lynx-eyed reader beats me to it), that Conan Doyle, rather sadly, did not always follow the maxims of his own created character.  He believed implicitly in both spiritualism and ghosts  -  of the Ouijah Board, table-rapping variety  - and he ardently subscribed to the existence of fairies!    (Not, I feel further comp-elled to add, that either have ever actually been proved not to exist!    As rational grown-ups, we simply assume such things are just childish, superstitious fancies. Perhaps, even here, it's wrong to assume that what has not yet been conclusively disproved, is just bunk?)      

The Irish have a particular affinity for "fairies" and call them "The Little People" or "The Wee Folk".    Legends of them abound among the Irish, and there are probably more recorded “sightings” of them in Ireland than there are of “Flying Saucers" in the whole of America!      Conan Doyle was himself of Irish extraction, so one might reasonably expect that he was hereditarily suggestible to such a mythos.  It is strange, however, that the creator of such pragmatic and unimaginative characters as Sherlock Holmes, and Professor Challenger ( of "The Maracot Deep" and "The Lost World" fame), should allow himself such an apparently childish imaginary indulgence!    Given the soundly scientific mentality of Conan Doyle, could there be a real basis for these legends of “Little People” and “Fairies” and if so, is there a connection between them and the alleged Aliens from outerSpace” - so often described as “Little Green Men”?   

We shall look further into this intriguing question in a later chapter!
The Life Zone.
     To return then to our original consideration of humanity having perhaps originated upon a long-vanished fifth terrestrial planet - which I have named, just for the sake of convenience, Astrida. We've seen a possible way in which, perhaps over many millennia, mankind might have "leapfrogged" from the asteroidal planet to Mars, and thence to the Earth, as the planets gradually spiralled into, and out of,  what we might call the “Life Zone” - a critical area of distance from the Sun, where the solar radiation at that epoch of time, might have been sufficiently softened by distance to permit life to exist as we know it today.  
The Life Zone, may not necessarily have been the same distance from the sun then as it is today, however, since the sun is believed to have gone through several changes in its energy-output during its long life, and its ultraviolet radiation may not always have been as lethal as it is today.   This is a known fact, which is supported by the astonishing increase in deadly radiation that as occurred within living memory!    We cannot blame it all completely upon the depletion of the earth's ozone layer.   

A Dying Bonfire?
     The sun is no different to other stars in being extremely unstable.    To illustrate this, perhaps if we were to think of the sun as a bonfire, which burns brightly and fiercely for a while, until, as the supply of combustible fuel at its heart diminishes, it gradually loses its intensity. Then eventually, it caves in upon itself and again bursts forth into bright flame for a while - and so forth, perhaps several times, until at last there is no fuel left, and, after the final burst of spark-showering glory, the bonfire becomes a shrunken heap of red-hot ash and cinders, cooling gradually into a cold, black patch of carbon on the ground.     
     So, our astronomers believe, will it be with our Sun - and that final "burst of glory" will be yet another dying star “Going Nova”, before collapsing into a tiny, blackened dwarf.  One more dark and dangerous derelict wandering through the cold reaches of interstellar space, which could stray into the path of some star, or maybe planet - like our poor (even if hypothetical) shattered world of Astrida!       Like everything else in the universe, the sun must one day bow to that immutable Second Law of Thermodynamics, and submit to entropy. Its energy completely dissipated into the immeasurable lake of space - and, alas, all of its family of planets, blasted into electrons in its final flare-up, along with it!      
However, we can only trust that this sad event may be far into the future, although we have no real way of knowing when such an event is actually imminent, or how much warning we might have of such an event.      Even the Bible speaks of the earth being “consumed by a fervent heat” at the end of its days! (2 Peter 3: 10)     And still the search goes on for a "safer haven" for humanity!

The Real  Reason For Exploring Our Moon And Mars!
     However, merely shifting planets would not save us from such a colossal catas-trophe, as so many seem to think.   Nor, in the long run, would shifting to some planet in, say, Alpha Centauri, or some other local star-system - even if this were possible - since we would have no idea of the remaining life-expectancy of the new "host" star and its planets, either!   Astronomical science, for all its seeming claims of omniscience in matters concerning space and astrophysics, really has comparatively little actual knowledge of the universe, beyond pretty pictures and speculations as to their interpretation. They've never been beyond our own moon, so it's mostly educated guesswork.  It's like the man at the Weather Bureau glancing out of the window, and, seeing clouds gathering, writing "Storms " on the weather chart!
To return to the original  argument.  There are those who think that the present study of Mars may be motivated by some such consideration as a sudden solar flare-up, but as I have indicated, there would be no point.   Stars going “nova” generally do so amid a massive blast which would extend many times the distance between even Pluto and the Sun, let alone the inner planets!      No! I believe the principle reason for all this sudden interest in Mars, is simply that of finding somewhere to extend our “lebensraum” - or to make a fresh start.  It should be obvious to anyone of average intellect that within a few  decades there will virtually be “Standing Room Only” for humanity on this planet - and that's even after the remaining wildernesses have been totally cleared to accommodate urban spread from all the major cities of the world.    I need hardly add that this sorry situation is already far advanced!
All attempts to bring the world's burgeoning population in check by birth-control have failed dismally.   You can't fly in the face of human nature and pride, and it's an unfortunate fact of life that the ignorant peasant's prime objective in life is to procreate himself as often as possible.   It's the only really lasting “achievement” he's capable of.  Hence the huge rise in population among the impoverished and starving Third-World nations of the world.  What's the alternative?   Genocide of unwanted people, as the Nazis did with the Jews and Gypsies?

Mankind: A Plague Upon The Planet?
              Paradoxically, with the best will in the world, our “do-gooders” have effectively wiped out the only controls which effectively curbed the world population.   Disease, famine and war!    And since Man has no predators, there are no longer any substantial brakes upon the spread of humanity on our planet.    We have, in effect, become a plague upon the earth, far greater than any plagues of locusts could ever be, since there are no longer any natural predators or other controls left to curb our numbers.   

     Soon we will be in a situation where there will no longer be sufficient space left for agriculture to grow food for the ever-increasing population, nor will there be sufficient forested regions left to replenish and sustain a breathable atmosphere.   When this point is finally reached, our technology might be able to carry us just a little further by artificially sustaining a breathable atmosphere and producing “ersatz” foodstuffs by chemical means.     

What Are The Alternatives?
     All of this, has of course, been examined in such not-so-fictitious and highly prophetic movies as "Blade Runner” and "Soylent Green”, which depict a truly grim prospect for the human race if some answer is not discovered in the very near future.    This is why I believe the world's leading scientists and political groups, led by the United States, are looking at the planet Mars as a possible abode for future humanity, and are examining the prospects of  either terraforming the entire planet or being able to construct “Bubble-Cities” on its surface.    However, I do not believe that this is likely to prove an altruistic concept as far as humanity in general is concerned.     There is a very strong likelihood that only the very elect of the world's elite would be chosen as suitable candidates for such an evacuation.         I suspect the rest of the earth's population would be left to destroy themselves in one final rampage of anarchy and slaughter.  It's not hard to imagine the scene once the word got around that all the word's “Big-Shots”; particularly major politicians, technocrats, millionaires, and possibly even movie or rock stars, together with a suitable staff of support-personnel such as technical, medical and other similar ancillary groups, had fled the planet, leaving the world to its fate.  The streets would be jammed with those outraged millions of people who had been left behind,  all screaming for blood!    
I know that this may seem a highly cynical attitude to adopt toward such an “escape-plan”, but the same human nature would apply equally well to the elitists, as to the pro-creative peasants mentioned earlier.   It's a sad but true fact that self-interest and self-preservation will always rise above altruism in the vast bulk of any human society, rich or poor!    

Nature Always Bounces Back!
     However, despite the awfully gloomy picture that this currently presents, it is  conceiv-able that somewhere along the way, through one means or another, a new human society of worth may become established upon Mars, and that the human race may be able to rescue itself from extinction.    Even if the worst should come to the worst here upon the Earth, I feel sure that Nature will soon recover, once mankind have eradicated themseves, and human depredations no longer pose any threat to her recovery.  Nature has an amazing record of regaining dominance over human-engineered ecological disasters.   One has only to look at those huge stone cities and temples from past civilizations in all parts of the world, to see how jungle and forest swiftly cover the ugly scars that Man once inflicted upon the landscape!   
It might very well be that, eventually, should the terrible scenario described earlier come to pass, that the earth may become a huge planetary “National Park” to which humans from Mars may come as visitors and sightseers only.    But what of the world's present flora and fauna - especially the latter, which would become extinct far sooner than the flora?  How are they to be saved from such a massive ecological disaster as is prophesied?

The “Noah's Ark” Principle.
      I would envision that, if and when,  it ever  becomes a feasibility to set up an Earth colony on Mars, for the reasons mentioned above, some attempt would be made to transport and possibly transplant at least some of the flora and fauna of this planet there, too.  Plants would be a necessity of life, in any case, for the colonists, not only to eat as food, but to speed up the regeneration of a life-sustaining, breathable Martian atmosphere.     Obviously, at the outset, vegetables and fruit would have to be grown hydroponically until a terrestrial-style  atmospheric and soil environment could be developed, both in the initial, self-contained domed cities, then subsequently in the newly-terraformed landscape at large.     
I won't presume to go into all the technical and scientific problems which would have to be solved during either of these phases, since they would be legion and would require the input of specialists from many different scientific disciplines!     
However, given the basic availability of water and minerals, augmented by human-waste recycling, to create organic humus in the sands of Mars, plus an adequate supply of chemical nutrients and fertilisers, there does not appear to be any major stumbling-block to the growth of vegetation on the planet.    If solar light and radiation is insufficient on its own at such a distance from the sun, artificial stadium-style lighting and radiant-heating could be generated to augment it.          

Obviously, planetary temperatures would be a significant problem until a satisfactory regeneration of atmosphere had been achieved, although this would be easily controlled inside the dome-environments referred to earlier, in the interim period of terraforming.  Equally obviously, livestock and fauna would initially have to be severely limited and restricted to breeding pairs or very small groups, until there was sufficient vegetation to sustain them in any numbers.    Whilst most of these would essentially be domestic animals for human consumption, either as meat, or as the providers of milk, eggs, and so forth, there is no reason why small breeding-zoos of potential wildlife could not also be maintained in the dome-cities and colonies, ready for release into the finally terraformed and vegetated new wilds of Mars!      

It would essentially be a repetition of the Biblical “Noah's Ark”story, but on a far grander scale!      The stage at which the fauna would be transported to Mars, would really be dependent upon the degree of urgency involved at the time.   I would imagine that the whole process would need to be begun before there was any immediately pressing urgency, as the timeframe for the initial construction of even a single domed colony might be measurable in perhaps at least two or three decades, if not more.
Thereafter, additional domes would doubtless prove much quicker to complete, once an adequate colony of workers and technicians had been permanently accommodated in reasonable comfort and safety on the planet, and a manufacturing centre set up to produce plant and equipment in situ, both for construction work and environmental maintenance. Once a couple of these domed cities or communities had been successfully established, complete with arable soil and vegetation, then domestic animals and birds might be safely introduced, not only as sources of food, but as valuable contributors to the new soil of Mars, by way of their droppings and other by-products, as well as their function, i.e. in the case of birds and fowls, as carriers and distributors of plant-seeds!   

But, quite apart from all their obvious utilitarian functions, these animals and birds, yes, and even insects too, would play an essential role in the psychological well-being of the colony of settlers, since they would help the humans to feel “at home” - despite being located upon an otherwise alien world!   And the same function would also be filled by the flowering and seed-bearing plants and shrubs that would be essential for the sustenance of these creatures.   We humans, being spiritual as well as pragmatically physical in our mental make-up, really do need the beauty of the natural world about us!

Could We Live without Nature?
I know that some will say that all animal protein and waste-by-products could probably be produced artificially in a laboratory-style factory, but could we ever replace, or even adequately imitate truly natural products or materials?  In any event, we are considering the rescue of as many of  Nature's myriad diverse forms as possible from a doomed Earth!  If the whole exercise were to be confined to the rescue and survival only of our own human species, then perhaps it might be better not to bother!    Who would really want to exist in a world devoid of other forms of life than ourselves?   In my view, the whole object of the exercise would be lost without the rich diversity of Nature to look upon, and be a part of!   

What would be the point or use of living in a world without the beauty of Nature to break the monotony of mere, bleak and fruitless existence?   Where would Mankind be, without all the myriad therapeutic benefits of Nature?  
In such a bleak world, humanity would be living in a planetary prison - without any relief from the company of their own species.     This craving for the company of other species than our own is typically illustrated by our universal keeping of pets and creation of animal parks and zoos!    A world populated solely by humans would be like a sterile concentration-camp.   How swiftly we would become sick and tired of the company of nothing else but our own species!  And how swiftly would our mental health and integrity as a human society degenerate in such prison-like surroundings!  

No!  It seems to me to be absolutely mandatory that wherever the human race may venture in search of another residence in the solar-system or even in some other star-system in outer space, or even upon some giant permanently-occupied artificial space-station, we will need to take with us the essential “creature-comforters”  which surround us upon this beautiful and biologically-multifarious jewel of a planet we humans currently call our home-world.

Escape to Otherness!
And now, having contemplated the various aspects of ourselves going forth to occupy and develop other worlds out there in space, perhaps it is also necessary that we should take a little time to consider the impications of the rest of the Universe around us being already occupied by myriads of other lifeforms of all imaginable - and even unimaginable - varieties, kinds, and species!    

Science-fiction has already long since paved the way for such contemplation of assorted weird and wonderful, or hideous and horrendously bizzare permutations and adaptations of the all-pervading life-force. Creatures shaped in a vast multiplicity of strange forms which might be waiting out there, right now, to either astound and enchant or petrify and nauseate our future astronauts!   

So let us now leave this study of our own human conquest and colonization of space and other worlds around us, and enjoy instead a change of pace for a while. A new study in reasoned speculation as to where such extraterrestrial life might be discovered and what environmental criteria would need to be met in order for it to develop out there in the far reaches of both our own solar system, and in the Universe as a whole!    

Let us then, for a while at least, escape to Otherness!


The Possibility of Life being Common Throughout The Universe.

Other Worlds Out There?
      I believe it's now time for us to draw aside from this particular hypothesis and from our own parochial Solar System “backyard” for a while, to broaden our perception and to study the big picture of the Universe around us as a whole.
     We know now, thanks to the marvellous advances in astronomy and astrophysical knowledge over the past couple of decades, that we are living on the merest mote of cosmic dust revolving around a tiny speck of radiant matter in one fairly minor galaxy out of untold myriads of such galaxies which crowd an immeasurable and probably limitless universe.
The concept of our sun being the centre of the created universe can no longer be entertained by any thinking being who has seen the wondrous pictures of the universe now being photographed and relayed back to us by the Hubble telescope.  Our sun has been relegated to its rightful place as merely one of a vast cosmos of similar stars that swarm throughout the farthest illimitable reaches of the infinity of space.   Of course, when I say that the stars swarm or fill the universe, I don't mean that they pack it like sand-grains upon some vast beach!   Far from it!    Perhaps it might be better if we were to to compare the stars to the atoms in some apparently solid object or other.
A Peek Through the Microscopic Telescope!
If we possessed the microscopic vision to be able to see the actual atoms which comprise ourselves, for example, we would be astounded to find that the comparative distances between them would be akin, in a scaled-down sense, to those between the actual stars in space; light-years apart!    We'd find that they would be spaced at enormous distances from each other!    And, as with the relationship between our sun and its family of planets, so would be the association between the atomic nucleus and its orbiting electrons!   Our microscope would now become a new form of telescope!
This is not necessarily to say that there is a definite and directly analogous correlation between solar systems and atoms - the scientific jury is still out on that question.     But what it does show is that even an apparently solid object like a pebble  - if we could magnify it sufficiently - would prove to be comprised infinitely more of empty space than substance!

Mind-Blowing Concepts!
     This is a staggering thought in itself, but how much more staggering a concept might it be if there is a direct analogy between solar systems and atoms, and that our own solar system  were to be merely an atom of some inconceivably vast object or organism?   We should never assume that outer space is all there is!    We ought to be aware that if space is infinitely huge, it can also be infinitely miniscule, too!     Just as there seems to be no limit to the vastness of outer space, so also might inner space be similarly minutely limitless!
     I'm reminded by all this of an old piece of doggerel which puts that concept into a nutshell. Substantially, it goes something like this:-   “Dogs have fleas, and so do these have smaller fleas to bite `em.  These smaller fleas themselves have fleas  - and so, ad infinitum!”

     One could follow this line of reasoning much further and perhaps find that a solar system might represent an atom of a specific element, dependent upon the number of satellites it has!     Atom structures are usually represented graphically as having their electrons orbiting in several different angular planes around the nucleus, but, since no man has ever yet actually seen an individual atom, how can scientists insist that it must be so? Why shouldn't the electrons be arranged in the same basic plane, just as our own solar system is?   Science, alas, is founded upon theories, which are usually proposed merely to explain existing, observable facts.  Theories are not facts, even though some dogmatic scientists try hard to make us believe that they are!    It's really up to each of us to come to our own conclusions about why things are as they are - which is why I am writing this “universal” All-Purpose thesis!   

     However, I seem to have wandered from the main theme of this chapter and must ask the reader's forgiveness!  But as ideas spring to mind that are relevant to the general thrust of the argument, I believe they should be introduced as and when they suggest themselves!

Other Solar Systems, Other Earths.
     As mentioned at the outset of this chapter, it is clearly evident that there are countless myriads of other stars, similar in general form, state, and elemental composition to our own local star, the sun.   It is only logical therefore, given that they are all composed of the same chemical elements as our own sun and its planets, that most of them will also have their own families of planets and other satellites orbiting around them.  Whilst this is not yet a visually proven fact, it is a relatively safe logical deduction to make.  Most modern astronomers and astrophysicists seem to subscribe to this belief, anyhow, so I feel that I'm on pretty safe ground in subscribing to the same concept.
It would be both foolish and arrogant for us to believe otherwise, in the face of such an inescapable conclusion, and presume that ours is the only planet to be blessed with life! Let me explain this a little further, if I may.    (I'll endeavour to keep this short!)
Although I have personally embraced the principles of Christianity, and with it, the belief in an original Creation, I don't necessarily accept the Biblical account of the Creation as a totally factual record of what really happened.    The account, allegedly written by Moses, appears to have been passed down by word of mouth for millennia, as a Jewish fable or legend, long before Moses finally committed it to the written word.   The accuracy of what Moses wrote could also be greatly compromised by the fact that he was raised from infancy in Pharaoh's own royal palace as a Prince of Egypt, rather than a Hebrew, so his knowledge of Hebraic history and legend must have been relatively skimpy during the first forty years of his long life. (Though Moses would have had access to the theology of his native people to some degree, via his own mother, who was appointed his wet-nurse by Pharaoh's daughter!)

The Genesis Account - Accurate or Erroneous?
     Therefore, I tend to take the Genesis account as a traditional fable, but, at the same time accept that the Universe and everything in it was conceived, designed and created by a super Intellect, whom I choose to call God.    I think the thing to bear in mind here, is not to “throw the baby out with the bathwater”!       As a brand-new Christian, I was told that the entire Holy Bible was the Inspired Word of God, and therefore, as such, one either believed everything within its covers to be entirely “Gospel”, or one could not be regarded as a true Christian. There was no “middle-ground” as far as my Pentecostal teachers were concerned!         

Since then, I have allowed my God-given common sense to prevail, and have realized that the Bible was translated several times from the original Hebrew and Aramaic before coming down to us in its modern form, and that human error must have crept into all these translations many times, and that many omissions must also have occurred, to tailor it to suit differing church doctrines and dogmas along the way!    Therefore, although I accept its basic principles, I now take many passages in the Bible, especially in the Old Testament of the Hebrews, with rather more than a respectable grain of salt!
Consequently, because I cannot envisage a Creator who would limit His Creation of life-forms to only one of countless billions of earthlike planets, I have to regard the Biblical account as essentially allegorical - though (to paraphrase Agent Mulder) “the truth is still in there”, if one reads between the lines, so to speak!    Who knows - maybe the same Creation of life-forms occurred on all inhabitable planets simultaneously?  Maybe there are billions of other humans out there who share the same belief in a non-partisan Creator God as  many on our Earth do?   Perhaps religions abound across the Universe, wherever sentient life exists?  How will we ever know?   We can only guess at such questions!
I have serious doubts that we will ever find out by direct physical contact with other planets, even if they are as close as Alpha Centauri, our nearest neighbouring star (which is some four and a half light-years distant from our sun), for the simple technical reasons that I've already tried to explain earlier in this work, regarding the problems associated with achieving suitable velocities by any means we currently know of, or are contemplating at the moment!    I won't reiterate them here, but I will add that there's always the faint possibility of the inhabitants of some other solar system having progressed a lot further technologically than ourselves, who may have discovered some alternative method of transporting themselves from star to star, by other than the ponderous mechanical means we currently use to move from planet to planet. I don't think they've acheived this feat physically however, despite all the wild “Flying Saucer” nonsense which is still being bandied about!   

Although this isn't to say that such craft don't exist.   It's entirely feasible - and reasonable to suggest - that they have their origin either in secret bases in the USA or some other developed nation upon the face of the Earth, or from some other unknown and hitherto unannounced nation or race dwelling on or within our own Earth !  

Let us try to bear this as our watchword, that “Until conclusively proven otherwise, Nothing can truly be regarded as totally impossible!”                                        

A  Response to The Modern Astrophysicist's  “Big Bang” Theory.

Creation and the “Big Bang”.
     I have been persuaded to make some kind of reply to the current theories regarding how the Universe came into being and what, according to astronomical evidence, has happened since the initial moment of Creation.  Permit me first to clarify, if I may, my own personal interpretation of the “Creation” and the “Big Bang”.

The Moment of Creation.     
     I find myself basically in agreement with modern thinking regarding this, though I still maintain my ground that the Universe was created by a Super Intellect, whom I continue to believe was God.    However, as I have already stated elsewhere in these pages, I feel that the Genesis account as written in the Bible is a considerable over-simplification of the story as it came down in legendary form via the spoken word, and that the Jewish prophet, Moses, simply wrote it down as he had heard it, from those who instructed him in Hebrew history and religion.     Therefore, I can't accept the Genesis account as being entirely the literal truth, but rather a simplified fable of the creative events. In any event, my notion of the Super Intellect,God, is of Someone concerned with an infinitely grander and unimaginably more colossal Creation than that comparatively insignificant event which the first page of Genesis seems to cover - namely the creation of the planet Earth and its immediate environs.        

     Thus I envisage instead, the creation of the entire Universe as being God's principal initial Creative Act.   I further envisage that this was all achieved in one single blinding, explosive master-stroke, and that whatever further creative effects followed, flowed on as a consequence of this initial “Big Bang” - for want of a better name!  (How could there have been a Big “Bang” in the vacuum of empty space where sound cannot carry?  And even if it could, who was there to hear it?)   

Still, we seem to be stuck with this title or description, so I guess we'll have to make the best of it - for the purpose of this exercise, at least!   However, I won't necessarily follow Stephen Hawking and others, in assuming that there had to be some kind of “bomb” of densely-packed proto-matter there, prior to the explosion, which was somehow triggered off by an unknown Super Intellect, or whatever causative factor they may choose to imagine.    Have you noticed how these great thinkers are inevitably driven back to some kind of super-intelligent Entity who “lit the fuse, pressed the button, or pushed the celestial plunger”, as a deliberately premeditated and pre-planned act?  Some Force or Some One had to pre-arrange the whole thing and set it all in motion!   

The whole of Creation as a Going Concern?
     I tend to feel that once the Universe had been created - whether by a “Big Bang” or whatever else can be imagined - it was a finished work.   The Creator had already built into the whole Universe everything it presently does contain, or did contain previously, but which may have now become extinct.    I believe this was done in the same way that we are born with a “blueprint” already mapped out within our DNA - including the seed of our own demise.  I believe that we, like the universe about us, have a predetermined “Use-By” Date. However, before I go into this, perhaps I should clear up a point about the origin of it all.

     In my view, the Creator didn't need a collapsed star or a “black-hole” to begin His Creation, as seems to be the current thinking.   He created all original matter ex nihilo - out of nothing!   Unfortunately, most scientists are bound hand and foot by their own logic, and cannot think in such esoteric terms.   Logic dictates that everything must be created from something else (rather like “recycling”!)  ergo they must believe that, if the “Big Bang” originated via a “Black Hole” or a collapsed star, the universe we see today must, therefore, be the recycled product of a previous universe!   
This is all very well, but the great problem with such a concept is that it can be reiterated in reverse, ad infinitum - without ever getting to grips with the original question of where and how it all got started in the very first place!   
Scientists have an irritating habit of “putting off the evil day” when they have to face the inevitable question of the actual original birth of the universe, by using such ploys as this to delay the inescapable conclusion that there had to be an original Creative Intellect behind it all!      Anyhow, having made that point, I'll now return to what I was saying before about the universe being in what can only be considered a “state of  decay”- or ENTROPY.

The Expanding Universe.
     We are all familiar with the spectrographic evidence which has been presented to show that all the visible galaxies and nebulae are receding from us, and from each other, at an ever-increasing rate.   This has been reasonably well established and fairly clearly demonstrated, and I for one, have no argument against it.     If there was a Big Bang at the outset, one would expect the “shell” of the explosion to be rapidly expanding away from its central starting-point in all directions, rather like a balloon being inflated from its centre, and swelling outward and away at high-velocity, in a spherical fashion.      
If we follow this analogy further, and imagine that all the nebulae-galaxies are spots dabbed all over the balloon, we can visualise that, as the balloon continues to expand, the spots will also continue to move further away from the centre and from each other.   If we could picture ourselves sitting on one of those spots, everywhere we looked around the swelling interior of the sphere, the other spots would appear to be moving away from us as well as from each other and from the focus of inflation.   This is exactly what astronomers find is actually happening in space. This is what is meant by the term ”Expanding Universe”!

     However, while this may have originally been envisioned as a growth-process for the universe, what we are really seeing, via the astronomer's spectroscope and the associated “Fraunhofer Lines” in the red end of the galactic spectra, is not the growth, but the death- throes of the universe!    We are really seeing the shell of gas and detritus from the original explosion dissipating swiftly away into oblivion across the infinity of space!   This may sound an alarming thought to us mere mortals, whose lifespans are the  merest twinkle of a nanosecond, compared to the incredibly vast aeons of unimaginable time since the universe began, but it may well be quintillions of billions of years before the spherical shell has expanded far enough and swelled large enough for the galaxies or nebulae to be no longer visible to each other.   So I don't think we need to worry about being around to witness their final disappearance into the infinity of space!  
There is a theory current among certain astronomers that, out there, amid the galaxies and in the clouds of interstellar gas and dust, new stars are continually being born, possibly at a faster rate than “old stars are dying and “going nova”.   However, this is purely speculation and, as yet, there is no actual evidence that this is taking place.

Personally, I don't subscribe to this notion, since it's my conviction that we are seeing only entropy overtaking the universe, and that, eventually, all the remaining pent-up energy still left in the stars and the galaxies will be dissipated and spent, and converted into residual heat, just as in any other explosion!  

     In the interim however, in accordance with the original Creative Plan for the universe, as the stars and their planets have steadily lost their fierce heat and radiation, life has appeared upon many of the cooling planets, and has burgeoned forth, in much the same way that bacteria and mould might appear upon, say, a rotting crop of over-ripe fruit in an orchard!    I believe that our Earth is going through such a stage of “over-ripeness” now, as no doubt are countless billions of other planets, too, throughout the universe, and all of them, producing life-forms - or perhaps being seeded with them by that same unseen Hand which originally lit the fuse of the Big Bang!       

Life, it would seem, is a built-in product of the whole process of the entropy of the universe, and will no doubt continue as long as the conditions remain for it to do so.      But once the last sun has blown out its dying breath in a final nova blaze of glory, life, too, will cease to exist in this particular universe, and maybe the “Moving Finger of God, having writ, will move on” to create yet another wondrous and even more perfect universal masterpiece!

     One passage that I recall in the Bible, says that “God created all things entirely for His Own Pleasure”, or words to that effect,  so I tend to liken Him to a mighty and omnipotent Design-Artist who is constantly searching for new ways of expressing His Creative bent!   


An Alternative Theory To Astrida.

Escape From a Ruined Planet
     We have had a look into the hypothetical likelihood of human life perhaps having originated upon a possibly-destroyed planet, orbiting between Mars and Jupiter, of which the asteroids are assumed to be the shattered fragmentary remains, and have considered all the pros and cons of how such a mass-evacuation of humans and other life-forms to Mars and Earth might have been accomplished - with all that concept's attendant difficulties and seeming implausibilities.   Now let us now contemplate the possibility that Mars itself might possibly have been the original home of humankind as well as all the other mammalian species  -  before it became environmentally ruined!

     Mars has long been thought to have once possessed a breathable atmosphere and a vegetated surface capable of sustaining life as we know it.  We know that the planet has had plenty of water in the past, as is borne out by satellite pictures of its surface, which show  many clearly recognisable hydraulically-formed features upon its surface, as well as those attributable to the movement of glacial ice-flows.   The fact that Mars still possesses visible ice-caps at its poles should remove any lingering doubts in this regard.
That the Martian atmosphere was once rich in oxygen would seem to be apparent in its red-coloured rocks and sand.   Although we have yet to learn the full analysis-results from the testing of Martian soil and rock samples, this red colouration would seem to indicate the presence of ferric oxide; or common rust, formed by the action of water upon an iron-rich surface.  Rust, as any schoolboy would know today, is a combination of iron molecules with those of oxygen, which produces ferric-oxide.  It is not hard to imagine how the combination could have occurred if Mars was once rich in both oxygen and water!    

The only other explanation for the red surface of Mars, is enormous volcanic activity in ages past, which would produce red soil and rocks through the interaction of volcanic gases with the land surface material.   This effect is particularly noticeable in Australia, where those areas in which volcanoes were once most active are especially rich in often brilliantly red volcanic soil and rocks.   Mars is known to have been a highly volcanic planet, and the extinct remains of several of the largest volcanoes in the solar system can still be seen on its surface. Olympus Mons, the largest extinct volcano on Mars,and indeed the entire solar system, is estimated to be three times higher than Everest, so the output of this giant alone could account for most of the red colouration of the entire planet's surface  - if volcanism is, in fact, the cause!   

Is Mars Truly A Dead World?
     However.  The fact remains that Mars does have polar ice-caps, which clinches the existence of water there.   but, since the mean temperature of its surface is minus 23ºC (similar to Antarctica), all surface-water there must be frozen solid.  As yet, we have no idea if Mars has a molten core or a magma mantle like the Earth, although the latter would probably be a lot deeper beneath the Martian crust now, since its giant volcanoes have apparently been extinct for several million years.    However, we have no way of knowing any of these things for certain.    Again, our greatest scientists can only make educated guesses based upon their own terrestrial observations and geological comparisons.    
Until scientists have actually been to Mars and carried out thorough on-the-spot physical geological tests and surveys, most of what is allegedly claimed to be known about the planet must be pure assumption and speculation.   Thus, until all the evidence is in, especially with regard to the planet still possessing a molten core and mantle, however deep; we cannot abandon Mars as a dead world, incapable of resurrection by terraforming.   Nor can we say that it has never been the home of living creatures!    It is my own firm belief that the existence of water on Mars, even if frozen, and that the atmosphere, even if greatly attenuated by terrestrial standards, contains 95% carbon dioxide, seems to be indicative of a past dense cover of vegetation, if not of actual animal life!    
     However, I feel sure that future discoveries on the Martian surface - or below it - will reveal that it has been the home of sentient mammalian lifeforms, and in particular, humans!
Although I wouldn't necessarily venture so far as to say that Mars could have been the original “Garden of Eden” where humanity was originally created, according to the Bible story, I must confess that, after recently reading an extremely interesting book on the subject of Mars having possibly been the cradle of humanity (“Return To Mars” by Brian Crowley and Anthony Pollock), in which the authors explored many legends and myths pertaining to the red planet, as well as a considerable body of scientific fact and theory, I am prepared to be convinced that Mars has, at some time in its history, been at least the temporary abode of sentient and probably human life -  if not its origin - in our solar system.   
There seem to be so many indicators which point to humans having once lived upon Mars, in the legends, mythology and religions of so many nations and tribes around the earth, both past and present, it's hard to ignore the possibility that there might be some collective human “racial memory” behind in it all!      

     We still have no true idea of the actual age of our human species - despite all the wild and factually-unsubstantiated claims of so-called expert anthropologists like Darwin, Huxley,  the Leakeys, et al.    It seems to me that the sum total of their evidence amounts to a relatively tiny collection of skull and bone fragments, which, though clearly of extremely ancient origin, cannot be either accurately dated, or even pronounced as being actually human, for the most part!    

 Surely, in view of the enormous wealth of dinosaur and other animal bones which have been, and still are being unearthed, these fossil-hunters should surely have discovered thousands of ancient hominid and human skeletons by now!    Surely they cannot all have been totally consumed, bones and all, by ancient predators?   

There are plenty of smaller prehistoric prey-animal skeletons being found still more or less intact, so why not those of hominids or humans?      
     For some obscure and inexplicable reason, science still chooses to turn a blind eye toward this glaringly obvious anomaly. Why?  Could it perhaps be because they have blindly followed the postulations of Darwin and the rest, and have erected such mighty edifices of scientific assumption upon them that there is no way out but to dismantle these entire false and shaky structures, and start building anew, all over again?     There's an old Biblical saying which covers this sort of situation admirably. “If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch” (Matt.15:14)     I believe many scientists today are very deeply down that ditch!  What's needed today is more open-minded philosophy and less blind obedience to dogma.

The Problem of Conservative Scientific Dogmatism.
     Please bear with me for a few moments whilst I pursue this difficulty of getting conventional science to clamber out of its deeply-gouged trench of dogmatic belief.  How many such alleged “great authorities” on scientific matters, who have attained grand status in their particular scientific arenas, would be prepared to admit to being in error if their assumptions and beliefs were someday proved wrong?     Methinks very few modern academics would be honest enough to toss aside any such worthless “treasures” of erroneous learning, or laboriously-constructed but no-longer tenable theories!   Most, I think would endeavour to adapt their old theories to fit the new facts - which is usually what happens today, as we discover new evidence to refute old teachings.   
These so-called “giants” of science don't easily step down from their marble pedestals.   They simply change pedestals!      Thus they remain at the apex of their chosen disciplines, keeping the old order intact, and continuing to resist any revolutionary new concepts and ideas.  It's an old adage but a true one that “There are none so blind as those who refuse to see!”   Personal vanity and pride can be the greatest blinding factors of all among those who have attained high academic stature by following the “cow-path” of traditional scientific belief.  Small wonder then that the sciences are often referred to as “disciplines”, when such blind obedience to the theories of Darwin and Co. is so richly rewarded by the “Lords of Academia”!   

     Thankfully, an ever-growing new wave of lateral-thinking scientific laymen has begun to enter this hitherto sacrosanct arena, and they are throwing down the gauntlet before the orthodox scientific academic hierarchy.    Despite being labelled as “investigative journalists” or “pseudo-scientists”, they have already begun to open up many new avenues of scientific inquiry which have hitherto been kept firmly closed and taboo to orthodox scientific research.

Velikovsky's Theory on The Fifth Planet.
     According to Immanuel Velikovsky's remarkable book,“Worlds In Collision”, the planet Venus is supposed to have originally been a comet, and was not formed at the same time as the other planets from an accretion-disc of gaseous matter.  His theory is that the comet Venus was actually a mass of matter torn out of the planet Jupiter, by some great cosmic accident, and that this newly-formed rogue-comet came into a near-collision with Mars, dragging it out of its normal orbit, so that Mars almost collided with the Earth and had a very close brush with our atmosphere.  (During which there may have been some major exchanges of both atmospheric gases and electromagnetic fields - that would have caused several great catastrophes on both planets, which, he alleges, are supported by legendary events recorded in every ancient culture of the world!).       
     Velikovsky further claims in his theory, that the comet Venus also came into very close proximity to the Earth on probably more than one occasion (due to its first wildly and erratic elliptical elongated orbits around the Sun), thus causing other great cataclysmic events upon the Earth - some of which are actually recorded in the Bible - which would place the “birth” of Venus within the era of human occupation of this planet!          
Venus A Newcomer?
     How much of Velikovsky's theory is true has yet to be properly determined, but there are certainly many curious anomalies in Venus's condition and rotation which would seem to support Velikovsky's belief that it is a new and later addition to the Sun's family of planets.
For all intents and purposes, without going into a long-drawn out scientific dissertation on the planet, it appears to be very much younger, and to be at a much more junior stage of development than any of the other terrestrial planets!     Its atmosphere, too, is totally different to those of either Earth or Mars, and it appears to be undergoing a runaway “greenhouse-effect” of enormous proportions!   There is also some strange inconsistency with regard to the Venusian rotation, since it turns in the opposite direction to all the other planets!   In addition to this, its day is actually longer than its year!   Also, Venus has no detectable magnetic field.    All of these inconsistencies appear to strongly support Velikovsky's theory that the planet Venus is a newcomer to our solar system!    
From my reading of Velikovsky's theory,  and also my own belief that a fifth planet did once orbited between Mars and Jupiter, I am inclined to think that Venus might prove to be the clue to the whole curious business, and that, either Velikovsky's “Comet Venus” was the body that could have shattered the fifth planet - or that Venus was the fifth planet itself which was knocked out of its orbit by a rogue-meteor, which was shattered by the impact, leaving its remains to orbit as the asteroids!      
This could account for Venus's opposite rotation and also its lack of a magnetic field.  Its close brushes with both Earth and Mars could easily have imparted a retrograde axial spin to the planet, as well as either Earth or Mars taking up its electrical field into their own.  (Though more likely the former than the latter, since Earth has undergone at least two reversals of electrical polarity, if not more, in fairly recent geological times!)     In any event, in view of the comparative sizes of Mars and Venus, and Venus and Earth, it's clear that Mars would be far more likely to come off far worse in any such encounter with Venus than our Earth would!          

A Bit of a Conundrum.
     If in fact, the Venus we see today as a semi-molten, tremendously superheated planet is the same planet which used to orbit between Mars and Jupiter, why has it changed so dramatically from what would surely have been a terrestrial and liveable planet, to the mephitic hell-pit which it has now become?    How can a planet revert to its infancy?
     The answer seems fairly obvious, given Venus's new and far closer orbit around the Sun - plus whatever heat it received from the collision with the comet, as well as additional atmospheric gases and matter picked up from both the comet and in close brushes with both Earth and Mars. (Its present atmosphere is dense carbon dioxide, with clouds of sulphuric acid!)   Cosmologists believe that Venus has a semi-molten core of nickel iron much the same as Earth's, and I feel that if this is indeed the case, then it should prove that Venus was a fully-matured terrestrial planet, like Earth and Mars, before the cosmic collision.. Therefore Venus could very easily be our missing fifth planet!

But What has all of This to do with Mars?
     The conclusion one has to draw from such a sudden impact upon Venus-Astrida by a rogue-comet (or any other such space-wanderer) is that if it was violent enough to knock it out of its orbit to such a great degree as outlined above, it must have been very sudden, and there would probably have been little or no warning to any sentient race inhabiting it, and therefore, not sufficient time to make any preparations to leave the planet, even if they had the means. Hence there would have been no Astridian survivors!   

So, whether the planet we now identify as Venus was the original planet or, as Velikovsky claims, a rogue-comet which has become a planet, is really of little relevance to the issue of humans having arrived upon Earth from elsewhere!    And, since we have already considered and basically ruled out any interstellar origin for mankind, we are left with only one alternative - Mars!

Where Now?
     As far as Mars is concerned, we will have to wait now until manned expeditions can be sent there for the final confirmation (or otherwise), as to whether it has possessed a human civilization in the past.   I understand, from reliable sources, that there are plans in hand to send bigger and better surveillance-landers to Mars in the early part of this 21st century, in order to establish a comprehensive “telepresence” upon the planet, which should tell us considerably more about the surface-conditions which have prevailed in the past, as well as making thorough geological surveys and studies of the rocky crust of the planet.
However, I am sure that the only way we will ever really find anything significant is to actually land astronaut archaeologists on Mars so that they can explore beneath the Martian surface.  If there's anything to be discovered on Mars, I feel certain it won't be lying about above ground.  The enormous dust-storms which constantly sweep the planet will have long ago covered over anything smaller than, say, a pyramid!      

The Face On Mars - Is It Real?     
     It would be wonderful if the huge monolith referred to as “The Face On Mars” were to actually turn out to be an artificially-created monument, or perhaps a mountain which has been carved to resemble a humanoid face.   There has been a great deal of speculation about what it actually is - a natural freak of erosion or a deliberately-crafted artifice to advertise the presence of humanoid beings on the planet?   
If it were the latter, it would have to have been specifically created to catch the attention of  extra-Martian astronomers or astronauts, such as ourselves, and it would have been a mighty feat indeed to sculpt out such a face, using a mountain which is about 2.5 km long and 2 km wide, and probably about 1 km high!   

Planet of The Apes?
     Whilst it certainly appears humanoid enough, even down to the Egyptian-style headdress - to my eye, it appears rather more monkey-like than human!  However, Richard Hoagland, of the Mars Investigation Group, claims that the image compares with that of the face-like hieroglyph of the Egyptian god, Horus. Another commentator sees it as the face of the Hindu monkey-god, Hanuman.  But more interesting still, is the opinion of the Zulu author and African-folklore expert, Credo Vuzamazulu Mutwa, who sees the features as negroid and thereby a vindication of old African legends which claim that the Bantu negro race originally came here from Mars!     There are also both African and Celtic legends which say that pregnant females from Mars escaped to Earth before some holocaust over-took the planet, tens of thousands of years ago!   They are supposed to have subsequently mated with native Earthmen and many of us, today, are believed to be their descendants!    

      But all of this speculation is idle, unless the “face” is found to have been carved and isn't simply the fluky result of sand and wind erosion on a head-shaped mountain.    We simply won't know until astronauts have studed the mountain properly.  The same applies to all of the other intriguing features which have been discovered on the Martian surface, like gigantic pyramid-shapes and even Inca-like walled-city layouts!   If any of these things do eventually prove to be artificial constructions, many ancient  mysteries here on Earth will at last  be solved, and we will finally have proof that the astounding technology seen in many of the Earth's splendid archaeological wonders is indeed “not of this world”!  

Escape From Mars.
     In the meantime, however, there is no reason to abandon our speculations about what may have happened to the people of Mars - even if the rogue planet (which, for this scenario at least, we will regard as the planet Venus), had been involved in a cosmic catastrophe, and had seriously damaged the surface and atmospheric environment of Mars.
For anyone to escape from Mars, they would have had to leave the planet before the Venusian cataclysm, since the careering planet (or comet) would have been sent off at a tangent by the collision, and, since all the planets in the solar system orbit in the same general plane around the sun's equator, Venus-Astrida must have been stricken horizontal to that plane for it to end up still orbiting in it - even though much closer to the Sun.  
Had it been hit from an angle, above or below the “disc” of planetary orbits, it would today still be orbiting the Sun in a different plane to all the other planets.    Also, had that been the case, no other planet would have been affected by its headlong cavorting through space.  As it was, because of this neat and tidy centrifugal arrangement of planetary orbits, the deflected fifth planet (or comet) careered directly across the orbital paths of both Mars and Earth.
Legendary Clues.
     We have no direct knowledge of how closely it may have approached either of them, although Velikovsky makes an excellent circumstancial case out of the many legends of the various nations of the world in ancient times, including the ancient religions which sprang from this terrible and almost literally, Earth-shattering time.    
     Probably most of the older religions are sprung from exactly this series of catastrophic events, and the principal heavenly bodies involved came eventually to be revered and remembered as gods of those religions.   Thus we find Jupiter, Mars, Venus and the rest included in some of the major dramas of heavenly legend, anthropomorphised from planets into human-like “gods” for easier understanding by the masses.   
 They had, of course, all been directly adopted from their Greek originals, Zeus, Ares and Aphrodite, who lived on “Mount Olympus”, which, to the ancient Greeks, represented the heavens, and the titanic upheavals which occurred in them  in ancient days.   Other “gods” were drawn into the conflict, such as Poseidon-Neptune as the oceans arose from their beds due to the gravitational chaos that must have reigned in such a close encounter between the planets, together with Hephaestus-Vulcan, as earthquakes and volcanoes were triggered off by the same cause.  
Some of the great classic Greek authors like Homer, wove these ancient legends into a great dramatic tradition of cosmic literature, even though to them, they were probably mere fables, passed down by word of mouth.

     On the other side of the world, the forerunners of the Toltecs and Aztecs had their own pantheon of gods who occupied the same roles and enacted the same dramas.  Huitzilopochtli was the equivalent of Mars /Ares, and  Quetzal-Cohuatl played the part of Venus /Aphrodite.  Gender was not an issue with the South American aborigines.  Only men engaged in battle, and so it was with their gods.    In the Bible, Lucifer, was transposed for Venus, since both represented the Morning Star, and one can well picture the Arch-angel Michael as Mars, since he is Jehovah's (Jove-Jupiter's) Warring Angel.  In ancient Babylon, Mars became Nergal, God of Battle, who caused great chaos in the heavens.

     In the Norse “Edda”, Fenris-Wolf takes on the role of Mars, with the serpent Midgard in the role of Venus, and again the battle rages across the heavens.  The Hindus also had their legendary gods figuring in the same events.  The god, Shiva gave birth to the planet god, Kumara, who fought the great demon, Taraka, in ancient times, “when he troubled the earth”.     
Speaking of Mars, the Roman writer, Virgil, mentions the two steeds of Mars that drew his chariot when he came very close to the Earth.   These were the planet's two satellites, later aptly named Phobos and Deimos (Terror and Rout) by Aspah Hall, their discoverer, without him being aware that these were the very same names given them by the ancient Greeks!     Obviously these satellites had been seen with the naked eye during the close approach of the planet Mars to the Earth!     
In ancient Egyptian lore, however, it's difficult to find a really close equivalent for Mars, unless we choose either the watchdog jackal God of Embalming, Anubis, or more aptly Set, the evil god, who killed his brother, Osiris, and is generally equated with Satan.

World Mythology An Important Guide?
     As one may readily observe from the previous page and earlier references to legends and myths from all corners and nations of the Earth, mythology might very well have an extremely important part to play in resolving the problems and the gaps which exist in our understanding of what may have happened to both the Earth and its peoples in “prehistoric times” - or perhaps a better term for ”prehistoric” would be “during those ages of human tenure of the earth, before history began to be properly recorded ”.    

     We have already seen that the Jewish Bible does contain many references to those times when history was passed from one generation to another by word of mouth, probably by trained storytellers or bards, possibly for thousands of years before such people as Moses came to actually write these legends down in books. But there were other inscribed records however, long before Moses' time.  

The ancient myths of Mesopotamia, which were engraved upon stone and clay tablets, show that the Sumerian and Akkadian people believed in a great number of deities of varying degrees of importance, as well as actually describing a very similar creation-story to that recorded much later by Moses, together with various disasters which overtook the earth, including a very Noahic flood!    In fact, one is sorely tempted to believe that it might well be possible that the religious beliefs and even the very God of the Hebrews were “borrowed” directly from very much older Middle Eastern theologies!   

     The most amazing aspect of much of the world's mythology in general - coming down to us as it does from a great many diverse cultures, races and time-periods - lies not so much in the fact that such a rich collection of strange and wonderful legends of gods, heroes and events have survived over so many thousands of years, but in the many astounding coincidences and similarities in the content of these legends - despite the obvious fact that they must all have surely been embellished and added to by suceeding generations of storytellers and bards, to greater or lesser degrees, down the millennia.   

One is compelled toward the conclusion that much of the world's mythology stemmed originally from a common source, far back in the dim distant mists of the earth's prehistoric past, and that sentient humans were present to observe and suffer some of the major catastrophes which scientists today find clearly demonstrated in the geological record of our planet's crust - but all too often assume to have occurred before the advent of man, or even of life itself, upon the earth!      

A Lexicon of  Mythology.
     In order for a closer comparison to be made between legendary figures and events, I've compiled a special Lexicon of Mythical Pantheons of Gods and  Heroes as an adjunct to this work, in which many interesting coincidences and parallels will be found, that help to support the intriguing concept presented above.  I intend appending this useful, although by no means exhaustive, Lexicon at the end of the complete work in due course.    However, in the interim, the reader is bound to find such a book in the local public library.   

In considering the personages and the events with which they were connected, may I suggest that the reader try to look beneath the superfical aspect of the various mythical stories, and seek the underlying “bones” of what is really being described in them, and consider, for example,  whether a “god” or “hero” might perhaps represent a heavenly body rather than a heavenly being, as demonstrated earlier under the heading “Legendary Clues”.
Heavenly Setting for Godly Dramas.
Often, those wishing to relate a great cosmic event or similar occurrence which might fly in the face of the accepted religious or scholarly tradition of their time, had to resort to the subterfuge of speaking in symbolic allegories, or parables, in much the same way Christ did, in order to avoid being accused of heresy or sacrilege by the religious hierarchy, and thus the stories of such fearful or wonderful cosmic events would then continue to be perpetuated as encounters between personages or deities, rather than planets or other cosmic bodies.

     That cosmic events and heavenly bodies were, in fact, the origin of these pantheons of “gods” is far more obviously the case than is the opposite. The Sun and the Moon were always worldwide objects of ancient veneration, concern and fear, for obvious reasons, and the sky became their godly Heaven simply because it was where they appeared to dwell and have their being, and where all the often-terrifying cosmic dramas were enacted, such as solar or lunar eclipses, the passage of comets, the fall of meteors, and other fearsome heavenly phenomena.   

(To be continued in Book II  of “The Astrida Theory”)

© Gerry forster 2002

Spiralling Planets and The life zone

A Brand New Look at our Solar System
and its Planetary `Habitable Zone'

Gerry Forster

     The following article will present the reader with some different scenarios for  the original creation of the Solar system.   These include the currently held scientific view of how the Sun and its planets were formed, as well as a couple of other alternative scenarios.  However, since none of them has actually been proven to be true and correct, I will be treating them all simply as speculations - which is really all they are. I will then follow this with a brief explanation of the likely existence of a “Life Zone” that I believe exists in the present vicinity of the Earth and Mars.  

I am not alone in this belief.  Several well-known scientists also subscribe to this concept, but in my view there is a factor that seems to have been largely ignored or overlooked by mainstream science. That is the simple fact that the planets are steadily spiralling further and further away from the Sun.  And, as they do so, this “Habitable Zone” - as it is called by those who support it - is gradually moving in the opposite direction!   I will not go into it any futher here, but will endeavour to explain why I believe that this is actually occurring right now, and how it will affect the Earth in the not too distant future!   

However, first things first,  and I believe that there is no better place to start in this speculative article than by introducing the reader to some famous astronomical “Speculators” from the historic past, who have each added something to our present-day fund of knowledge about the Solar System and its possible origins.  

It's entirely likely that the reader may already be well aware of these famous people and their ideas and thories.    If so, I ask their forebearance, and hope that they will not object to being reminded of the parts that these early scientists - albeit often fumbling amateurs compared with their modern counterparts - actually played in bringing cosmogony and astronomy to their present status as the most exciting of all the areas of scientific research.    I don't mean to denigrate any of the other sciences, of course, but it is a fact that astronomy and space science seem to be the foremost in capturing the public interest!     Now let us meet some of those famous “speculators”!

Speculative Forerunners of Modern Astronomy
     It's interesting to note that some of the greatest speculative precursors of modern science lived far back in the times of the ancient Egyptians and the Persians, but it was principally the Greeks who first began to really envisage the “big picture”. Sages such as Pythagoras and Plato began to seriously ponder about the celestial wonders that their forerunners had taken so much for granted.  They had no telescopes or technological aids to support or affirm their ideas and convictions about the stars being great suns much like our own, nor had they any means to prove that the planets were actually other worlds and not just fixed stars.   Their ideas were pure conjecture.

It was Aristotle, Plato's star-pupil, who first suggested the Earth was actually a globe, but he also claimed it was the center of a spherical universe around which all the stars and constellations revolved.  Aristarchus was the first to propose that the Earth was just one of a family of  “planaomai” (Gk.`wanderers') that orbited around the Sun.  He claimed that the Sun was the real center of the Universe!   Unfortunately, since his theory wasn't testable, his far-sighted proposal was rejected, and Ptolemy, a Greek-born scholar of the famous Alexandrian School now stepped into the limelight.

Ptolemy, alas. although originally a staunch supporter of Aristotle's argument regarding the movement of the Earth, was far more preoccuppied with drawing up a catalogue of the visible stars, than with the Earth's movement through space.  Thus, most of his life's work was spent on improving upon an earlier star-catalogue by Hipparchus, and he managed to catalogue over 1000 stars, purely with the aid of an astrolabe and his naked eye.   At least, let it be said of Ptolemy that he was the first to explain the orbiting of the planets, even if around the Earth instead of the Sun. However, he had established the notion of a solar-like system, in which subsidiary bodies orbited around a central one!   This was a great leap forward for astronomy.

The Dark Ages of Astronomy
     Thus matters stood for the next 1500 years. By the 16th century, Aristotle's old concept had fallen into the hands of the Roman Church, who promptly shaped it into a suitable form that enhanced their Biblical creationist teachings.  To them, the sun was merely a revolving luminary that lit all sides of the Earth sequentially as it travelled around it, as did the moon.  The Arabian sages, having sifted through the remains of the newly-won but ruined Alexandrian Library, now occupied the astronomical stage, producing calendars based upon the movements of the Sun and the phases of the Moon.  Whilst these were originally put to religious use, they soon reached  the hands of Western scholars, who then used them for valuable scientific purposes.

The Dawning of Enlightenment
     This situation remained virtually unchanged for yet another 1500 years, until the era of the Pole, Nicholas Copernicus, the Italian, Galileo Galilei, the Dane, Tycho Brahe, and his German pupil, Johannes Kepler.  Copernicus fought both Pope and Church, insisting that the sun, not the Earth was the center of the Universe, his only real error being that he though the orbits of the planets to be perfect circles.  Galileo, who invented the first crude telescope, then saw the Moon's mountainous terrain, and, by observing Venus's Moonlike phases, confirmed that the Sun was the center of our planetary system. He thus ended the idea of an Earth-centered system. (Except in the intransigent view of the church, who nearly burned him at the stake, compelled him, via the Inquisition to publicly recant his heretic views.  However, we can be sure that his inner thoughts remained unchanged!)

Tycho Brahe, who had perfect eyesight, relied upon naked eye observations, of which he made many, that fully supported this new central-sun concept. But it was his pupil, Kepler, who, by studying the observational notes and calculations of his tutor, finally solved an irritating mystery that had sorely plagued his predecessors. He discovered that the planets followed elliptical orbits, and not circular ones.

This convincing proof of a working solar system provided an excellent foundation for Sir Isaac Newton to construct an all-embracing theory of celestial astronomy and physical laws.   The enormous intellectual work of this English physicist genius has remained the cornerstone upon which all of our modern space science is based.  Even the reflector telescope was the product of Newton's great intellect, as was the discovery by use of a glass prism, that normal white light comprises all the colors of the spectrum.   I could go on discussing all the eminent post-Newton contributors to modern astrophysical science, but I don't think I really need to pursue it further than this.   The development of Man's knowledge of celestial matters and its modern refinements since Newton's day are already widely-known.

What Does all This Tell Us?
     What is particularly important for us to glean from all the foregoing, is that most of what we know today is all due, in the first instance, to pure and simple speculation on the part of a few mentally adventurous people who were born with that most inestimably valuable of all hereditary gifts; the inquiring mind !   In fact that same sort of speculation still continues among both scientists and lay-researchers alike.  The only qualifying difference between the two groups is that the scientist or astrophysicist is considerably restricted in the exercising of his imagination by his professional commitment to orthox beliefs and practice.  The layman is not bound by such fetters, so it is there that he has the advantage of being free to let his mind roam untramelled into areas where the dedicated professional scientist dare not venture. However, both are free to hypothesize and theorize, but in the case of the qualified scientist, his theories must always be scientifically testable.   It's hard to let one's mind run free within such restraints.    Nevertheless, even the layman must face that same hurdle, if he wishes his views to be seriously considered by the scientific community.    Thus, in the final analysis, even the lay-theorist must produce some reasonable “backup” for his concepts.   The only thing that he has going for him in this connection, is that Science itself doesn't have an unblemished record as far as indisputable proof goes, so lay-men can take some comfort from that!

Science-Fiction Prophecies and Predictions
     But lay-people should never permit such matters of proof to constrict their imaginations.   Consider how many writers of popular science-fiction have invented entirely imaginative scenarios and technological machinery, weapons, and even cities, which have later turned out to be prophetically true!  One wonders if Man would ever have conquered space by now, had not the likes of Verne and Wells written their fantastic ideas as purely fictitious yarns back at the turn of the 20th century?  Thus I continue to speculate and theorize without worrying overly much about orthodox scientific opinion, and I urge other thinkers and writers of like mind  to do the same.
Some Speculations on Solar System Formation

Speculation #1  

The Accepted Scientific View
The currently accepted view of the origin of the Solar System is that it originated in a thick cloud of mutually-attracted particles of cosmic dust.  After the Sun coalesced and condensed out of this cloud of dust and gas, it slowly began to revolve about its axis, trailing a swirling disc of left-over cosmic matter round its equator.  Over aeons of time, this great disc of dust and gas gradually formed itself into clumps which then began to form into solid spheres of varying sizes.  These, in obedience to the Universal Imperative, also began to revolve about their axes, settling down into steady, fixed orbits at differing distances from their parent star.  These almost circular orbits were determined according to their mass, size, and various other complex factors which we need not discuss here.   (True, this is perhaps an oversimplification, but to explain it all in detail would require me to write a book!)

For all intents and purposes, what is generally taught about the Solar System is as follows:  The central Sun, because of its size and the atomic reaction of its primary constituent elements began to rapidly heat up and swell into a giant ball of incandescent radiant heat and light.   In short, it became a star.  A yellow dwarf, to be precise.  As its blazing heat radiated forth upon its brood of planetary offspring, they, too, began to undergo several changes.   They began to rotate around upright axes, and in doing so, adopted regular spherical shapes.  As the Sun itself rotated so it pulled its brood around with it, along their orbits.

Those closest to their parent; the barren and cratered little Mercury, with virtually no atmosphere, and the earth-sized Venus (which has a near-molten surface, a very dense, poisonous atmosphere and a massiveGreenhouse-Effect”); became extremely hot, and were thus incapable of sustaining life.  The Earth (and probably Mars) fell within reasonably safe temperature extremes and produced biological lifeforms.   The next (fifth) planet either failed to form into a sphere, or it exploded - either through some inner pressure-stress or from a meteor impact.   

The four great gas-giants; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; might possess small central rocky cores, but these are heavily surrounded by multi-layered, deep and dense atmospheres made up mainly of hydrogen, helium, and noxious refrigerant gases such as methane, ammonia and ethane.  The final tiny rocky planet, Pluto, may possibly be a captured spacefaring planet or moon.   None of the gas-giants could sustain any known form of terrestrial life - not only because of their distances from the Sun, but because of their huge gravitation fields and lack of breathable air.
Most of these planets possess satellites in the form of moons of varying sizes, (some of which, it is thought, could possibly sustain primitive life-forms), and there are also the asteroid-belts (concentrated largely in the region of the missing fifth planet, but other groups are also present in other areas).  Also there are thousands of assorted comets which shoot across the skies and swing around the Sun at various regular intervals; some following enormously long elliptical orbits, others following much shorter ones.   
However, the principal point I want the reader to observe is that, in the view of orthodox science and astrophysics, to all intents and purposes, the orbits of all these planets and moons - and even many of the comets - are permanently fixed.   The only way in which any of them can be altered in any way is by the intrusion of some other celestial body, such as a large meteorite or a rogue asteroid.  

Otherwise, barring such external intrusions or accidents, as far as most astroscientists are concerned, all of the orbital paths of the planets and moons in the Solar system are absolutely set for all time and locked in permanently!    And when one thinks hard about it, considering the enormous mass of even a small planet or moon, it would require an incredibly vast amount of effort to dislodge any of the planets from their seemingly eternal and predestined orbital courses as they all whirl around their parent, the huge, incalculably massive Sun.

I think that, in the brief compass of these few paragraphs, I've basically described the generally-accepted Solar System model with which most people are familiar, having been taught to believe this since childhood.   And I suppose that, for those people who are not especially interested in astronomy, this view of the Sun and its family is more than adequate for their everyday referential needs.   So, since most readers will be hopefully already be au fait, to some reasonable degree or other, with this general description of the Solar System, I shall avoid going into all the finer details of it here. (Again, I've oversimplified the foregoing for the sake of brevity).

After all, this article was not really written with the intention of trying to teach my readers the fundamentals of astronomy.  There are already plenty of websites and books written by people far better qualified and wiser on the subject than I am!  My primary intention here is to bring out a few new points and issues that many of them might not have particularly noticed or remarked upon before!   I have only reiterated the above current description of the orthodox view of our solar system in order to remind the reader of how established Science sees it.  So let's move on and consider some alternative scenarios, then I will be able to get to those particular points.  

However, before doing so, I must stress that all the above, of course, is the accepted orthodox scientific view of our Solar System.   But there are a number of other views, and mine are probably different to most!   The ideas, thoughts and concepts that  follow are basically my own alternative views and concepts.   In some areas, my own speculations may coincide with views once held in the distant past by pioneers of Solar system cosmogony.   The reader may scoff, but I subscribe to the old and now sadly-discarded concept of the planets originating directly from the molten sun, but have included much of my own original input toward this concept.

I sincerely acknowledge and admire the amazingly intelligent efforts of the early astronomers to explain the origin of our solar system, especially without having access to any of the modern technological aids that scientists take for granted today, and I feel sure that some of them were well and truly upon the right track, regardless of their lack of modern telescopes and computers.  In my own humble view as a simple layman, it still comes down to having the right intuition and powers of logical deduction, which it seems are being left up to the artificial intelligence of computers in this modern age.  And more's the pity!   
Now let's  move on to the second of these speculative propositions.
Speculation #2

Note:  Please note that I have abstracted parts of the following Speculation #1 from an earlier article of mine: “Is Our Earth Really Hollow?”.  However, I will be expanding upon it considerably  further here.

First Premise
Just think of the Earth as once being a sort of balloon of electrical energy, which gradually, due to natural electromagnetism, or static electricity, became coated with fine particles of cosmic dust or matter, to such an extent that eventually it became formed into a solid thick spherical shell of either solid or gaseous matter. You can then see that there is a far simpler way in which the solar system, or even the entire universe, became formed!    

As far as the solar system is concerned.  I once thought the sun was originally a spinning ball of conglomerated cosmic matter, or space-dust, that trailed a wide disc of left-over dust and gas around its equator like a spinning ice-skater's swirling skirt, and that the planets were formed out of eddying clumps of clotting material within this rotating “skirt”.   But now I'm rather inclined to believe in the possibility that they might once have all been free-ranging spheres of energy that  were “captured” by the sun's rotating gravitational field.  And that they're now held at their orbital distances simply by the conflict of opposing electromagnetic fields between them and the Sun, depending on how strong their individual EMF fields happen to be.   

But if it were simply a combination of gravity and centrifugal force alone that held them in orbit around the Sun, one or the other would surely have won out eventually, since our Sun is far from being gravitationally (or electromagnetically) stable. Its power-output waxes and wanes quite fitfully, according to the varying phenomena of “sunspot” EMF activity (vast magnetic storms and vortices) that flare up at spasmodic intervals.   Ergo, the paths of the planets could be extremely erratic and our orbital distance from the Sun could vary well beyond highly lethal parameters for all life upon them, particularly Earth, where a matter of 20-30°C variation could either freeze or scorch all life from the surface almost instantaneously.    

A Matter of Considerable Gravity
Thus, I believe that electromagnetic force must, somehow, be inextricably interrelated with what we commonly refer to as “gravitation”.  So any such violent fluctuations of the Sun's EMF should have long since either drawn our planet into itself during an upsurgence of its EMF power, or, alternatively, during a waning of such solar EMF power, the Earth's orbital centrifugal force could equally well have carried it free upon a straight tangent, beyond the Sun's range of influence!  I don't say that gravity and EMF are the same, but I believe they're related in some way.   
Because of this, I can only conclude that my earlier premise of opposing EMF fields must be a correct one, and that Einstein's Theory of General Relativity operates exactly as he  predicted it would.   (You can check out his theory in depth for yourself  if think you're up to it!  Since it is only a theory, I will simply accept it as read!)   

Incidentally, before I leave the subject of “Gravity”, I ought to point out here that, if the Earth is a huge hollow “rock bubble,” with a carapace or shell of around 600-800 miles thick, its centre of gravity would not be a focal point located at the centre of the globe.  It would much more likely prove to be a completely spherical field, located around midway through the crustal coating, since that is where the hollow Earth's mass - and therefore its sphere of gravitational attraction - would be at its strongest.  From there, if we continued onward inside the Earth's hollow sphere, the gravity would grow steadily weaker again until we reached the central locus of the globe, at which point it would be effectively cancelled out by opposing pulls of weak gravity from all directions.  I'd expect this to be a gravity-free zone.    

I don't subscribe to any of the complicated alternatives to mass-based gravity - such as Euler's Impulsation Theory of invisible etheric particle-pressure exerting an unseen force which more or less pins us, and all other massy objects, to the Earth.  And whilst I'm quite happy to accept the concept of a universal ether which acts as a non-intervening medium that is a carrier for all forms of radiative energy, I can't contemplate such an unseen and forceless substance as any alternative to straightforward plain and honest Newtonian gravitation.   It has served us well enough in our space-endeavours!
The Laws of nature and physics tend to support the “Occam's Razor” view  that The Simplest Solution is usually the Right One!” So why do we need to complicate it further?

Putting a New Spin on Things
As to the rotation of stars or planetary bodies.  This appears to be a universal law that comes into play as a celestial body accretes matter to a certain critical mass,   and reaches a corresponding compressive heat from the increasing friction between and within the accreted particles of its shell.    You'll never get a really adequate explanation from any orthodox scientist for the causes of rotation, spin or revolution in celestial objects, simply because they don't have any to offer!    Nebulae, galaxies and solar systems all rotate about central hubs, and all stars and planets revolve about their individual axial centres. And so also, it seems, do electrons around atomic nuclei.   It appears to be an immutable Law of the universe, which begins with humble atoms and ends with the vast galaxies, that all such bodies must rotate.

I myself can only describe this phenomenon as a natural consequence of the acquisition of mass and heat to a certain critical degree.  I believe it all comes down to simple kinetic energy, which is produced by chemical reactions releasing infinitisimal electrical charges (photons) from atoms.  

Although orthodox physicists might well dispute this, I believe that all atomic nuclei carry minute electrical charges within electrostatic dipoles, and thus possess their own tiny magnetic fields, no matter how miniscule these may be.  Their accompanying electrons are similarly energized with elecrostatic charges in dipoles, both negative and positive.  Therefore, the repulsion and attraction between adjacent atoms (including their orbiting “satellite” electrons), must cause some form of general electromagnetic agitation. This then produces a basic EMF tumbling or spinning motion via their dipoles; a fundamental rotation, if you like!   

If one considers the cumulative effect of trillions upon trillions of such magnetically-charged atoms in motion, the prime cause of such a generalised overall motion in large masses of matter becomes obvious.   It is most probably initiated by the generation of a collective electromagnectic field after a certain large amount of kinetic energy has been attained through the combination of mass and heat.   
Let`s bear it firmly in mind that, even the tiniest molecule, particle, atom, or even electron, already inherently possesses such a potential for agitation or motion. And so it logically follows that a large aggregation of such self-motivated, negatively and positively-charged particles will further combine their effects into an infinitely greater rotary motion of the whole body or mass of aggregated particles.  I can't be entirely certain about this, but I suspect that an atomic reaction is produced in a somewhat similar manner after a certain critical mass of radioactive matter has been brought together.  A good analogy is a demonstrating mob of angry people!  They are all gesticulating individuals, but their general movement is omnidirectional!   

But, again, no atomic scientist seems to be able to clearly explain just why a critical mass should combust, explode, or otherwise react with such instantaneous  spontaneity. They only discovered that there was such a thing as a “critical mass” by simple trial and error - more often the latter, alas!  It's called  “Experimentation”!  

I guess this is just another of those uncanny things which makes us poor fumbling mortals look marvellingly towards that Higher Inventive Intellect who laid down so many other similarly astonishingly simple Universal Operating Rules when He designed this whole original grand construct that we call the Comos!  (His Rules, as I may have mentioned elsewhere, are the same ones that Science so learnedly calls the “Laws of Nature and Physics”!)

Thus, it logically follows that, if the Earth is actually a hollow spheroid, then so also must other planets be - or most of them, at least!    In fact, if you think about this a little more carefully, the hollow sphere is extremely common in nature and in physics, right across the universe.   Consider simple bubbles, then think about ball lightning and simple geodes.  Even electrons are tiny “energy spheres” !

Is it really so difficult to envisage that photons and electrons, and even atoms themselves, which Science regards as electrically-charged solid particles, are really miniature bubbles of energy?   If you can get your head around that concept, then  from there it's an easy mental step to scale the whole thing up to something of star proportions - and further onward still, to galactic and even universal dimensions!

I have indicated how the planets could have originally been invisible spheres of electrical energy, probably in some sort of a great hollow geodetic electronic shell-like “grid” or lattice configuration.  Now we are ready to clothe them with carapaces of rock.  How?   Well, let's remember that the universe is full of dust and gas debris.  This is from stars and other celestial bodies that have been exploding or “going nova” since the Universe began, as their allotted lifespans ran out and their energies were finally exhausted.   Every star, planet or other free body in the universe has a limited existence - a “Use-By Date”, if you like.  And they are all heading toward their unavoidable doom via a process called “Entropy”.  This is formulated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics”.   Perhaps it might help if I state both the principal Laws of Thermodynamics - in as simple a way as possible.       

Two Laws Of Thermodynamics
     The First Law, simply stated, says this: “All existing processes of nature merely change energy from one form to another.  In nature, energy is neither created or destroyed.  Matter itself (which is potential atomic energy) is maintained at a constant level.  Processes change matter and energy from one form to others, but the total quantity of energy in the universe always remains the same.”  In other words, Energy is conserved.  

The Second Law, however, then goes on to tell us that: “As processes in nature occur, the total energy reservoir is reduced to simpler forms, with a consequent increase in what is termed “entropy”.   As energy is used, it becomes less available for further use.   Part of the energy spent in producing something is always lost via radiation, friction, or other effects.   It becomes non-recoverable heat, that is dissipated into space.   Ultimately, as things are going, the entire universe will end up being filled with nothing but a stagnant mass of low-level heat energy.”  In other words, although Energy remains conserved, it is dissipated or dispersed in its simplest form as Heat, evenly throughout the universe.    

An even simpler example of this is the way in which a computer processes electrical energy to do its work, say, of word-processing.   All the time the machine is  operating you'll notice that it is also giving off heat.  And whenever you delete a paragraph, or a batch of unwanted email or other files from your computer, the deleted bytes are also emitted as heat.   This is also true of a computer or video disk or even an audio or video tape.   Every time you play it in the machine, some of its content is lost in the form of heat.  Eventually, the disk will gradually lose its formatting entirely and thus become useless.  This is Entropy in action!   The original energy is not lost, but it has been converted into its lowest form - Heat - and, as such, it cannot be recovered for any further useful, constructive purpose.  

The End of The Universe
From this one can safely deduce that no new matter - regardless of anything the astrophysicists may attempt to tell us - is now being produced in the entire universe!  All of the matter that exists today, has been here since the very Beginning, whether it was produced by the scientist'sBig Bang or a Heavenly Creative Decree!   Because of Entropy and this natural Second Law of Thermodynamics, those readers who believe that, in the end, the universe will be full of drifting burnt-out dead stars and planets, if they could only live long enough, would probably be disappointed.   Instead, one should try to envisage a black emptiness of space, entirely unrelieved by drifting cindery star-corpses or the faintest twinkle of starlight!     
Whilst the universe may very well be expanding - as the so-called DopplerRed Shift in nebular spectra appears to indicate - it is also decaying.  Every time a great star goes nova and lights up the heavens with its final burst of blinding glory, all of the particles of that blaze of light will rapidly turn into simple, invisible, latent heat-energy.   This entropy will lead eventually and inevitably to the Heat Death of the Universe.  Sic Transit Gloria Mundi”!

However, we were addressing the formation of the Solar System, not its dissolution!   So let us now consider how these electromagnetic bubbles could ever have possibly formed rocky or gaseous carapaces.

Crustal Formation of Hollow Planets
     As I have mentioned before, the universe, shortly after its original formation, would have been quite densely clouded with cosmic dust, gases and other matter left over from the birth of the galaxies of myriads of stars, and this material would have drifted around on the invisible “ether”, awaiting the approach of a field of gravitational attraction produced by a developing body such as the Sun, to which it could be drawn.

Or alternatively, the cosmic dust itself may have been flying across space at warp-speed after being flung off a rotating cloud of loose matter, as it spun centrifugally to form a nebula.  Or, again, it might very possibly have been a combination of all these factors.   However, it's not all that important, as our Earth is still collecting such cosmic dust and gas even now, as it is being pulled, orbiting the Sun, around the Milky Way galaxy to which our solar star belongs, and passing through many vast dust clouds as it does so..      

As I mentioned earlier in this article, if we imagine our planet (and all other planets) as an electromagnetic “balloon” with the gravitational field actually being its “skin”, it isn't too difficult to see how all this constant inflow of particles of cosmic matter is being attracted to, and held tightly to it by electromagnetic force. (EMF).

Now if we imagine the passage of many millennia, during which time the incremental dust and gas build-up upon and around the gravitational field would grow to a considerable depth or thickness.  The heavier elements would remain immediately close to the gravitational “skin” whilst the less heavy ones would build up on top of these.   This deposition would continue, and we would see that the very lightest elements, such as the gases, would lie above the newly-forming tangible crustal surface. Thus a thin atmosphere would begin to form on top of the actual material crust.   The heavier gases would be at the bottom of the atmosphere and the lighter  hydrogen and helium gas particles at the top.  

And so the process would continue on and on, down thousands of centuries with the deposit of matter packing itself down ever more compactly, forming a dense  carapace or shell of matter.   But it wouldn't yet be rock as such.  Another process is required for this transformation to occur.   Heat.   This would slowly come into play as the growing planet began to rotate, because of its own mass of rapidly-moving electrons, its orbital movement around the sun, and the interaction of its growing EMF with that from the Sun, which itself is rotating at a fairly rapid speed.    

As the new planet begins to rotate, it creates heat in several ways. One could be similar to that of an electrical generator, caused by a rotating electromagnetic field. Another could be produced by the decay of radioactive matter, and a third way could be by friction between the surface of the rotating body and the particle-laden “ether”. There are probably others too, but these will suffice here.   This “ether” is an invisible and neutral medium that is thought to pervade all of space, and through which all forms of radiant energy, such as light, heat, X-rays, Infra-Red and UV-rays, even radio-waves and TV signals, as well as assorted cosmic particles - are “conducted” or “conveyed” all across the universe.  

(The actual force which impels these rays and particles is either gravitational force - such as attracts a lesser celestial body toward a larger celestial one; or some form of previously-imparted angular momentum.   The latter force could typically be imparted by an event such as a celestial explosion or a tangential escape from orbit around a weakening gravity field, such as that of a dying star).    
Nevertheless, whichever way the planet's new surface is heated, the crustal deposits will begin to glow and eventually melt together into a cohesive carapace of rock.   This phenomenon will not affect the EMF-gravitational sphere, but will tend to rearrange and recombine the materials in the molten shell, causing chemical reactions between its various substances and elements.   Slowly, this carapace will begin to cool as the planet whirls through the absolute zero cold of space, until it forms solid rock.   

Meanwhile the gases will have been augmented somewhat, both inside and outside, by the combination of chemical elements during the molten stage.  Water vapor will now be present due to the combination of hydrogen with oxygen, and various other molecular combinations will have been produced.  Their atmospheres will eventually contain, in addition to pure gaseous elements; many new gaseous by-products of some of these, and later, chemical reactions - oxygen compounds, such as hydrogen oxide (water), carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide and ozone.  As well as alkenes like ethane, and hydrocarbon compounds such as methane, propane, acetylene, hydrogen sulfide, plus ammonia, etcetera and so forth.   

In our present solar System, these constituents differ a little from planet to planet, but in each of the gas giants the principal components are hydrogen and helium. The atmospheres of the terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth and Mars, are principally composed of nitrogen and oxygen, plus argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water vapor, in differing concentrations.   The tiny planet Mercury, however, has only the faintest trace of an atmosphere.  Its main constuent is helium (98%), the remainder being hydrogen with only the tiniest traces of argon and neon.   This is most likely due to its proximity to the Sun, as we shall later see.  

However, I don't think I need to carry the “electrical-spheres” concept much further than that at this point, as I feel sure that the reader will grasp the general idea from the foregoing as to the general principles of this, my first speculation regarding the possible formation of a planetary system.

This, then is my own “pet” theory regarding the formation of the planets and how they came to become the sun's “adopted” (or even “abducted”) family of planets.

In the view of astrophysicists, the planets are held in their orbits by the Sun's gravitational field - tempered to varing extents by the counter-gravitational forces of the planets themselves - which I believe to be simply another EMF phenomenon.  Everyone who paid attention to their science or physics teacher when they were in school, knows that Like Poles attract and Unlike Poles repel one another” - (this is not intended as an ethnic comment, incidentally!)  and I believe that it was the outcome of this “battle” of gravitational (or EMF) forces between each planet and the Sun (and also between planets, too) that originally dictated the positions and order of the planets in the solar system, relative to the central Sun.  So, if we can accept that the “force of gravity” is really a magnified or modified form of electromagnetic force, then regardless of the original method by which the planets were formed, the same basic orbital rules apply in either case.  

However, I believe that I've spent long enough on this particular hypothesis for the reader to get the general idea of the concept    So let's now move on, and look at my second speculation as to how the solar system might have come to be.   
This next one is a theory I share with the French scholar, Pierre de Laplace.  An old idea certainly, however, one has to admit that most seemingly brand-new ideas have already been thought of before by the great scholars and philosophers of old!    Let me add this. The fact that one arrives at the same basic conclusions independently, doesn't automatically imply that one must obviously have “read it before and it has lingered in the back of one's subconscious.”  Quite the contrary!  It shows that one has unwittingly followed the same mental path, and that one can now back up one's own individual conclusions by pointing to theirs!   Let's now consider the third of my hypotheses on the possible genesis of the Solar system.  

Speculation #3

First Premise
     This time, instead of either the sun's spinning “disk” of surplus matter clotting into lumps, or “bubbles”of elecrical energy being captured by the Sun, let us consider the  possibility that the planets were spawned directly from the young Sun's own material, being flung off its equator by centrifugal force.  This is basically the same concept as that proposed by Pierre Laplace, but with a few important differences.    

In Laplace's theory, the planets were born one at a time, as excess molten matter that had built up around the Sun's equatorial belt was thrown out periodically in blobs.   At first glance, this explains the orbital spacing of the planets very well. But what it fails to explain to me, at any rate, is why the Sun bore the four great gas-giants first.   Or why these were rather curiously followed by four or five rocky terrestrial planets (taking into account the largish planet that I believe once occupied the orbit of the asteroids, between Mars and Jupiter).    Here I should also add that I totally discount Pluto as being a member of the Sun's original family of offspring.  I believe that planetoid, and its so-called “moonlet”, Charon, to be captured space-wanderers, or perhaps moons of one of the gas-giants, that somehow got knocked out of their satellite orbits and teamed up together as a tiny planet-moon system in a new but remote orbit.      

All of this presupposes that the Sun, in its infancy, coalesced and condensed by a series of collapses, out of a cloud of mutually-attracted cosmic dust and gaseous material into a growing solid sphere of heated matter. And that further gravitational compaction caused it to to rapidily heat up and spin at an ever-increasing rate.   This would have soon caused it to form an oblate, squashed-down shape.  In turn, this, would have led to the rapidly-forming star casting off any loose surplus molten material from its bulging equator.   Eventually, as the sun's rotary spin increased, it would have steadily become hotter, especially as it would now be attracting a rapidly growing influx of more and more cosmic dust from all directions.  This would increase friction upon its outer surface, and would have added enormously to its heat.    

I believe that in this way, the Sun could very likely have begun as a molten mass of very dense matter, and that, as further inner collapses occurred, and its kinetic heat-energy increased beyond a certain point, a chain nuclear reaction was started deep within the Sun's heart.  Thus it began converting its own hydrogen, by thermonuclear fusion, into helium.  Thermonuclear fusion liberates energy in the form of photons, gamma rays and neutrinos.  After a great deal of internal struggle and turmoil, these eventually reach the sun's surface (or photosphere), from which they are then free to escape in all directions as radiant light and heat.   

By the time it had reached such a stage, the Sun would have long ceased casting off blobs of molten matter, and instead would have begun to shoot forth great bursts of incandescent helium gas out of its atomic interior, via those deep vortices which we today know as “sunspots”.   

Formation of the Proto-Planets
However, it is the cast-off blobs of solar matter (or “plasma”) that concern us here. If the present planetary arrangement of the solar system is any guide, this excess plasma must have built up repeatedly.  It would then have been flung by centrifugal force from the Sun's wide equatorial belt at fairly regular intervals of many millennia between releases.  At least to begin with.  Obviously, this must have begun with what are now the gas-giants.  Then, as the Sun became even more densely-packed, its rotary speed increased, the plasma-blobs became smaller but heavier, until the plasma finally ceased to be released.  Now the highly-compacted and overheated Sun began to undergo the deep nuclear changes which started up its inner atomic furnace and turned it rapidly into a vastly-swollen, blazing star of enormous mass.

The plasma-blobs, still following the rotation imparted by their their parent, now took up orbital paths of their own around the Sun's equator.   The first to be thrown into orbit was Neptune, and he was eventually followed by Uranus.  The next to be released was Saturn, followed eventually by Jupiter.  We have no way of knowing just how much time passed between these releases of blobs of plasma, but the intervals would have been  vast in our human concept of time!   However, when considered on a celestial time-scale, they probably occurred quite frequently.  

(Of course, I don't believe that these blobs of matter were “shot” directly out of the Sun.  If they had, they would just simply have kept right on going, since anything leaving the sun's surface in such a manner, would have already surpassed the Sun's “Velocity of Escape”, and therefore must be traveling at something close to light-speed!   Also, there is no conceivable way that such a rapidly-escaping object or mass could slow down to a virtual halt and then go into an orbit around the sun.   

 No.  It's my belief that each of the blobs of surplus matter must have gradually stretched out from the molten Sun's rotating equatorial region like a lump of chewing-gum pulled-out on the end of a stretchy filament.  And then, eventually, the filament parted, freeing the proto-planetary blob, to continue whirling around the Sun in a steadily-widening outward orbit until it reached a distance where its own mass exactly counterbalanced the gravitational effect of the Sun.)

The Birth of The Planets
Then, following the births of what were to become the gas-giants, (and here I must enter deeper realms of speculation) the first of the “terrestrial”(or Earthlike) planets was spawned.  I have some good reason to believe that this particular planet - which I have elsewhere christened “Astrida” - might possibly have been some sort of intermediary form of planet.  One that was partly gaseous and partly terrestrial, and perhaps of a size in between that of Jupiter and the Earth.   

This is the missing Fifth Planet or Planet V, that some astronomers believe exploded, or met with some appalling catastrophe - the remnant fragments of which gave rise to the asteroids.   The primary Asteroid Belt now occupies exactly the position which a large planet (perhaps two or three times Earth's size) was predicted to occupy according to Bode's Law.  (For which, see “Appendix A”).

In the total absence of any concrete data whatsoever regarding this missing planet, it would be folly to attempt to scientifically describe its hybrid condition, beyond what I have suggested above.   At best, I could only make an imaginary science-fictional guess.   So I will leave this to the reader's imagination.   However, whatever form it did take, it was at least the apparently-missing transitional interstage between the gas-giants and the terrestrial rocky planets.

The Birth of Mars
Now we come to the planet Mars.  Mars is so much smaller than the Earth, being between half to two-thirds the size of our planet, that I often find myself pondering if it was actually a large moon of Astrida, and that perhaps another, rather  larger-than-Earth sized planet might (if only to fulfil Bode's Law) conceivably have occupied the current orbit of Mars, but met with a similar fate to my suggested planet, Astrida, thus producing a second asteroidal belt.     

If this were to someday prove to be the real truth, it then becomes a realistic proposition that our own Moon, which is generally thought to be far too large to be a natural satellite of  the Earth, might well have been a satellite of that larger planet instead.   It could easily have been sent careering out of its former orbit and been captured by the Earth's gravitational field.    However, this is all pure speculation, so perhaps it might be easier to assume, for the moment, that Mars is in its correct and rightful place, and that there must be some odd, physical reason why it has remained so small, whilst the Earth (and Venus) have both undergone global tectonic expansion (as proposed by Carey and Maxlow).  So let us, at least for the presentation of this hypothesis, leave the arrangement of the planets as we now find them.

The Births of Earth, Venus and Mercury
In due course the blob of matter that was to become Earth was flung into a close orbit by the rapidly-swirling still-molten Sun, followed in the fullness of time by the planet Venus, which was so similar in size and mass that it and the Earth could almost have been regarded as twin-sister planets.   Then finally, after a slightly longer pause, tiny Mercury was cast off into space.  To all intents and purposes, Mercury was essentially “the runt of the litter”!   Each time a new proto-planet was loosed from the Sun's equator, its predecessors moved out a little further from their parent  and their orbits widened accordingly.  At first these orbits were close together, a mere few tens of thousand of miles separating them.  But as they were pushed farther out by the advent of their younger siblings, their orbits began to spread further apart.  Each newborn protoplanet seeming to assert a physical demand for its own space.

This was due no doubt to the fact that each body, being of the same polarity, was gravitationally repelled by the next.  Even though these rotating blobs had not yet formed into discrete spheres, various strange physical laws had already come into play, laws which would not be discovered or defined for perhaps another three or four billion years, until Man finally came upon the scene.  Although, even today, with all his seemingly vast technical knowledge of science and cosmology,  I doubt that Man has yet discovered even  a tenth of the wonderful rules which govern the universe.   

In our boundless conceit and arrogance, we make a great pretence of knowing the answers to so many of the mysteries of the cosmos, but largely these are merely theoretical.  What few cosmic laws we do understand are only the most rudimentary. Thus we try to “back-engineer” the cosmos, using what simple tools we can grasp, in order to discover the Designer's original plan.  True, we have successfully applied what little we've discovered to wonderful effect, such as overcoming our earthly restrictions and launching spacecraft  to other worlds. But none can yet claim to even begin to fathom the Mind of that great Intellect who designed and created this universe we live in.  The same Intellect who set it all in motion, complete with a set of unbreakable automatic commands which control its entire operation.   

The Fate of The Sun
I believe that, soon after the birth of Mercury, the Sun began to undergo its great metamorphosis, as it changed from a great ball of thickening molten matter into a thermonuclear fusion-furnace, fuelled by its own superabundant supply of hydrogen.  There are probably a dozen ways in which  this might have come to get started - but start it did.   And so it continues reacting and blazing to this day, and will continue to do so into the distant future, till its store of hydrogen finally peters out.   

Then, like a nearly-consumed bonfire, it will collapse in upon itself and burst forth ferociously again as a huge red giant in one final, almighty spherical explosion of blazing solar plasma hundreds of times its former diameter.   But the Sun's last blaze of glory, in which its planets - if they're still there - will be totally consumed, will last for only a brief period before its last outer layers are burned away. Then its shrunken core will shrivel into a white dwarf, and, as it finally cools, into a small blackened ball of frozen cinders.  A wandering invisible “has-been” and a dangerous cosmic traffic-hazard in the lonely inky blackness of outer space.  Forgive me if I repeat myself, but I simply can't help thinking again: “SicTransit Gloria Mundi!”   

But I see that we are getting well ahead of ourselves here, so I must return to our fledgling planets - in any of the three speculated scenarios I've depicted - as they begin their enormously long lives.  Lives in which they will be bound, like grist-mill oxen, by leashes of gravitation to plod along in wearying circuitous journeys around the Sun, following their ordained, individual orbits.  

It seems to me that, as each new protoplanetary blob of matter was centrifuged off the sun's equator, the one preceding it had to gradually move further out into an ever-increasingly distant orbit in order to make room for the newcomer.   This action, for which I have yet to find a name, (postcession?), gradually pushed each of the planets in turn into a certain zone of temperature balance.  There the fervent heat of the sun was more or less countered by the zero cold of outer space, to such an extent as to permit the protoplanet to begin cooling down.   This it did, sufficiently for the surface crust to become solid, and some of its ejected atmospheric gases - especially water vapor - to begin condensing into a liquid form. This fell (probably mixed with other more noxious gases like sulfur dioxide) as rain, which at first never reached the still hot surface before being vaporized again.  
However as time wore on and the surface rocks cooled down further, it would eventually have actually fallen upon them, cooling them even further still.  This would allow the “rain” solution to be separated into water and its other component chemical solids.  However, it must be borne in mind that each planet, as its orbit  passed through this region of space, would have produced a thick cloak of cloud-layers which would cause a vast Greenhouse Effect such as we now see on Venus.  Venus will have to travel much further towards this “Critical Region” before its dense mass of cloud-cover begins to dissipate by cooling and allows the Sun's radiation to penetrate and actually begin working upon both atmosphere and surface.     

For example.  Looking inward from the Earth today, we see our immediate inner neighbour, Venus, still deeply covered by just such a mephitic layering of clouds.  This signifies that its surface is still too hot for the falling “rain” to reach it before being re-vaporized.  But at least we know that the planet itself is spinning inside its dense cocoon of clouds.   Beyond Venus, however, and much closer to the sun, we see tiny Mercury.  Here is a planet that, for some reason, has lost its spin. (Perhaps the iron gravitational grip of the sun at so short a range, is preventing it from doing so.)  It does not yet have any real atmosphere either, although a very attenuated and whispy one has recently been detected.

However, it remains to be seen what will happen to Mercury as it spirals steadily further away from the ageing Sun and the sun's radiant heat also begins to wane.   Who knows what results these changes might effect upon Mercury?  Many scientists claim that Mercury is dead, and can never be a home to life.  Others say that life could possibly develop around its “terminator” - that region of its surface which lies between its day and night sides and widens as Mercury oscillates slightly from side to side..  I personally feel that many amazing changes could still occur on Mercury, before it spirals beyond the Critical Region!   
So what is this mysterious “Critical Region”?  What does it signify, and what happens when a planet enters it?  And how can a planet enter it, anyhow?  Surely they are all travelling along predetermined, fixed orbits, at permanently-set distances from the Sun?

The Life Zone
     I believe, as do many other laymen and scientists, that this “critical region”is a very real band of space which begins at approximately .75 AU from the Sun and extends outwards to approximately 1.75 AU.  Orthodox science appears to have recently begun to acknowledge the existence of such a Life Zone, which they call the Habitable Zone” or HZ.    However, before I can discuss that, I must first explain another phenomenon.  This is a fact that you might have already figured out from the heading of this article - namely that the planets are actually not travelling along permanently-fixed orbital “tramlines” in space - but are, in fact, all spiralling outwards away from the Sun!   

The reason for this  - at least in my opinion - is that, since  the Sun is feeding upon its own hydrogen content (which is of course finite in quantity), it must be gradually consuming its own mass.  This is then being radiating away into space as radiant heat energy.   Thus, if the mass of the sun is constantly being depleted, so must its gravitational hold upon the planets that orbit around it.  At the same time, our own Earth, and therefore the other planets are continuing to grow in two ways.  One way is by global tectonic expansion, which is increasing their sizes and therefore their masses.  (Global tectonics is the engine which is driving all the Earth's continentental landmasses apart by spreading the ocean floors, and must apply, in one way or another, to all planets with crustal surfaces that have split up into tectonic plates. Check global expansion websites for more on this subject.)   The other way that all planets grow is by the continuous accretion of cosmic dust particles and the collision of meteorites.  Even those meteorites that burn up in the atmosphere must eventually descend to the surface, even if only as meteoric dust and particles.  This is still “accretion” and will continue unabated throughout the planet's life.   

Current Occupants of the Life Zone     
I believe that it should now be growing clear to my readers that such a region as the “Habitable Zone” must have existed ever since the Sun first became a vast atomic furnace; since the planets assumed their current global shapes and began to solidify.  The Earth is still quite well situated inside this zone, as also, but to a much lesser degree, is Mars.   In my view, the planet Venus has yet to enter this region, as she is currently at only .72 AU from the Sun, which leaves her with still .03 AU to travel outward upon her spiralling orbit, before entering the Life Zone.   

I recently read a Russian scientific paper on the Solar System that said this “outward-spiralling” effect has thus far carried the Earth out to 93 million miles from the Sun over a period of 4.5 billion years, so Earth's mean orbital radius, plus those of the other planets, must be increasing at a tad over 48 miles per year.  (Which also means that the AU is also increasing in length as each year passes!)    

Previous Occupants
     The implication or conclusion which may be drawn from the foregoing is that, not only did all the outer planets also pass through this same “Life Zone” in their turn, but that the Zone itself has not always been as close to the Sun as it is today.   It seems self-evident that the Sun has lost a very considerable amount of its heat and its mass since the birth of the planets.  So, whichever of these scenarios we choose, we must acknowledge that, in its youth, the Sun must have put forth much more heat and gravitation over a vastly greater distance than it does today.

Thus we find the curious situation of the “Life Zone” steadily shifting toward the Sun whilst its planets are moving away from it!  This means that Venus may not take quite as long to reach the Habitable Zone as we might imagine.   The Zone itself may well be approaching Venus faster than she would approach it through orbital-widening!  And the same might be true for barren little Mercury in some tens of thousands of years hence.  It would be interesting indeed if only we were able to return then and see what fantastic changes might have transpired upon both planets!   

However, if we look in the opposite direction, at Mars and the four massive gas-giants, we find other amazing thoughts springing to mind.   As far as Mars is concerned, there remains the viable possibility that it might still be retrievable as a liveable planet, even though it is approaching the outer edge of this Habitable Zone (or HZ).   Even if there is little likelihood of Man recreating an entirely Earth-like environment upon its outer surface, he can still work beneath its harsh outer shell and create a tenable and comfortable underground world within the planet!  
However, as an advocate of the Hollow Planets theory, I still anticipate that our Arenaut explorers might be astounded to find that life is already thriving inside Mars.  (Just as I believe it is within our own Earth!)      I, along with many thousands of other HE and Mars enthusiasts, look forward to 2005 -2010, when scientists from Earth are able to study Mars at its ground-level, in person.   Hopefully they'll soon begin to reveal its deeply-concealed inner secrets!   I trust that I'll still be alive then, and expect to see our long-cherished beliefs about Mars completely vindicated!     

I often wonder, given the widespread belief today that an Inner Earth does exist under our feet, why no major effort has ever been made to seek it?   Whether it be an enormous concavity, thronging with life - familiar and perhaps unfamiliar forms in all their amazing variety.  Or whether it might instead comprise many inter-connected cavernous city-worlds still inhabited by our progenitors, who've kept watch over us, and are helping us rediscover our technological and psychical heritage!

Surely, considering Man's insatiable thirst for adventure and knowledge - as evinced by our space-research programs - some serious consideration should be given to finding out what lies beneath our feet on our own planet?   Why is Science so tunnel-visioned about the interior of the Earth as to accept, without any actual proof,  the old fable that it contains a liquified nickel-iron core surrounded by a mantle of white-hot magma?  It is only a tentative theory, after all!  Who knows what marvellous rewards might await the efforts of that nation or corporation which is bold and enterprising enough to allocate funding for such an inner-space project?  Even the mineral prospects alone should be sufficient justification!

 Costwise, they would certainly have infinitely less to lose than the outrageously enormous funds that America and Russia have already frittered away on many useless space undertakings over the past few decades!   But in such a case as I've suggested above, the financial outlay would be almost negligible compared to what has been expended upon often “blind-alley” outer-space research!    However, we must wait and see who will be the first to wake up to all the great potentialities of such an undertaking.  The minerals, the prestige and acclaim -especially in the event of locating such a hidden civilization - the technology, and, for the very greedy and imperial, perhaps, the chance to claim additional sovereign territory!  
 Somehow, I don't think we might have so terribly long to wait!

The Gas-giants
     Between Mars and the first of the great gas-giant planets, Jupiter, we find the asteroid belt - or one of them, as there are apparently several.   It has long been my own earnest belief, in which I now find myself supported by people like Tom Van Flandern and Don Patten, that these gigantic boulders and planetoids are fragments of a two-or-three-times-Earth-size planet which once rolled around its orbit between Earth and Jupiter.  Note that I didn't say “between Mars and Jupiter”. This is simply because I suspect that Mars, like our own oversized Moon, might once have been satellites of this first and biggest of all the terrestrial planets.  (See also my remarks about this on page 14 of this article.)    
However, this is all purely hypothetical, so I will move on to the gas-giants themselves.   Whilst they are all different in many ways, they all share certain aspects and features in common.   They are all enormous compared to Earth, and Jupiter is the largest of them all.  It is eleven times Earth's diameter and has a mass nearly 318 times greater.  Yet its gravity is only 2.5 times that of Earth!  Jupiter has 16 known   moons, which vary in size from the largest, Ganymede, 3278 miles in diameter (only a thousand miles less than Mars in diameter, but far more massive) down to tiny Leda (7 miles) and these are all divided into four groups of four.  It's believed to have a rocky core, perhaps 2000 miles in diameter, which is surrounded by a layer of water/ammonia ice, a very thick layer of liquid metallic hydrogen, and pure liquid hydrogen.  These, in turn, are surrounded by a deep atmosphere comprised of a band of water-vapor and droplets, another of ice crystals, a band of ammonia-vapor, then one of ammonia droplets and finally an outer one of frozen ammonia crystals.  Since we're all familiar with Jupiter's mysterious “Great Red Spot”, I won't discuss it here!  Jupiter, by the way, also has a very thin ring-system of carbonaceous matter.

(I've taken the trouble to describe Jupiter's composition in some detail, since the other three are basically similar in their general make-up.  I should point out, incidentally, that these layers and their constituents were closely analyzed and identified by spectroscopic instruments aboard the Voyager spacecraft during their famous exploratory voyages outward through the Solar System in 1979 and 1989.)

After Jupiter, comes Saturn, somewhat smaller that Jupiter, but with a magnificent ring-system surrounding its equatorial belt.  This is split into six bands and are composed of silca rock fragments, iron oxide particles, and particles of ice. They are thought to be the remnants of a large moon that approached Saturn too closely.  In accordance with Edward Roche's theory on close-approach limits for moons (or other small bodies) to their parent-planets, was shattered by Saturn's tremendous gravity into billions of tiny fragments.    Saturn is also blessed with a family of no less than twenty moons, of which the largest is Titan, 3200 miles in diameter.   Saturn is over nine times larger than Earth, and its mass is 95 times greater.   As noted previously, it has much the same fundamental constituents as Jupiter, except that it has no water vapor.

From Saturn, we go on to Uranus, which is around four and a half times Earth's diameter but is only 14.6 times its mass.  Uranus also has a ring-system composed of no less than 13 rings, and again appear to be the remains of a moon that approached too closely.  However, it isn't anything like as spectacular as Saturn's.  Uranus also has twenty satellite moons, the largest being Titania, at 1610 miles diameter.  The principal strange feature of Uranus is that its polar axis is horizontal instead of vertical, so the planet appears to be lying on its side, with its North Pole pointing toward the distant Sun!   It looks as if it has somehow been tilted by 98 degrees!  
Also, it rotates in a retrograde direction. This might mean that, instead of simple toppling over on on its side, axially speaking, Uranus may have done a three-quarter topple of 278 degrees!   This would produce the same retrograde spin effect.   In other words, its North Pole is now pointing away from and not toward the Sun! I should mention that Venus and Pluto also rotate in a retrograde direction to that of the the Sun!   this could only mean that they, too, have experienced 180-degree topples at some stage of their careers.    Some scientists seem to see this as being indicative of these retrograde-planets having been “captured” by the Sun, and thus are not real members of its family.   But, it now appears to be generally accepted that our own Earth has probably toppled on its axis several times already in its long history, so I guess we can safely discount this solar Kidnapping theory!
     Neptune is the last of these Jovian gas-giants, and little was really known about it until the Voyager II fly-by in 1989.  But now we can say that it is 3.8 times Earth diameter, has a mass seventeen times that of the Earth, and that, like Saturn and Uranus, it has a mean surface temerature of around -300 to -350 degrees F.  It's worth noting that of all the four Jovian giants, only Jupiter itself shows any kind of real inner heat at 26,637 degrees F!   (Our Sun itself is around 11 million degrees F at its surface!   But Jupiter is in many respects equivalent to a mini-sun when compared to its three giant but frosty companions.  Especially toward its interesting satellites!)   

     Neptune is also marked with a large blemish similar to the “Great Red Spot” of Jupiter, except that Neptune's is a “Great Dark (blue) Spot”!  Since  both of these “Spots” have similar characteristics, they are probably caused by enormous storm centers.   However, Neptune goes one better than Jupiter in this regard, since it also has a “Lesser Dark Spot”, which has a permanent bank of cloud covering its center.
Neptune also possesses eight satellites, the largest being Triton, which is 1680 miles in diameter.    It is still not known whether Neptune has a rocky core of any notable size, although it would be hard to imagine it to be entirely a gaseous orb.  All that can be said is that its mean temperature in general is around -350 degrees F, and that it has a mass just under twice that of the Earth.  

Now we finally come to tiny Pluto, which is in many respects almost the twin of Mercury, except that they are at opposite extremes of the Solar System.  Pluto has a diameter of 1454 miles, and a mass less than one-tenth that of the Earth, and has no detectable atmosphere. (although a very faint hint of one is thought to have been discovered recently.)  Instead it is generally believed to be covered with a coating of solid methane ice.  Pluto, although now itself considered to be an escaped moon of Neptune, has a small satellite, which circles around it at a distance of 12,000 miles   

This is Charon, a tiny moon of only around 750 miles diameter, which rotates both around Pluto and its own axis in 6.3 Earth days. Thus it always presents the same face toward the same region of Pluto's surface.   This is unlike our own Moon, which orbits Earth in the opposite direction to Earth's rotation, so can thus be seen from all parts of the earth.  However, it is doubtful if a viewer on either planet could see the other, since they are both immersed in almost total darkness.   Charon's mean surface temperature is roughly minus 380 degrees F.   It, too, is thought to be an escapee from Neptune, quite probably at the same time as Pluto, and through the same incident.
It's often been mooted that still other planets lie out beyond Pluto's orbit, but if they do, they were not picked up by the detectors on the Voyager spacecraft.  So it's fairly safe to assume that this completes our quick trip across the Solar System!  

A Note to Hollow Earthers!
As far as hollow planets are concerned, I rather tend to believe that if they exist beyond the terrestrial  planets, they would be extremely unlikely to occur beyond the orbit of Jupiter*, otherwise any occupants or inhabitants of their cores, or even the larger moons of the last three gas-giants would long ago have been frozen solid!  That is, if, in fact, their cores are actually hollow!    As a subscriber to the Hollow Earth idea myself, I can't imagine how any lifeform (as we understand life) could survive in such tremendously cold and extremely high-pressured environs as they appear to offer!  Even their satellites (except two of Jupiter's) appear inimical to life.  
(*NB. For an elaboration on this matter of life on Planet V and the gas-giants, see Appendix B).
Stop-Press Extra!

An Alternative Addition to the Three Preceding Concepts!

Speculation #4

An Overlooked Concept
     This additional option to the three I've already offered, is one which occurred to me after I had read and re-read my the draft of this article.  I felt that perhaps there was  still something fairly obvious “staring me right in the face” in all that I had researched and discussed.  It was the idea that it might conceivably be possible that all the planets began as gas-planets, much the same, in most respects, as the four gas-giants which are situated farthest from the Sun.

     At first I wondered if there was something else, apart from them all being satellites of the same star, which they shared in common.   After some rather heavy, lip-tugging cogitation, it occurred to me that there was something more which they all shared, that seemed to incorporate a sense of dimensional progression.  

Starting from the outermost planet, Pluto, and heading sunward to the innermost terrestrial planet, Mercury, an odd fact seemed to emerge.  If we look at the central rocky cores of them all and ignore the thickness or thinness of their atmospheres, they appear to progressively enlarge in size up to Jupiter, which has the largest inner rocky core. Then, (assuming there once was a big terrestrial planet where the asteroids now orbit) after Jupiter, the rocky spheres appear to taper right down again to Mercury, which is about twice the size of Pluto. In general effect, what we would see in this view, is a kind of cigar-shaped formation of planets!

The “Encounter” Theory
This, as I recall from my youth, reminds me of a suggested genesis for the planets proposed by Sir James Jeans and Harold Jeffreys.   It  was one of several Encounter theories which arose early in the 20th century as revisions of the old theories of French physicist, Georges Buffon (1707-1788), and the Americans, Thomas Chamberlin (1843-1928) and Forest Moulton (1872 -1952).    

In it, the infant Sun, then still an incandescent ball of cosmic matter, experienced an extremely close shave when it narrowly missed collision with a rogue star or meteor.   The intruder passed by so closely that it drew out a long curved, cigar-shaped filament of incandescent cosmic matter from the Sun.  

Although it remaining connected to the rotating Sun by gravitation, this vast extrusion of matter then continued to whirl around the rotating Sun like a curiously-shaped, protruding “arm”.  But as it began to lag behind the spinning sun, it rapidly became a curved, trailing “tail”, rather like one limb of a rotating nebula, and as it did so, it gradually condensed into a string of discrete globules of white-hot matter, each more or less of a size relative to its original location in the cigar-like filament.   
Due to the different masses of the various planets, and their correspondingly different orbital speeds, the planets soon became widely separated from their original orderly “In Line Abreast” formation, with result that the solar system became the scattered, “willy-nilly” disposition of planets along their respective orbits that we often see depicted today in illustrated astronomy books.

Atmospheric Development
As the aeons passed, and the planets began to form red-hot but solidifying crusts of rock, those nearest the Sun were inhibited by its fervent heat from cooling quickly and from forming dense atmospheres of the lighter gases, such as hydrogen, helium and methane.  The molecules of these were quickly agitated to escape-velocity and boiled off into space by the intense solar heat.  Venus was one of the few that managed to develop a thick atmosphere, since it was swathed in carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide.  Earth also developed, and managed to retain, a good atmosphere of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Gas-giant Formation
But those further out, which received only a meagre amount of the Sun's radiance, were exposed to the deep cold of outer space.  And whilst they were initially volcanically active, they began to cool down rapidly and developed deep atmospheres of those emitted gases which were best suited to such extreme coldness.  Refrigerant gases such as ammonia and methane, and other hydrocarbon gases were vented in great volume and burgeoned forth to form thick layers, as liquids, crystals and vapors.   Since there was not sufficient internal or solar heat to boil them off into space, they continued to swell the planets' atmospheres into gigantic spheres of water, ammonia and hydrocarbon vapors, acetylene, helium and hydrogen  gas.   Thus the great gas-giants were born.

 The Sun, meanwhile, had by now become a thermonuclear fusion furnace and had begun to emit great bursts of blazing solar wind upon the inner planets, burning off their atmospheric hydrogen and methane.    However, being so far from the Sun, the outer Jovian planets were able to retain their dense atmospheres intact, as we see them to this day!    

I believe that, having now made this particular point concerning the Jovian gas-giant atmospheres, and described this curiously interesting theory of Jeans' and Jeffreys (which was the first one I ever really subscribed to, and which I still find an interesting concept to contemplate, since it helps to explain the gas-giants better than any of the others), I guess that I should now leave this final speculation at this point - at least for the present, anyhow!   (I might just possibly revive it again, later!)     

I also feel that all the necessary data regarding statistical details of the Solar System, and so forth, has already been furnished in the previous speculations, and so I shall show a little mercy and spare the patient reader from any further rambling repetition of them!  

The End
                                                                                                                                                                       © Gerry Forster 2001
Appendix A

Bode's Law of Planetary Spacing

More correctly known in scientific circles as the Titius-Bode Law, this is a fairly approximate rule which was first indicated in1766 by Johann Daniel Titius, and was later elaborated upon as a formal mathematical statement in 1778 by Johann Elert Bode, a German astronomer.  The law expresses the proportionate distances of the various planets of our solar system from the Sun.   It also led to Bode's prediction of the possible existence of a planet between Mars and Jupiter where the Asteroid Belt currently lies.  The actual law itself is basically founded upon a mathematical ordering of  numbers in a progressive series which Bode related to the mean distances of the planets from the sun.

  This progressive series is indicated by the simple sequence of numbers given below:

0  3  6  12  24  48  96  192  384

   (Note that each number's value (except the first two) is twice that of its predecessor)      

   Now we must add 4 to each of the nine numbers. This leaves us with the following:

4  7  10  16  28  52  100  196  388

Next, we have to divide each of the last sequence of numbers by 10, which gives us:

0.7  1.0  1.6  2.8  5.2  10.0  19.6  38.8  

This sequence now very closely equates the mean distances of planets from the sun!

        Solar Planet      Actual Distance A.Us.     Bode's Prediction
               Mercury                         0.39                             0.4          
                Venus                             0.72                             0.7
                    Earth                             1.00                             1.0
                     Mars                              1.52                             1.6
                    Astrida*                          3.00*                            2.8   
                    Jupiter                             5.20                              5.2
                     Saturn                              9.54                            10.0
                      Uranus                            19.19                            19.6

NB. It's interesting to note that, while Bode made such accurate predictions regarding these planetary positions, he doesn't appear to have attempted to predict, or make any speculations concerning their anticipated sizes!

(*Speculative only.  See main text.)

One AU (Astronomical Unit) = 93 million miles .The distance from Earth's center to Sun's center)

Appendix B

Life on Jupiter's Moons and Planet V

(Referred to on page 20 of main text of this article)

     Rather than digress any further from my subject at that particular point in my essay, I thought it might be better to discuss the possibilities of life ever having been present upon the two most likely canditates among Jupiter's satellites - Europa and Ganymede, and upon the vanished “Planet V”, more fully in a separate Appendix, rather than prolong the conclusion of the main text.   

Living On The Moons Of Jupiter
I cannot even begin to conceive what form of life could ever live inside the enormously highly-pressurized core of the parent planet itself!  The core, is believed to be surrounded by a layer of water-ice 4,500 miles thick!   However, that isn't to say some form of life may probably have developed in such an inimical environment. Even on our own planet, there are seemingly impossible creatures living in the deep abyssal ocean trenches, which exist under conditions of utterly crushing pressure, extreme cold, and total darkness!    So we shouldn't be in too great a hurry to discount the possibility of life in almost any sort of alien environment imaginable.  However, for the purposes of this exercise, I feel that if we are looking for lifeforms compatible with most of those found on Earth, we might do better to not to consider Jupiter itself, but rather its moons.  
As we've noted earlier, Jupiter possesses sixteen moons ranging in diameter from 5-10 miles up to 3,278 miles!  The smallest one being tiny Leda, and the largest  mighty Ganymede, which is not only Jupiter's, but the entire Solar System's biggest satellite.   The planet Mars is only 934 miles larger in diameter than Ganymede, whilst the planet Mercury is 246 miles less in diameter!  So Ganymede is really a fully qualified planet in this respect!

Likely Candidates For Life
But out of Jupiter's sixteen moons, it seems that there are only two that can really be considered as possible homes for life as we understand it.   These are Ganymede and Europa.  According to the data derived from the Voyager “fly-by” analysis in 1979, the crust of Ganymede appears to be composed of silica rock overlaid with a 60 miles thick carapace of water-ice.  Visually, however, it s surface is marked by mountainous terrain and darkish grooved and wrinkled plains, not to mention a large number of fairly small impact craters which appear to be now filled with ice.   It is believed that this was formed through the splashing-effect of impacting meteors upon an underlying layer of water, flinging it over into the craters, where it has since become frozen solid.  

The presence of water is always a very promising sign in our search for life, and Ganymede seems to have a superabundance of it, albeit, presently in frozen form at the surface.    Another promising lead is the fact that Ganymede's rock surface exhibits the presence of tectonic plates, much like those of Earth.  This signifies that the planet was once tectonically active, and the water ice is indicative of it having once possessed an atmosphere containing water-vapor and oxygen. The satellite, Callisto, also shows some signs of water ice, but here there is no evidence of tectonic activity, so this implies no ejection of atmospheric gases, without which life is a forlorn hope.  Certainly on the surface, at any rate.  

     However, Europa - which has a diameter of 1942 miles - presents as a smooth ball of water-ice.  It resembles nothing so much as a frozen water-planet, and data so far received indicates that it is a silica-rock planet that is covered by an ocean of water some 60+ miles deep. This “world-ocean” in turn is covered by a crust of surface water-ice that is estimated to be possibly 30 to 40 miles thick.   But Europa's apparently smooth icy surface is virtually cobwebed with many long and intersecting dark lines (or “linea”). They are believed to be deep cracks that have occurred in the past and been frozen over again.  

These, together with the “flexus” - curved and scalloped ice-ridges, which are light-colored and evenly distributed over the surface, appear to be indicative of some form of subsurface periodical defrosting activity - most probably of tectonic origin.   The general indications for Europa, then, from a life-sustaining point of view, are quite promising.   Given a history of tectonic activity, and thus warmth, and a deepish liquid-water ocean beneath the fissure-crazed ice-crust, it is feasible to believe that some forms of aquatic life could very well be extant on the satellite.   

Other unusual features on Europa include the “macula”, or dark spots, that pock the ice here and there, as well as three rather large and distinct impact-craters.  The impact-craters range between 10 to 16 miles diameter.  There is no reason to assume that the macula (which may be small meteorite craters) or the larger, obvious impact-craters are responsible for the cracks as they are often separate from them.

Other Possibilities?
     Saturn also has a large family (20 in all!) of which the largest is Titan, only around 70 - 80 miles less in diameter than Jupiter's Ganymede.  However, despite the fact that it has an atmosphere rich in nitrogen as well as detectable water vapor,, like that of Earth, Titan's other constituents are mainly noxious hydrocarbon gases, of which methane is the most dominant, and the atmospheric temperature is accordingly very cold.  However, some scientists believe that Titan could be a favorable site for the development of life.  But this could only happen if its parent planet, Saturn, were to begin heating up  - as is expected might eventually occur with Jupiter.

There is a new theory gaining some currency that large gas-giant planets - such as Jupiter - can transform themselves into stars, given the right circumstances.  If this is true, then it would mean that Jupiter and its satellites could perhaps eventually form their very own separate solar system!  One that could take the place of the present Sun-centred one!  Possibly with Europa becoming a true water-world - such as the Earth itself might once have been - before the emergence of the rocky crust from beneath its smooth watery surface - and which it still largely is!     

It's well worth reminding ourselves occasionally, especially when considering such things as the foregoing, that four-fifths of the Earth's entire surface is still covered by an enormous world-ocean of water!     However, all this is probably going far into the realms of extreme speculation.    Perhaps it would be best if we  just kept our thoughts focussed upon the Solar System as it presently appears - and let it simply rest at that!

Coming Live from Planet Five!
As for Dr.Tom Van Flandern's popular concept of “Planet V” - the missing fifth planet, which is also identifiable with my own proposed giant planet “Astrida”,  as predicted by the curiously accurate Titius-Bode Law.   I have already made some allusions to this (in my view, at least) very real planet, elsewhere in my articles.  

I am personally quite convinced that there was once a largish planet orbiting either in the orbit now occupied by Mars, or in between it and that of the main Asteroid Belt.   It's my own opinion (as I stated back on page 14 of this essay), that this might have been the “missing-link” between the terrestrial planets and the gas-giants, and that it possessed the basic qualities of both types.  In other words, it was a hybrid between Jupiter and the Earth!    I know that may sound like a pretty daft comparison, but I firmly believe that somewhere in the development of the planetary chain of the Solar System such a “cross-breed” must have occurred.  

This is especially true if one favors the “Close Encounter” theory which I outlined earlier.  I won't get back into making another argument again about its merits or demerits compared with that of the “Nebular” hypothesis at this time.   I think I've already covered that fairly adequately in my Speculation #2.  But it does make a lot more sense to me, both from a formative and an orbital point of view, than the “coalescing clusters of dust in a disc”-idea.  To my mind, it is a far simpler and much more direct method of planetary formation, and I think I could even apply “Occam's Razor” with quite a telling effect in its support!  

However, here I want to consider instead the possibility that “Planet V” - “Astrida” could have been a habitable world.  I fully realize the implications that the extra size - two or three times that of Earth - might infer, insofar as mass and gravity are concerned.  But, as readers of my “Martian Hypothesis” may recall, in the fictional interlude of that essay, I proposed that its lifeforms could have been smaller and  much more squat - certainly on its outer surface, at any rate!  
However, if one subscribes to the possibility of a inhabitable interior world within that same planet, one will realize that, not only would the atmosphere quite likely be much thinner, but that the gravitational pull of its hollow crust would also be considerably less!  The implication of this is that it wouldn't be beyond the bounds of likelihood that creatures of almost, if not the same size and stature as those currently found on Earth could have developed within the gentler gravity and lighter atmospheric environment of its inner shell!   I will not take the time here to weave an imaginary scenario of the world with “Planet V”-“Astrida”, but I do place the concept before you for thoughtful consideration.   

Let us also consider that both Tom Van Flandern* and myself appear to be in agreement that if such a planet did exist, it is feasible that Mars (and our Moon, too) could well have been among its moons!    After the parent planet's explosion (from whatever cause), both would have sustained considerable damage and been blown out of their satellite orbits, along with any other satellites the big planet may have had.   It is my view that any proposed occupants of the planet's interior might have been technologically capable of not only predicting the coming catastrophe but of escaping, via its many portals, in spacecraft of some advanced kind.  
 They might even have already been passing in and out of their inner world on interplanetary missions, for millennia before their world was destroyed.   For all we know, they could have even have already colonized Mars, the Moon, and even the Earth!   As I have mentioned elsewhere on several occasions, it would seem far more likely that they would have opted to colonize the interiors of those planets, than their outer crusts.   Let us not overlook the likelihood that at such a remote point in time, the Sun's heat and emissions of harmful radiations would have been far more powerful and dangerous than they are today.   

Of course, all this is very highly speculative, since we have no real evidence to support such an hypothesis, beyond the curious anomalies of the present physically ruinous conditions of Mars and our Moon. Not to mention the existence of the Asteriod Belt(s) - for which there is no other really tenable explanation of origin than the totally-shattering explosions of once-existent planets!  Whilst I can accept a plurality of such explosions (as Van Flandern proposed by his inclusion of Planet “K”- among others - in his “Exploding Planets Hypothesis”*), I simply cannot buy into the theory that the asteroids are the crudely-stuck-together bits and bobs of a protoplanetary mass (or masses) of cosmic dust, which failed to shape up into a regular discrete rocky sphere (or spheres).   I find that Don Pattern** is also of like mind to myself about this “Asteroids from Left-Over Dust” business.

To me that idea is a nonsense.  Either the cloud of cosmic matter formed correctly into a sphere, or its particles were gravitationally attracted away to others that had done so.    Why would the failed coalescing cloud form into millions of small and wildly-misshapen rocky chunks?   It just doesn't make any logical sense!  Even if the asteroids were created in such a manner, would they not have followed all the physical laws and decrees of nature, physics and the universe, and become spheres of whatever size?  Why! The pebbles in a creek or on the seashore tend follow this general universal decree, with the passage of time, even if only by sheer friction against one another!    However, I think I have made my point sufficiently here, for the purposes of this article, but I would suggest that if the reader hasn't already done so, he or she may find it expounded a little clearer in a couple of my other articles - such as The Martian Hypothesis and Is Our Earth Really Hollow?”.   So I hope that these will lend a little extra support to some of my contentions mentioned here.

* In closing, allow me to recommend that the reader also checks out Tom Van Flandern's excellent Exploding Planets Hypothesis for further explanation of the origin of the asteroids and the past existence of solar system planets which met with untimely ends from whatever caused then to explode!   I must also make it clear that Dr. Van Flandern is not in any way associated with, nor has he been approached to  subscribe to, my other views on such matters as Hollow Planets and my suggested origins for the Solar System!   These are entirely my own specific concepts.

**I also recommend the reader to “The Scars of Mars” by Don W. Patten, for further views on the this asteroidal formation topic, as well as that of the ruination of Mars by an exploding planet.

The End
                                                                                                                                                                      © Gerry Forster, 2001

The Lost Continent Rediscovered

A Speculation on the
Location of Atlantis, its Empire,
And its Submergence

Gerry Forster

Being a keen partcipant in the search for the true whereabouts of the legendary lost realm of Atlantis, I have endeavoured to read up just about everything discoverable that might conceivably help in the location of its anciently-vanished site.  Thanks to a great amount of carefully-considered reasoning , deduction plus a modicum of good old-fashioned common sense, I have finally come to the conclusion that it was exactly where Plato claimed it to be - just beyond the Straits of Gibraltar - the Pillars of Hercules.

Many historians and scholars have attempted over the past two millennia to make Plato out as some kind of high-flown liar, and that his famous “Dialogues” of Critias and Timaeus, were nothing but fables.  Additionally, they have claimed that the “alleged” teachings of Solon, his maternal ancestor (who had it all directly from Sonchis, the highly learned chief of the Egyptian scholar-priests of the goddess Neith at Sais) were nothing more than the fictitious inventions of his fertile imagination.

But why would Plato want to lie about such a thing - that was there for any sea captain to prove or disprove with his own eyes?  The Phoenicians had already plyed the seas for over 600 years prior to the days of Plato, and had travelled far and wide beyond the Pillars of Hercules down the Ivory Coast of west Africa, in search of ivory and other precious cargoes and even as far north as the Southern tip of Britain to fill their holds with valuble tin and lead.    

Surely they would know if there was, or had been, a continent-sized landmass almost as large as Libya and/or Asia Minor?  And they most probably did, too, at least by repute, even though it might well have vanished long before their time.  Atlantis (or Poseidonis) enjoyed a great reputation as a trading-nation with a veritable navy of both merchant and fighting ships. So it would be likely that Atlantean sailors would have been known in almost every ancient port in the eastern Atlantic region.   

But what could he possibly expect to gain from such foolishness?  What could possibly be in it for him?   It sounds to me suspiciously like the same sort of disbelief with which Herodotus was also regarded when he reported all the interesting “Inside Info” he had learned from the priestly sages of Egypt, in the 5th century BC, as well as from his own “eye-witness” accounts of the many wonders he saw there as he was conducted on a tour of that country.   Herodotus has also been branded a liar by many modern scholars, and yet in his own day, he was very highly regarded by his contemporaries as a reputable philosopher  and a meticulous historian, just as had Plato 300 years before!   I just can't buy this ridiculous “conspiracy of discredit” which was levelled by later mediaeval academics at both Plato and Herodotus.   This same omniscient attitude persists even to this day in our so-called modern philosophical and intellectual society, who, despite a far better understanding and comprehension of Ancient Greek, still follow blindly in the steps of their counterparts of the Early and Middle Ages, accepting their ignorant commentaries as gospel truth.   (Probably because they were some four to eight hundred years closer to the time of these famous sages).    

A Word about Scholarly Critics
This same attitude is also still rife in our modern scholarly fraternity.   Anyone who reports anything which flies in the face of Orthodox Scientific Belief - that “Repository Of Academic Knowledge” which still has its roots buried, rather like the Norse World Tree, Yggdrasil, in the dark depths of ancient ignorance - and which is ALL it is - is regarded as a either a liar, a crank, a gullible fool, or a raving loony!  

This includes even those modern alternative free-thinkers - including myself - who delve in more remote fields, such as the Hollow Earth and Planets, the Outside-Inside Earth Cosmogony theory, and even the monumental Cydonian “Face on Mars” and other clearly-observed and photographed Martian anomolies.   They are all lumped together as a bunch of poor demented self-deluding idiots by these tremendously-clever self-righteous intellectuals who haven't even bothered to seriously read up or consider anything of such alternative possibilities to their own spoon-fed concepts.   

They simply brand them all as purveyors of wildly fantastic and unproveable hypotheses of nonsense. Just as if the Scientific Establishment themselves had actually been down and personally verified the existence of a vast nickel-iron core at the center of the Earth, by way of their three-thousand miles thick mantle of molten white-hot magma.  Or that they have finally unearthed all of the sequential and intact skeletons of the many thousands of interstage evolutionary Missing Links purported to have existed between Homo Sapiens and the ancestor of ourselves and the anthropoid apes.  Or, furthermore, that they have found conclusive evidence that there is absolutely nothing awaiting discovery on Mars except rust and dust!   This patronizingly omniscient and patently dishonest attitude on the part of the Scientific Establishment really makes me choke with frustrated anger!
After all, when the alternative scientist or layman speaks of his own particular subject of study as being purely a theory or a speculative hypothesis, he means exactly what he says.  Until incontrovertible evidence is discovered, his beliefs can be nothing more.   But not so the august Orthodox Scientific Establishment.   Yet, when one gets right down to it, the vast bulk of their own alleged “Indisputable Scientific Knowledge”, especially in the realms of the universe and its origins, and in the field of Darwinian Evolution, or even in the study of subterranean geology, are all founded very largely upon pure speculation, hypothesis and theory.  
Transmuting Fiction into Fact
But these insubstantial concepts have somehow miraculously evolved into “Factual Truth and Affirmated Knowledge” simply by means of the magical, time-honored “Philospher's Stone” of Tradition, over the past decades and centuries, and through their docile acceptance as such by the mentally-lazy lay-public of the world.  No one actually knows how the Universe got started or how our own Solar system came into being.  Yet every new science-book we pick up - particularly those created specifically for young children - is crammed with totally unproven “Facts”, all beautifully illustrated and printed in glorious four-color offset-lithography, accompanied by glibly-worded text which might convince even Einstein himself - if he were to be reincarnated tomorrow!  

However, having got all of that off my chest, let me return to my point - which, I might hasten to add, IS all based upon nothing but the purest of carefully-considered speculation and educated guesswork - ably assisted, I should add, by some considerable measure of carefully considered input from very much greater and far more ancient philosophers and uncertificated scholars than myself!

I personally believe that Plato meant just what he said when he posited Atlantis (or Poseidonis) as lying “Beyond the Pillars of Heracles”.  I don't think he made it up at all, but he may have adopted the custom of ancient Greek writers and historians in choosing his words and presenting them in the form of a “discouse” between two scholars, in order to present both sides of his argument impartially.   Herodotus tended to use a similar style of hyperbolic presentation in his discourses upon history - especially that which he had learned from the Egyptians.    My own view is that Plato's lectures were presented in this circumlocutory manner to save a lot of endless argument, heckling and interjection by his listeners, and maybe some modern scholars could benefit much from using his approach.  

What did Plato Know about Atlantis?
     I think it's important before we go any further to determine and note down just what Plato had gleaned from the writings of his ancestor, Solon - who himself had been apprised of the facts about Atlantis by the chief priest of Neith, in the priestly Nile Delta city of Sais - regarding the general statistics of Atlantis.   What do we know?   As far as can be ascertained, Atlantis (which was believed to exist at least 11,000 years ago, and more likely thrice that time), was destroyed somewhere around 9,500 to 9,000 BC, somewhere close to the last polar tilt and the corresponding crustal displacement.  (Some have tried to relate this to the ending of the last Ice Age, but according to all the leading authorities, the last one ended between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago.  However, if one replaces “Ice Ages” with “Polar Shifts or Tilts” things come into better perspective).    

The Land of Atlantis
As to the land of Poseidonis (or Atlantis as it is now called).   Apparently it consisted originally of either a single large island-continent (or, according to the theosophist, Scott-Elliot, of two joint-islands; the larger being Daitya, and the slightly smaller one being Poseidonis*) together with various minor islands, especially on its western side (toward the Mesoamerican sub-continent).   We have no exact dimensions for the principal home-island of Atlantis, Poseidonis, but we are told in “Critias” that there was a huge central plain, sheltered to the north, west and east by a volcanic mountain range.  From all acounts, within this large plain at its southern side, was a smaller plain hedged around by hills, that was of some hundred stadia in diameter and in its center was the small hill upon which Poseidon first built his palace.     

*(NOTE:  Before I go any further, let me clarify matters by saying that, since we obviously cannot be certain of Scott-Elliot's idea of an Altlantis comprised of two joint major islands as being correct, we must assume that Poseidon's chosen island, to which he gave his own name - even if a little smaller than Scott-Elliot's Daitya - must be regarded as the principal central landmass of Atlantis, since Poseidon is said to have chosen to make his home there, and the city of Atlantis eventually developed  around his triple-moated island palace.   
It is also interesting to note that Scott-Elliot claimed that the other Atlantean island of Daitya was the original homeland of the Semites, who were then a sub-race of Atlantean sorcerers!)   

However, even the figure for the largest inland plain of the principal island of Poseidonis - which Critias quotes as “extending in one direction 3000 stadia, but across the centre inland it was 2000 stadia” - still gives us a smooth and even plain of an oblong shape around 600 miles long by 400 wide, or around the size of Scandinavia - which is then surrounded at least on three sides by large mountains!  We are told that “this part of the island looked toward the south and was sheltered from the north”.   So this is no tiny island between Greece and Crete!  And let's not forget that this was only the main island. There were several lesser islands, as well as many small ones.   (Probably many of these latter still exist in the Carribean area as well as in the North Western Atlantic).   The actual land area, according to Plato, was equal to that of both Libya and Asia Minor combined, so we would be looking at a total area, including all the smaller islands, roughly equal in size to Arabia!  

Atlantis had many large areas of plain country, as well as great forests and huge mountains, among its main islands and its coastlines were renowned for being edged with massive cliffs.  The land was certainly large enough to warrant being ruled over by no less than ten kings or princes.  No doubt the first ten would have been the original children of Poseidon and Cleito, and then the custom continued.  We have no indication of its human population, except for legendary reports of the vast military and naval might of the nation and the many thousands of Atlanteans who died in the recurrent series of subterranean cataclysms which overtook their islands sporadically over a fairly long span of time.  

The land of Atlantis was aparently much famed for its beautiful scenery and plentious fruits which were “hard to store but provide drink, food and oil”.  So there were clearly many vinyards and olive groves, plus other types of soft fruit, such as bananas, oranges, melons, etcetera, as well no doubt, as many tropical and temperate vegetables.     It also possessed abundant timber in its verdant forests, and whilst the animal life isn't dealt with in great detail, we can be sure there were great herds of elephants and horses, since these latter were the principal focus of sport in Atlantis, and the former no doubt fulfilled roles in both the timber forests as well as in the military might of Atlantis.  This may well indeed have been the historical inspiration for the Carthaginian general, Hannibal's great martial strength in millennia to come, when he invaded Italy via the Alps in 218 BC, using elephants as his walking armored “tanks”!      

Other geographical features of Atlantis that received mention in Plato's discourses include marshes and swamps, so we may safely guess at the plentiful presence of alligators and other swamp-life, such as snakes, and wading birds.   The presence of thermal springs in the main islands, coupled with frequent earthquakes gives a more than adequate indication of the tectonic turmoil going on beneath the larger islands of Atlantis.   In fact they remind us of nothing more clearly than those enormous subterranean high-pressure gas chambers to which James Churchward attributed the final overthrow and subsidence of the main continents of MU!       
The City of Atlantis
Several peculiar types of stone were mined and quarried on Atlantis for the building of the palaces and temples, and even the walls and docks, of the city's central hub.   A special metal was also mined in Atlantis in great quantity, and it was second only to gold in value.  Plato names this metal “Orichalcum”, but it was unknown to him.  Perhaps a golden chalcedony quartzite of some sort, or maybe some form of copper amalgam?     It was extensively used in lining the walls of the circular harbours in the heart of the city, so they must have presented a splendid and magnificent sight!

Poseidonis (as the island-continent was first named) was a great seafaring nation, and its central city of Atlantis was precisely that.   The city center was said to have been in the form of a great concentric set of three huge circular excavations or “moats”, said in legend to have been dug by Poseidon himself, comprised of two concentric circular rings of land each separated by a circular and navigable canal, and all surrounding a central hill-topped island. Thus one must imagine three great circular harbours alternating with raised thick circular rings of land, surrounding a central circular island, and all connected to the sea by a 300 feet wide and 100 feet deep ship canal, 50 stadia in length.   
The first circular waterway was the Grand Harbor, where all the might merchant ships berthed to discharge their precious cargoes from around the then known world.  Then came a thick circular ring of land whose principal feature was a magnificent horse-racing course.  Beyond this lay the Second Harbor, which was used mainly for berthing the private vessels of the leading merchants and nobility of the city.  This enclosed another less thick ring of land upon which the high nobles of Atlantis had their palatial dwellings.  These were surrounded by luxuriantly vegetated parklike gardens.  At the hub of this city center, guarded by the Third and Royal Harbor, was a beautiful island upon which several magnificent palaces surrounded a central temple dedicated to Poseidon, the god of the ocean, and Cleito, his mortal wife, the daughter of normal human parents.  

Boat-access to all of these concentric moats or canals were by means of water-passages tunneled through each of the rings of land, but not located directly in line with each other.  In this way, any enemy vessel that infiltrated a connecting water tunnel would have to sail openly around at least half the circumference of that canal, and thus, if it was an infiltrating enemy craft, was easily exposed to attack from its banks.

It is said that when Poseidon first found the island of Poseidonis (and Cleito, his human wife), he built a house for Cleito and himself on its central hill, and then dug three concentric moats around it for the protection of her, and also later, his ten children - five pairs of male twins.  This temple is said to have been inaccessible to the ordinary citizenry of Atlantis, and was fenced around by an enclosure of gold.    I will not attempt here to describe the contents of this great temple, but will instead refer the interested reader to Plato's dialogues “Critias” and “Timaeus” where all is described in lavish detail!   

Thus the focal royal hub of the city of Atlantis was centered upon that hill, with a surrounding ring of mountains fifty stadia away.    Much of the intervening flat plain was eventually occupied by the urban sprawl of the city.  As mentioned earlier, the central circular hub of Atlantis was approached from the seacoast by a wide channel or canal some 50 stadia long.  A stadium was the equivalent of 606.75 feet long, so fifty stadia would equal around 5¾ miles.   In other words, the actual city-plain itself must have been around 11½ miles in diameter - quite a sizeable city for such an ancient time!  But Critias tells us that this main city area was enclosed by a high circular wall, the ends of which met at the opposite sides of the mouth of the shipping-channel entrance where it met the sea. However, this was merely the capital city of Atlantis.   The actual land of Poseidonis, as mentioned previously, was equal to that of both Libya and Asia Minor combined, so we have to think of a total land surface roughly equal in area to India!  

The True Location of Atlantis
     As we have noted from the foregoing, the original position of the land of Atlantis (by which name it is now generally known) was first stated by Plato to be located somewhere in the Altantic Ocean just beyond and directly in front of the ancient Pillars of Heracles (or Hercules), where a wide gap occurs in the North African Atlas Mountain chain.   This mountain range is believed to have anciently run straight up through Morocco, uninterrupted, into the southerly tip of Spain, where it connected on to what is today the Serrania de Ronda and eventually becomes the Sierra Nevada.  From one account I came upon, a major earthquake or similar tectonic event lowered the central part of the range, creating a lowish gap right at the western end of what was once the Mediterranean Valley.  

Apparently, it did not come down low enough to permit any inlet for the waters of the Atlantic.  The sea level of the Atlantic at that time was still well below the reduced section of the mountain chain even at high tide.  It must have remained as some sort of natural sea-barrier or isthmus, much as was the case with the Bosporus Isthmus between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, prior to the strait splitting open.  (This is a 20-miles thick landbridge upon which Istanbul stands at the mouth of the Bosporus Strait, which is a natural rift, ½ to 2-mile wide, in the isthmus that once separated the two seas).

The Mediterranean Valley
According to various antiquarian authorities and other works I have read, including modern bathymetric charts, I understand that the Mediterranean valley was once a vast and extremely fertile lowland depression, which was watered by several large rivers.  Rivers such as the Nile (then called the “Styx”), the Po, which brought melt-water down from the Alps across the northern end of Italy, and down through what is today the Adriatic Sea, but was then a large, freshwater lake.  Another major river that flowed into the valley basin was the Rhone, which still flows voluminously through southern France from the Swiss Alps and empties into the Mediterranean at Marseille.   The Rhone also created a deep lake in the Mediterranean valley between Corsica and the Balearic Islands.   The Nile/Styx had also created a long deep lake which ran from the eastern sector of the vast valley right up to what are now the islands of Malta and Sicily, The river continued on westward between Malta and the Tunisian coast, through what are today the Straits of Sicily into the Tyrrhenian basin where it formed a fourth large lake.

     It was this constant influx of fresh water, which kept the great valley in such a lush and Edenic state, and these large freshwater lakes must have been alive with fish.  So one can imagine that this region, even if a little humid, must have been a prime piece of real estate for ancient settlers from the surrounding rocky highlands.   However, there is some fairly strong geological reason to believe that the Mediterranean valley had previously, on two or three occasions over many long millennia, been inundated to varying degrees by the Atlantic Ocean - perhaps by tectonically-generated tidal waves sweeping up across the North African plains which once surrounded the large and shallow inland Triton Sea, but are now the Sahara Desert.   However, I'll try to get back to this particularly interesting proposition later on.   Having now “set the stage”, so to speak, let me now explain why I believe Plato's location of Atlantis to be the correct one.  I certainly believe that the site is as good as any other, and infinitely better than most!  

Atlantis in Thera-Santorini?
Some experts have tried to make a solid case for the ancient Minoan island of Thera (or Santorini), which was once a fairly largish island around 70 miles north of Crete, at the mouth of the Aegean Sea, but is now little more than a semicircular lagoon of rock.     Apparently the mythical story goes that the giant sea-god, Triton (a son of Poseidon by a sea-nymph, Amphitrite), gave Jason and his Argonauts a large lump of earth, and asked them to drop it into the sea at a designated place, which they did. (One never aroused the anger of a god by disobeying him  - especially if he was the sea-god - and you were a mere sailor!)    The result was that the clod of earth swelled up until it formed a beautiful island, with a fine conical mountain at its center.     

Of course, the reality of this legend was simply that Santorini (a corruption of St. Irene) was in fact a volcano, which arose quite rapidly from the Mediterranean seabed to form the usual conical island - such as are often seen to rise from the sea around Iceland.  (Which event, incidentally, immediately rules Thera out of this discussion, if we accept that Atlantis existed prior to the Mediterranean valley inundation!) Eventually plants began to grow upon its rich volcanic soil, and soon Minoan people from Crete began to settle upon it and erect houses and temples there, as it gradually turned into a sort of demi-paradise.   For many centuries it was a very popular religious centre for the Minoans (or Minyans), until quite suddenly the volcano exploded into full, violent eruption.  

Here we begin to get into various difficulties with explosion-dates, since some histories claim the island exploded and was destroyed in a single night in 1450 BC.  Others say, equally categorically, that it exploded in 196 BC, then was replaced by another volcanic cone, which in turn exploded in 1650 AD!  However, since it is largely agreed that many temples and palaces on Crete were also destroyed in a great localized explosion around 1450 BC, it seems to underline that date as being correct and that it was the sudden demise of Thera which was the cause.

Quite apart from the dates being way out of range, Thera was far too small to be the continent-size landmass described by Plato.  In any case, Plato lived from 427 -347 BC, whilst his great ancestor, Solon, lived from 638-559 BC, and the story of the demise of Atlantis was already ancient history long before Solon's time.  So it would seem from all aspects, both in size and in timeframe, Thera-Santorini simply could not have filled the bill!   Let us not forget, too, that the Mediterranean had already long been filled with water from the overflowing Atlantic by then.    Other modern theorists, however, have attempted to locate Atlantis in other areas altogether.   

Other Locations for Atlantis
One for example makes a fairly good case for the Amazon basin as once being the site of Atlantis, prior to a rise in sea-level flooding much of Brazil.  (I will return to this rise in sea-level presently!)    Others, like Rand and Rose Flem-Ath, have put forward an extremely convincing case for Antarctica having originally been the continent of Atlantis.    I thoroughly enjoyed their book, and would dearly have loved to accept their Antarctic theory, but I feel certain that Plato could never have heard of a place as far off as Antarctica at that time, nor would the Phoenicians, despite them being such tremendously well-travelled sailors for their time-frame in history.     

Similarly, some have posited Atlantis in North America, and even in Greenland, before it became a mountain of ice!   Even the North Sea's Dogger Bank and the region around the Scilly Isles off the Cornish tip of Britain have been suggested.  One rather overzealous fan of the Piri Reis'map even suggested Cuba as being the original site of Atlantis!  But before the reader finally gives up in disbelief, there is at least one highly honored academic in Brazil who proposes that Atlantis was actually in SouthEast Asia! Lauritzen also suggests this region.   This particular concept isn't quite as outrageous as it sounds, since both the Egyptians and the Phoenicians had sailed to India, South-East Asia and even as far as Australia!   Egypt's Paraoh, Ramses I, had a ship-canal dug from the Nile to the Red Sea, in 2,000 BC, with an extra direct link to the Mediterranean, so the Phoenicians could have regularly used this route also, as well as the Gulf of Aqaba.  (It's of interest to note that this same canal was later cleared of inblown sand, repaired and returned to use first by Necho II, then Darius' Persians, and later again by the Romans.)

However, given the fundamental description of Atlantis, as being a large sea-girt landmass (an island-continent the size of Asia Minor and Libya combined!) it could only have existed where Plato says it did - in the Atlantic Ocean opposite the Pillars of Hercules.  The only other possible location with sufficient space would have been the Southeast Asian one, but that was a actually a wide peninsula and not an island, so we can safely rule it out as being a likely candidate.   In any event, we have good reason to believe that this region was under the sway of the Muvian Empire at that particular time in ancient pre-history. My own personal view, derived from all the research I've done on the subject, is that the principal island of Atlantis covered the area which is now centred upon the Azores, and that its other, lesser landmasses lay west of it, on the other side of the mid-Atlantic ridge, reaching into the Carribean and up to Bimini and the Bahamas.  

The present Canary Islands and Madiera also formed part of the mighty Atlantean Empire, as eventually did portions of the African and Portugese coastlines.   Ancient Mauritania, in north-western Africa, where the Triton Sea spread inland from the Atlantic, was also a vital part of their empire, since it brought them closer in to their enemies in and around the Mediterranean valley.  According to some sources, they had even setted a colony in a large sector of the valley floor, and it might have been from there that they warred against the Athenians, as well as other nations, who occupied other sectors of the Mediterranean valley and the highlands on its opposite northern and northeastern sides.   But one wonders if the classical Athens existed at that time.

The Wars of Atlantis
     This belligerent and imperial attitude toward its neighbouring lands, is a major factor, which must be included in this equation regarding ancient Atlantis. For example there are many reports in ancient writings of their great clashes with the Rama Empire of India, as well as with the Athenians.   However, before going into this, let me make some mention of the technological warfare achievements that have been attributed to the Atlanteans both in ancient Greek history and in that Sanskrit epic of the Hindus, the Mahabharata.    There is no doubt that there was a great enmity between the Atlanteans and the Athenians as recorded by no less an authority that Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, the great archaeologist who discovered the site of ancient Troy.  He discovered a great bronze vase at Troy which bore an inscription that indicated it to be a gift from Kronos, King of Atlantis to the then King of Troy.   It is a matter of general history that the ancient Athenians and the Trojans were deadly enemies, so this fact alone supports an enmity also existing between the Athenians and the Atlanteans, even if only because the latter were allies of Troy. However, the factor we really need to consider here is that of time.  If this took place before the flooding of the Mediterranean basin, did Athens exist then?  

History tells us the Greek civilization didn't really come into its own until about 1000 BC, and modern Athens was then still a mere village, the implication being that Atlantis may still have been a great power long after the Atlantic Ocean had filled the Mediterranean basin, and before the Athenians had developed any noteworthy military might.  So the classical Athenians may not have fought the Atlanteans until at least 500 BC - if they ever did. No signs of any technological warefare have been found there, yet the Atlanteans were reputedly greatly advanced in military technology, probably even outrivalling our own today!  Should we be considering a more ancient race of Athenians?  

We know that the other major enemy of Atlantis, the Raman Empire, a pre-Aryan culture in north-western India (or what is today Pakistan) lasted roughly between 3500 and 2500 BC, after which it collapsed, quite possibly following the “high-tech” war waged upon it by Atlantis.  This resulted in the cataclysmic destruction of the two great Rishi cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa by what modern investigators can only conclude to have been atomic weapons!  The surrounding ground is vitrified exactly like that of Nagasaki and Hiroshima after their atomic bombing at the close of WWII.   Some researchers claim that after Rama fell, it was for some time part of the Atlantean Empire!  

But the epics of the Mahabhatara, the Drona Parva, the Bhagavad Gita and the Ramanyana also tell us that the Nagas (or Nacaals) also possessed similar high-tech atomic weaponry, as well as advanced flying-craft known as vimanas, which sound amazingly like double-decked Flying-Saucers which emitted a pleasant humming sound as they flew!  These were used both as bombers and for defence against the Atlantean aerial craft - which were called vailixi, and which in many respects resembled zeppelins with wings!   

It is believed by many researchers today that, at that point in time, similar craft and technology were known and used over much of the ancient allegedly prehistoric world!    From the famous “Readings” of Edgar Cayce, (if we can truly accept them) we learn that the Atlanteans also had many other scientific accomplishments including radio, and other electrical appliances, elevators and even computers!  They also developed a form of crystalline energy source for certain applications.   Their navy is also believed to have possessed some kind of submarine and other self-propelled craft.  

Whilst a few other details are known about Atlantean weapons, such as death-rays, explosives and atomic bombs, we can assume that they would have been on a parallel with advanced Nacaal weapons.  Weapons such as Kapila's Glance”, a ballistic atomic-fire device that could burn an army or a city to ashes in seconds, and Flying Spears”, which sound suspiciously like rocket-powered missiles fitted with atomic warheads.    However, we must return again to the question of a time frame for all this.   
If we work backwards from the dating of the ruins of Mohenjo Daro and Harrapa, both of which Rishi cities are believed to have been atomically destroyed around 2500 BC at the latest, we can accept that Atlantis was still very much alive and a powerful nation at that time.  But as we move forward in time from there, we see that Greece was not a power to be reckoned with until at least 500 BC, by which time the Mediterranean had been already filled with water for at the very least two or three millennia, if not, in fact, a great deal longer.  

Thus, if the Atlanteans had fought a war with the Athenians they could have traveled there by sea.    This really presents no problems since they were a great sea-going people with a huge navy.   However, we run into an even greater problem here! According to Plato, Atlantis was totally destroyed in its final submergence in 9,500 BC!

Another major problem also arises in connection with their offshoot and possibly renegade colony, the Osirians, who were believed to have dwelled on the floor of the Mediterranean basin whilst it was still a demi-paradise of luxuriant tropical vegetation and great freshwater lakes.  From what can be gleaned about this ancient empire, the Osirians were forced to move from the floor of the Mediterranean, after Atlantis sank and the Atlantic Ocean finally broke through the Pillars of Hercules, and began steadily filling the Mediterranean basin.   These two events seem to be mentioned as occurring almost concurrently, or within a few decades, which in turn implies that the one, by weakening the underlying sub-strata, eventually caused the other.    

Plato seems, via Solon, to date the final sinking of Atlantis at around 9,500 BC, so we are faced with the difficulty of reconciling the destruction of the two Indus Valley cities in 2,500 BC with the actions of a nation that was engulfed 7,000 years earlier!   Obviously, something is way out of kilter here!   If the Osirian Empire was still ex-officio a part of the Atlantean Empire, and thus its possible successor, could it be that they were still regarded as “Atlanteans”?   Or did Atlantis still survive in its large empire?  

Some Speculative Considerations
From what we have subsequently gleaned through various sources, it would seem that this empire did inherit the mantle of the Atlanteans, since they evacuated to, and took over the occupation of, some of the North African highland side of the newly-forming Mediterranean Sea, which had previously been a large part of the original Atlantean Empire, together with what is today Morocco and northern Algeria.   According to Ignatius Donelly, the great 19th century scholar on Atlantis, most of Spain, Portugal, north-western Africa, and the northern highlands of the Mediterranean valley, including Italy (now possessing sea-coastlines), had already been occupied by Atlantean military colonists.   So there is really no reason to assume that, with the sudden catastrophic submergence of their homeland, Atlantean colonists would immediately give up the ghost, without making some effort to reestablish a new mainland Altantean state.  

Following a False Scent?
On the contrary, it is more than possible that these surviving Atlantean colonists resolved to extend their remaining territories, rather than let their culture simply fade away. Donnelly claims that the Atlanteans invaded Italy, displacing the indigenous culture and replacing it with their own. (In which case, the Etruscans and Romans must have been partially of Atlantean origin.)  So he must be suggesting an attempt to perpetuate the Atlantean nation and its traditions, even if it involved some degree of interbreeding.   

It also suggests that, in the fullness of time, they might indeed have conducted a war against the Athenians, just as Plato had claimed - though not as the stated original ten -kinged oligarchy of Atlantis!    However, even this could conceivably be explained if the subsequently successive kings or princes had divided up the remains of their entire offshore empire into separate but closely allied kingdoms.   But sadly, I feel, as probably does my reader, that this is becoming rather an enormous stretch of credulity, and it's entirely possible that Plato may have become somewhat confused, if not completely carried away, by this portion of his account!    

 I personally feel inclined to discount this suspect part of his story altogether, and prefer instead to follow up the “Osirian Empire” lead.   So why don't we do just that and see where it leads us?    True, since there is only scant reference to the Osirians in the works I've read on ancient lost empires, we will have to follow our own noses to a large degree. But as my readers are doubtless well aware by now, I'm not afraid to go with a little speculation and gut-instinct when the supply of unassailable fact runs out!  

The Osirians
     According to people like David Hatcher Childress and others, the Osirian Empire was, as I have mentioned previously, originally located both on the fertile floor of the Mediterranean valley, and upon the edge of the North African continent, where, because they themselves were of Atlantean origin, they lived in some sort of trucial peace with the surrounding Atlantean-dominated peoples of the surrounding lands.   Childress claims that there are over 200 sunken cities and towns on the Mediterranean seafloor - some of which have recently begun to be actually located and examined by deep-sea divers.   There is clearly little doubt, if any at all, that there have been quite advanced civilizations living within this once dry and fertile valley, but far, far back in what our academic scholars would probably describe as “pre-history”, when the bulk of mankind elsewhere were still allegedly humble savages living in caves and chipping at flints!

But why were these Osirians living as a separate people if they were themselves of Atlantean blood?    Had there been some sort of rift or falling-out between this group and their brethren?    Were they some kind of breakaway “splinter group”?  Why had they chosen to go their own way, when their land of origin was doing so well for itself?  From what pieces of the puzzle I've been able to put together thus far - and believe me, they're hard to find - it seems to come down to a matter of kingship.   Let me now relate a little highly speculative story.  It may not be the exact truth, but I think I can guarantee that you'll find it of interest, and that it will give you plenty of food for thought!      

The Story of the Osirian Empire
It appears that one of the original princes of the customary ten-crowned rulership of the Atlantean Empire, disagreed with some nefarious self-aggrandizing plot connected with the new cult of The Sons of Belial”. This was a totally evil and hellish cult in which several of his brother princelings, under the leadership of the depraved Prince Belial, a puppet controlled by his satanic elder brother, Prince Seth (or Set), were all deeply involved. It was entirely against the health, morality, welfare and indeed the very safety of the Atlantean state, and Prince Osiris, a very good man and a champion of the benevolent Law of One threatened to publicly expose them.

Because of his unswerving loyalty to the Sun God and to the populace of the Empire, his evil kinsmen expelled this eminently wise and honest prince from the oligarchy - together with his wife Isis and her sister, Nephthys, and his son Horus - upon pain of death.   The Law of One was a monotheistic religion, which revered only the Sun-God, Ra (who was thought to have his throne inside the Sun), as being the sole ruler, benevolent entity, and the original creative force of the Earth, stars and the Universe.
But when news of this treachery reached the region over which Osiris ruled, his loyal subjects vowed to follow their prince and leave the island of Atlantis.  They were also adherents of the Godly Law of Onereligion, so, rather than live among Belial Satanists, they resolved to secede from its Empire, and to set up their own nation in some unoccupied area of the adjacent mainland.    Many of the populace of Atlantis, who had heard rumors of the cultish plot sympathized deeply with Osiris, his family and their followers and joined them to escape the growing heathen depravity of their own rulers.

In due course, Osiris and his people found a most suitable location in the Mediterranean valley, and before long they had established great goodwill with their new neighbouring nations and the new Osirian nation began to prosper and grow.   Because of their great wealth of Atlantean wisdom and knowledge of technology, several other nations and tribes elected to join them, and thus the Osirian Empire was born.

Osiris himself became a greatly sought-after fountain of knowledge and wisdom upon all manner of technological and structural matters, by many of the surrounding nations.   He is even said to have designed and and directed the construction of the massive stone platform at Baalbek in Lebanon which is famous for its gargantuan stone blocks that are believed to weigh up to 1,500 tons each!  From all appearances, it was originally intended for much grander purposes than being merely a foundation for the two or three very ordinary temple structures which it later carried, and whose ruins can still be seen today.  Could it perhaps have been the base platform for some enormous towering structure that would have dwarfed even the pyramids?  Some historians have even speculated that Osiris may possibly have been the original Biblical Nimrod, who built the Tower of Babel!  However, we have no idea of the massive constructional engineering marvels that still await eventual discovery, should the Mediterranean Sea ever become a dessicated sandy depression again!     

It is also reported that a huge 100-foot stone or marble statue of him was produced by one of the grateful nations had he assisted in a like manner, and probably still stands, buried in the mud and silt of the Mediterranean Sea, amid the ruins of his capital city.   As a one-time ruling prince of Atlantis, Osiris's mental fund of esoteric and technological knowledge must have been enormous.  However, to discover just how much this was, it seems that we will have to await the eventual solving of the puzzles and secrets which will lead to the final unlocking of the hidden repository chambers that lie inside the mysterious Great Pyramid of Giza.    

21st century man has already proved what woeful gaps exist in his constructional knowledge of such enormously solid works by his complete inability - despite all of his modern high-rise building technology plus steel scaffolding, cranes, and reinforced concrete - to reproduce the wondrous massive stone structures of those ancient times!    

Very soon the Osirian Empire even extended up into the North African highlands from Algeria eastward across Libya and toward Khem and Kush.  At that time, there was no actual land of Egypt.  What was later to become the river Nile, was then known as the Styx by the mountain people of Crete and Cyprus.   It had carved out a 900 mile-long ravine from the Aswan plateau where it thundered over a high precipice, to where it flowed out northward into the enormous Mediterranean valley.   There it had gouged out a great freshwater lake to the south of Crete and Cyprus, before turning westward to flow between Malta and Sicily, finally terminating in another deep lake between the highlands of modern-day Italy and Corsica. Even though two other large rivers also flowed into the Mediterranean valley, their waters were all evaporated from similar lakes as rapidly as they were filled, thus the great depressed basin remained largely dry land.   Egypt as we shall soon see, is, quite literally, a comparatively new land!    

Swiftly, most of the vast valley came under the benevolent rule of the Osirians, and they built many large cities and towns upon its luxuriantly fertile floor.  (A comparatively recent bathymetric survey of the Mediterranean  sea-floor has shown up the remains of at least 250 cities!  Some have even been studied quite recently by deep-sea diving expeditions and many ancient Egyptian (or Osirian) artifacts were recovered and brought to the surface!)       

The Death of Atlantis
In the meantime, however, the evil rulers of Atlantis, led by Seth, had not forgotten Osiris, nor did they admire his success in establishing a new empire of his own, and they sought ways and means to rid themselves of him once and for all.  If they could cut off its head, his empire would be helpless, and they could graft it back into that of Atlantis.    But they had not reckoned upon the unpredictable hand of Nature.   For many millenia, Atlantis and its several islands had been subjected to sporadic volcanic outbursts and frequent earth tremors.   In fact, there were records of at least two quite large catastrophes having already engulfed some of its larger islands over the past forty millennia.

The first such event occurred around 50,000 BC, and the second around 28,000 BC, in which the major continent was split into five portions.  However, all had been reasonably quiet for some nineteen millennia - until this new bout of tectonic disturbances.     But it all finally came to a head with appalling suddenness, in 9,500 BC when, entirely without any warning, the entire major landmasses of Atlantis simply burst asunder in a final series of cataclysmic explosions, and, within a single day and night, most of Atlantis vanished almost without trace beneath the Atlantic Ocean!    

Millions of native Atlanteans died in the catastrophe, but quite a large number of survivors escaped in ships, rafts, or whatever they could cling to.   These eventually struggled ashore on the coasts of Spain and Portugal, and the shores of Morocco. There were few if any of the original leaders among these survivors, except for Seth, who now bent every effort toward taking sole control over what he could of the Atlantean colonial power on the mainland of Europe and Northwest Africa.   In this, it would seem he was successful, since many lands surrounding the Mediterranean valley were already vassal states of mighty Atlantis, and by intermarriage with its soldiers, their people bore the blood of Atlantis in their veins. (Many modern Europeans probably still do possess Atlantean genes.)      

The Murder of Osiris
However, this vile prince, Seth, blamed Osiris for the disaster, assuming that he had called upon his god, Ra, to bring down this final cataclysm on Atlantis, and one day, he decided to gain his revenge.  He sent forth scouts to locate the Osirian royal capital, then after learning its whereabouts, with a troop of his soldiers, under cover of darkness, Seth descended the steep incline from the Libyan highland and approached Osiris's city.  
There, choosing only a handful of his most brutal henchmen, Seth silently infiltrated Osiris's unguarded royal palace and surprised the king alone at his midnight devotions  It was a foul deed of terrible butchery that took place in the king's private chapel dedicated to Ra.   Osiris had no time even to cry out before his head was smitten from his shoulders by a fell sword slash from behind.  Then his murderers set about the bloody task of hacking his body into unrecognizable gobbets of flesh and bone. Even Osiris's gentle face was hacked and slashed beyond recognition.   Then, after a final gloating inspection of their hideous work, Seth led his blood-soaked team of butchers silently away, compeletly undetected, out of the still-sleeping palace.    

Still-sleeping, that is, except for one.  Osiris's wife, Isis, had woken suddenly in response to some unbidden sense of urgent dread, and discovered that her lord had not yet come up to bed.   Fearfully, she went and roused her sister, and together, they descended to his dimly-lit chapel to find the door standing slightly ajar, revealing part of a blood-spattered wall.  As she opened the door wider and saw the bloody carnage the murderers had wreaked, Isis screamed out a great cry of horror.  Despite the savage butchery and mutilation, Isis instantly recognizing her husband's mangled remains. Just as she also knew instinctively who had murdered him, and why.  Seth!

When Horus, now a grown man, woken by his mother's screams, entered a few seconds later and witnessed the horrific sight, he was seized with a terrible admix of horror, grief and a towering paroxysm of uncontrollable rage.   Like his mother, Horus guessed at once who had done the deed, and, after doing his best to comfort her, he left his mother to the tender care of her sister, Nephthys, and her handmaidens.   Swiftly marshalling a large troop of royal cavalry, he set off at a wild, maddened gallop into the darkness to catch up with the killers. But alas, by then they had vanished like ghouls into the night.   He and his cavalry troopers scoured the surrounding region all the rest of that night and much of the following day, before finally abandoning the fruitless search.    

However, Horus pledged himself to a solemn vow that he would strive to have Seth's head upon a spear before he died.    A black pall of sadness and despair descended upon the entire Osirian Empire for many days thereafter.  But eventually, as Time began its healing work, Isis and Horus realized that Osiris's Empire must go on, and returned to their now onerous duties of leadership, guidance and justice for his people..   

Horus now reluctantly ascended his dead father's throne, and ruled over them jointly with his mother, Isis.  One of his first acts as king was to declare bloody war upon that last, evil Altlantean king and uncle who had murdered his own brother.  They engaged in many battles with imperial forces led by Seth.  In this they were aided by a large colony of ancient Athenians, (the forerunners of those Athenians mentioned in the more recent and familiar Greek classics) who occupied the northeastern end of the vast valley, and who had no reason to love Atlantis, since they had long been their deadliest enemies, and had once even triumphed gloriously over them.  

However, the Osirians and the Atlanteans  proved to be too evenly matched in these battles, since both shared the same advanced weaponry and military stratagems, and the only material results of such often bloody and bitter encounters were thousands of dead warriors, as well as many casualties among the Osirian and Athenian civilian populations who were greatly exposed on the low valley floor to the pitiless fire of Seth's heartless soldiers, far more safely positioned high upon the Libyan plateau above them.       
Eventually, though his hatred of Seth had in no wise diminished, Horus had to call a reluctant halt to the fighting, since both their unarmed women and children and their valley cities were suffering far more than the Atlanteans above on the highlands.  An uneasy cease-fire was mutually agreed to - at least, for the time being.   But Horus still nursed a burning, hateful desire for personal revenge upon his father's murderer.

In the fullness of time, poor, dead Osiris became a god to his people and their descendants, and his memory was greatly revered and venerated.   So much so, that, at the behest of his aging widow, Isis, they undertook a great task in his honor, by building a great stone pyramidal cenotaph to perpetuate his memory, high upon a great plateau of solid rock that formed the towering western corner at the mouth of the deep gorge of the Styx, near the Mediteranenan Valley's eastern end.     

Strangely, there was already a giant monument on that plateau, in the shape of a great, elongated stone lion, resting upon its belly, with long forepaws outstretched before it, within a shallow depression and facing toward the rising sun.  The Osirians had no idea who had built it, or how long it had lain couchant there gazing toward the eastern horizon.  But, judging by the deep weathering upon its worn stone surface, it was obviously the totem or god of some archaic race that had vanished into the mists of ancient time even before Poseidon founded Atlantis!  

As mentioned before, this deep, dark and narrow gorge which the River Styx had gouged out over many millennia, ran back for nine hundred miles to the huge thousand-foot high waterfall at Aswan.   The Pyramid of Osiris was completed within a single year using the ancient, almost miraculous technological skills and mental powers of the Atlanteans, by a team of men only three hundred strong.  Vast blocks of stone were quarried and precision-trimmed from carefully selected sections of rock strata by the use of crystal-powered drills and cutters, as well as “melting-wands”, which cut through the stone like a hot knife through butter. Then they were teleported along the long canyon and levitated up to the great flat plateau entirely by the concentrated mental power of groups, each consisting of ten chosen sages, chanting in unison and focussing their minds as one.  

The huge Atlantean-style pyramid, whose shape was designed to withstand the ravages of tsunamis and earth-shaking catastrophes over an eternity, was constructed primarily as a cenotaph to the memory of their god, Osiris.  But it also became a repository for all his collection of scrolls and tomes of ancient Atlantean wisdom and technological secrets especially enscribed for the purpose of preserving this knowledge.    These were carefully sealed inside secret air- and water-tight chambers deep within and below the pyramid, which could only be discovered by some future race who might develop the required degree of intellect to unlock its hidden secrets.   Some of these “keys” related to the stellar constellations of their time, some to mathematical and geometrical puzzles, and some to plain mental prowess and abilities of logic and reason.  But all the answers were there, “hidden in plain view” in the pyramid's structure for those in the future who might have the intellect and mental perception to work them out.   

Once the great pyramid was completed, it was sealed up by various cunningly devised mechanisms operated by natural physical forces, the damp air was expelled by a chemical explosion through specially constructed ducts, and then its exterior was coated with pure colloidal-silver cladding which was blended, again by technological wizardry, and allowed to run down the beautifully smoothed and polished sides.  The gleaming silvery-white structure was finally surmounted and crowned by a gold-sheathed pyramidal capstone.  The memory of Great Osiris and his achievements would live forever!   

The finished pyramid was a brilliant sight to behold, especially during the first moments of the sunrise, whilst the valley still lay in darkness and the Sun's first rays struck its silver eastern side and its glistering golden pinnacle.  The nation gathered far below to watch this wondrous spectacle and pray for the Spirit of their great God Osiris.    

The Death of Isis
A few years later, Osiris' widow, Queen Isis died peacefully and full of years. This time the people required no urging by their grief-stricken King Horus.  Again the same men came forward and began work upon a second pyramid to honor the beloved widow of the great god.     Again the work was done swiftly and with total perfection, but this pyramid's hidden chambers contained new secrets pertaining to the future of the Earth, and the Universe.  It also housed a wonderful  library of all the arcane knowledge that Isis had acquired during her lifetime, since she had been a great seer and prophetess in her latter years, and had been granted many great visions of the future, the Universe and the Unseen Kingdom of its great Creator, the glorious Emperor of All the Gods.    

This time, the finished Pyramid of Isis was covered with brilliantly white alabaster, lovingly hand-polished to a mirror finish by the women of the kingdom, and it was capstoned with a silver-coated pyramidal block, so as not to outshine the great god's memorial.    Nevertheless, the two pyramids both made a truly glorious sight in the rays of the morning sun, and the whole empire sent representatives to observe the awsome spectacle, and to pay obesience to their venerated god and his widely-beloved wife, Isis.  Pilgrims and travellers came from all quarters of the then known world to witness and bow before these magnificent memorials, and many of them stayed to join the growing nation of the Osirians, which now lay under the single benevolent kingship of King Horus, himself now a man of mature years, and full of his illustrious father's vast wisdom, great knowledge and amazing gentleness.               

The Mediterranean Flood
Sadly, however, there was a disastrous aftermath to the Atlantis catastrophe.  It was during the latter part of the lifetime of Prince Horus, that the last great judgmental cataclysm occurred. - the grand finale of the series of cataclysmic explosions and subsidences in which the last vestiges of mighty Atlantis had vanished forever in a welter of scalding steam and plumes of red-hot lava and smoke, beneath the boiling ocean.    
The same explosions of the vast subterranean gas-chambers which had finally blown Atlantis apart, and then caused the sinking of its remains as their depressurized caverns collapsed under the weight of rock and ocean, also caused a great weakening in other nearby strata.   The Atlas mountain barrier, that ran from Morocco into Spain, barricading the Mediterranean Valley from the cold gray-green waters of the Atlantic, suddenly began to breach a couple of decades later, permitting the ocean to start leaking into the valley.    It was just a mere dribble at first, but, like a breached dam-wall, the rock soon began to crack and collapse under the pressure of the inrushing ocean, and began flooding the great valley with a vengeance.  The newly-forming “Pillars of Heracles” at last stood open wide allowing the dark salty Atlantic seawater to pour into the lovely valley, polluting its great crystal-clear freshwater lakes, drowning its luxuriant park-like vegetation, and poisoning the rich soil that had made the valley so wonderfully fertile.
As the cold Atlantic began slowly to fill up the once-lush Mediterranean valley, the Osirians, along with their neighbouring occupants of the valley floor had to seek higher ground, taking what they could of their great treasures with them.  The southern wall of the valley was the more accessible, especially by way of the Malta ridge, which was part of their territory, and up on to the Libyan plain of North Africa.   And it was there that the Osirians, the last direct repositors of Atlantean wisdom and technology, led by Horus, established a new domain among the green plains and palm-groved vistas of the open highlands.   Many of their former neighbours from the valley, especially a large number of Athenians who had also occupied a large area of the northeastern end of the valley, joined forces with them and soon Osiria became a strong and mighty empire, spreading westward to Morocco and eastward to what is now the Nile valley.   

In the meantime the steadily inflowing waters of the Atlantic had reached the farther end of the Mediterranean valley and had begun to deposit heavy layers of silt along the floor of the long Styx ravine, raising it ever higher as the sea-level rose in the outer basin, by sluicing in the stirred-up mud and gravel along its length. By now the ocean tides had begun to take effect upon this newly-forming sea, and this sped up the process considerably.   In the fullness of time, the Nile - which the Styx had now become - instead of crashing over a great waterfall at Aswan, now flowed along much more slowly and widely, and at an ever-increasing height.

Since the seawaters had been forced backwards to the river's mouth by its much stronger flow, the Nile was now able to deposit its rich sediment all along the length of what was to become the fertile river valley of Egypt.  Thus the 1000-mile gloomy Styx canyon was rapidly filled up, and the valley of the Nile, a new stretch of land, became even more fertile and green than the adjoining Libyan savannah grasslands and swamps.   

The Foundation of Egypt
It was this wonderful change that attracted the Libyan Osirians into the new land that was to become Egypt, where they set about establishing yet another great empire. One that was to become almost as powerful and rich as the one from whence they had originally hailed beyond the now-famed Pillars of Hercules.  Needless to say, they brought with them all the ancient wisdom of Atlantis.  And part of this was their vast and jealously preserved fund of technological knowledge and skill in the art of handling enormous feats of high-tech stone construction  - of which, we still know nothing.

Sadly, by this time King Horus himself was a fading but beloved memory.  He had died soon after his Libyan Empire had begun to develop, lying propped up on his deathbed facing east toward the pyramids of his beloved parents, to witness his final sunrise.  As he lay dying, he had a great vision, and rallied his wasted frame into a sitting position his frail arms held out to greet the rising sun.  “Behold!” he cried in an awesomely strong voice for a dying man, “The sun-boat of Ra brings my father Osiris upon his daily rebirth to gaze again upon his children! I go now to join him upon his flight across the heavens!” and so saying, he fell back dead upon his couch.   At that very moment, his favorite falcon, which had been perched upon the foot of his bed, took to the air with a loud clapping of wings and soared upwards into the dawning sky until it was lost to the view of the gathered elders.    Surely, this was a sign from Ra!

The King's final words registered deeply with all present, and they marveled greatly at them.  From thence forward, the ship of the Sun-god, Ra, who had been a god of Atlantis, but somewhat less than Poseidon in their pantheon, became revered as the great shining barque of the God of Life, who ressurrected Osiris every dawn, and carried him back into the Underworld each evening.    A sign of hope for a new and glorious future life to everyone after their life on earth was done!   King Horus became as one with the falcon who was able to accompany Ra's celestial boat across the sky.   

So it was that the falcon became a god, an embodiment of Horus, who could carry prayers and supplications to Ra, and who kept close watch over his subjects below.  Woe betide any whom Horus reported to Ra, as they would later have to face trial before Osiris in the Underworld for their misdeeds, and he had the power to destroy their souls if they were found wanting!    Thus Osiris became both the god of Ressurrection and Life for the good, and of Soul Death for the wicked.   So the “Eye of Horus” glyph became a symbol of fear for all who worked evil, for Horus was the Eye of Ra!  

Although Horus had not seen Seth's evil head raised upon a spear, at least he had eventually confronted his wicked uncle when he challenged his right to the Osirian throne, and had fought a mighty battle against him. In this, he had succeeded in emasculating Seth and mortally wounding him, at the cost of one of his own eyes.   But at least Horus had retained his throne honorably, whilst the now impotent, but still malevolent spirit of Seth was relegated by the God Ra to serve a minor role as the God of Storms, wherein he could only vent his vicious spleen with thunder, hail and lightning-bolts.   Horus himself now became recognized as the Protector of the Righteous, and was later frequently included in sculptures of Pharaohs, being shown shielding the king's head from behind with protective wings - even though all future pharaohs to come would not necessarily be good or righteous men!

 Horus, perhaps feeling unworthy for not avenging his father in quite the way he had vowed, had requested that no pyramid be built for him, lest he might intrude upon the memory and dignity of his beloved parents. However, his court advisers were determined that he deserved a lasting memorial, if only for the solace of his subjects, and built him a smaller pyramid beside those of Osiris and Isis.  In this way they felt that the cenotaph of Horus would not in anyway detract from those of his parents, who had now been elevated to full godly status, but he would still have a fitting memorial close beside them.   It was a compromise, but one that was acceptable to the populace.  Better a smaller memorial than none at all!   Horus had been greatly loved by all his subjects

Thus did the great culture and architectural splendor of glorious Egypt spring from the Osirian Empire - which had, in turn, sprung from the wondrous lost continent of Atlantis - and the rest of this story is all recorded in ancient Egypt's marvellous and colorful history.    With the passage of time, a whole new pantheon of gods appeared, many of them being deified animals and birds, following the elevation of the falcon to full godly status, to symbolize the new god, Horus.   And even though the glory that was Egypt is now long since faded and gone, the pyramids upon the plateau still wait ever patiently to render up their Atlantean secrets.   And the ancient and enigmatic Sphinx maintains his own silent and expectant vigil toward the east, awaiting the return of something we cannot even begin to guess at…

 There, dear reader, ends the amazing if speculative saga of the Osirian Empire.
 Now we must return again to that of Atlantis  - but this time we shall instead
be looking westward for further evidences of its mighty influence.
Other Aspects of the Atlantean Legend
     We have examined many of the possible relationships of Atlantis with the Old World, but what about those which relate to the New World - the world of the Olmecs, the Mayans, the Toltecs, and the Aztecs of Central America, and even the Quichu and Incas of the far western coast of South America?    Did the Atlanteans relate to any of these, and if so, how?   I believe that, because he had much to say about the New World in connection with Atlantis, we really need to introduce a relatively moderate portion of Ignatius Donnelly's thoughts and conclusions into the equation!  
Special Note: Due to its extensive scope and size, I won't attempt to cover all the many aspects of Donnelly's work.  So for those people who wish to read his book in its entirety, I can only suggest the online version of his “Atlantis” book, of which the current Internet URL is to be found at the website address given below:

Ignatius Donelly on Atlantis
Let us begin then with perhaps the greatest champion of Atlantis - Ignatius Donnelly, whose great book: Altlantis, The Antediluvian World was first pubished in 1882 - and is STILL in print in 2001!    Donnelly's book contains a huge collection of data, legendary, geological and archaeological, which he had amassed over a long period of time to back up his beliefs.  He fully supported Plato's story with an extremely well-argued case, as would befit a long-standing, erudite senator for Minnesota, who had full access to explore all the resources of the vast Library of Congress.  Which he did, and very exhaustively, too!    Since Ignatius Donnelly produced a voluminous work on this topic I will try to only mention the major proposals that Donnelly has advanced in his magnificent opus: Atlantis, The Antediluvian World.   

The Reception of Donnelly's Book
As one might expect, Donnelly's highly-controversial Atlantis work attracted both enthusiastic support and deep skepticism on both sides of the Atlantic.  His skeptics strove immediately to challenge and ridicule his theory, both in its sources and its logic, and such skeptics still abound, even a full century later.  However, Britain's then Prime Minister, William Gladstone, was so completely convinced by Donnelly's carefully-reasoned and highly-persuasive work, that he sought to gain funds from the British Government to finance an expedition to scour the depths of the Atlantic Ocean for traces of the lost continent.  Sadly the skeptics also won the day in the British Parliament, and no funds were forthcoming for such a “madcap adventure”!

It was Donnelly's primary intent to prove conclusively to the full extent of his undoubted ability that Atlantis had once existed in factual reality as a large island-continent in the central Atlantic Ocean.  His utter faith in the truth of Plato's allegedly fabulous story was unshakable.  To Donnelly, Atlantis was, beyond all doubt, the very birthplace of western civilization.  He believed that its rulers and heroes were directly identifiable with the great deities of the Greeks, Scandinavians, Phoenicians and Hindus.   The great mythical activities of these various pantheons of gods were simply jumbled records of actual historical events and deeds of the Atlanteans!  

Donnelly viewed Atlantis as the essential aggregation in human memory of a real place which was the foundation of all the great legends, such as the Gardens of Eden, and of the Hesperides, Mount Olympus, and all other such mythical places that were fabled dwelling-places of peace, harmony and happiness.  Its people were sun-worshipers and they spread their religious beliefs wherever their vast merchant fleet conducted its trade.  From such far-flung places as Peru in the west, including all of the Americas, South, Central and North, across to Northern Europe and Scandinavia. From Britain, Spain, and coastal lands around the continent of Africa, including Ethiopia and Arabia via the Red Sea and perhaps as far east as western India.

His powerful imagination led him to deduce that the Atlanteans were the first to produce bronze and iron, and that their alphabet was the precursor of both the Phoenician alphabet and the Mayan glyphs.  In fact, in Donnelly's view, Atlantis was very likely the original homeland of both the Aryan Indo-Europeans and the Semitic peoples, including the Egyptians, Assyrians and Arabs!   It was also his opinion that after the ultimate destruction of Atlantis, the survivors of its submergence fled both to the east and the west, bearing tales of the cataclysm, and that these accounts became legends of universal deluges and massive inundations among many different nations.

     Because Plato was held, in the ninteenth century, to be a trusted scholar and philosopher, Donnelly had the greatest faith in his integrity, and believed completely that his account of Atlantis was founded upon fact.  Plato had described Atlantean history as that of a pragmatic race who built great temples, huge earthworks and ships, as well as many other marvellous machines. They were a race of human beings that traded with their friends and warred with their enemies.  Plato spoke very little of gods and heroes in his account, so it was no doubt this realistic attitude which convinced Donnelly that Plato was far above inventing fiction

On taking my first cursory glance through Ignatius Donnelly's Atlantis” book, I was forcibly reminded of the rather later series of books on The Lost continent of Mu”, published by Colonel James Churchward in the Mid-1920s to late 1930s.  I noted the same unswerving scholarly dedication to what must then have been a greatly scorned and ridiculed area of research.  What the Scientific Establishment of that day would have mockingly dismissed as “Fictitious Nonsense” or “Heathen Gibberish”.   Even though they themselves were the ones who had gladly welcomed Darwin's Origin of Species and Descent of Man with open arms and minds as if it were a miraculously truthful Godsend!    (Sadly, many otherwise seemingly learned and wise scientists still do!)

However, to return to Donnelly's excellently-researched opus.  It has more than just a ring of truth about it - although some sections are possibly a little outdated now - and I, for one, am convinced that he was on the right track.   In Chapter One, Donnelly sets out the purpose of his book, and the reader will doubtlessly bear with me if I quote verbatim some of his propositions and comments inscribed in this opening chapter from

Atlantis: The Antediluvian World.     Part 1.  Chapter 1.

This book is an attempt to demonstrate several distinct and novel propsitions. These are:

1.   That there once existed in the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea, a large island which was the remnant of an Atlantic continent, and known to the ancient world as Atlantis.

2.   That the description of this island given by Plato is not, as has long been supposed, fable, but veritable history.
3.  That Atlantis was the region where man first rose from a state of barbarism to civilization.

4.  That it became, in the course of ages, a populous and mighty nation, from whose overflowings the shores of the gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi River, the Amazon, the Pacific coast of South America, the Mediterranean, the west coast of Europe and Africa, the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Caspian were populated by civilized nations.

5.  That it was the true Antediluvian world; the Garden of Eden: the Gardens of the Heperides; the Elysian Fields; the Gardens of Alcinous; the Mesomphalos: the Olympos: the Asgard of the traditions of the ancient nations; representing a universal memory of a great land, where mankind dwelt for ages in peace and happiness.

6.  That the gods and goddesses of the ancient Greeks, the Hindoos, and the Scandinavians were simply the kings, queens, and heroes of Atlantis; and that the acts attributed to them in mythology are a confused recollection of real historic events.    
7.  That the mythology of Egypt and Peru represented the original religion of Atlantis, which was sun-worship.
8.  That the oldest colony formed by the Atlanteans was probably in Egypt, whose civilization was a reproduction of that of the Atlantic island.

9.   That the implements of the Bronze Age of Europe were derived from Atlantis.   The Atlanteans were also the first manufacturers of iron.

10. That the Phoenician alphabet, parent of all European alphabets, was derived from an Atlantean alphabet, which was also conveyed to the Mayas of Central America.

11. That Atlantis was the original seat of the Aryan or Indo-European family of nations, as well as of the Semitic peoples, and possibly also of  the Turanian races.  (The Persians and the Turks)

12.  That Atlantis perished in a terrible convulsion of nature, in which the whole island sunk into the ocean, with nearly all its inhabitants.

13.  That a few persons escaped in ships and on rafts, and carried to the nations east and west the tidings of the appallling catastrophe, which has survived to our own time in the Flood and Deluge legends of the different nations of the old and new worlds.

Donnelly then goes on to explain the important effects that these propositions will have upon mankind if proven true - especially with regard to our understanding of religious beliefs and our historical knowledge, both of which would be widened, and how many of the remarkable similarities that exist between ancient civilizations of both Old and New Worlds would be explained.    He also points out that such proofs would help us to re-establish our kinship and bloodline-ties with these people who lived genteel civilized lives long before the Aryans descended upon India, or the Phoenicians setted in Syria, or the Goths reached the shores of the Baltic.    He also adds the following pithy remarks:

“The fact that the story of Atlantis was for thousands of years regarded as a fable proves nothing.  There is an unbelief which grows out of ignorance, as well as a scepticism which is born of intelligence.  The people nearest to the past are not always those who are best informed concerning the past.   

For a thousand years it was believed that the legends of the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were myths: they were spoken of as “the fabulous cities.”     For a thousand years the educated world did not credit the accounts given by Herodotus of the onders of the ancient civilizations of the Nile and of Chaldea.  He was called “the father of liars.”   Even Plutarch sneered at him.   Now, in the language of Frederick Schegel, “the deeper and more comprehensive the researches of the moderns have been, the more their regard and esteem for Herodotus has increased.”   Buckle says, “His minute information about Egypt and Asia Minor is admitted by all geographers.”
There was a time when the expedition sent out by Pharaoh Necho to circumnavigate Africa was doubted, because the explorers stated that after they had progressed a certain distance the sun was north of them; this circumstance, which aroused suspicion, now proves to us that the Egyptian navigators had really passed the equator, and anticipated by 2100 years Vasquez de Gama in his discovery of the Cape of Good Hope.

If I succeed in demonstrating the truth of the somewhat startling propositions with which I commenced this chapter, it will only be by bringing to bear upon the question of Atlantis a thousand converging lines of light from a multitude of researches made by scholars in different fields of modern thought.  Further invest-igations and discoveries will, I trust, confirm the correctness of the conclusions at which I have arrived.”
Let us now proceed to follow Donnelly's thinking, even if only in basic outline form for the sake of brevity, as he develops his propositions and theories further….

A Quick Run Through Donnelly's Book  
     In the interests of time and space within this document, and with the expectation that the reader will take the time to read through Atlantis:The Antediluvian World”, I have decided to first hurry through the first part of the book with some speed, selecting any key elements which I feel need to be updated, in order to relate better with current 21st century knowledge and thought on Atlantis and its catastrophe.   Then I shall return to consider the ancient MesoAmerican ramifications of Donnelly's conclusions regarding the influence of Atlantis upon its neighbouring lands.

     After a reiteration of Plato's history of Atlantis, via an imagined dialogue between Critias and Socrates, Donnelly discusses the probability of Plato's story being true. Like myself, he concludes that it must have been a historically correct account, for the same reasons.   He next goes on to ask if such a catastrophe was possible, and if so how did it happen?   He then goes into various disatrous volcanic explosions which all destroyed islands around the world.  Unfortunately Donnelly's book was already published just one year before one of the greatest such disasters in history. This was the explosion of the volcanic island of Krakatoa, in Indonesia, between Java and Sumatra, which took an enormous toll in human life and produced spectacular atmospheric lighting effects by its pulverised dustcloud in the upper atmosphere for many months afterwards!  

Donnelly then delves into the testimony of the sea - or rather the seabed - as revealed by the rough-and-ready deep-sea “weighted-line” soundings of his day.  By and large, these indicated much of what has been confirmed since by more hi-tech methods, regarding a large uneven submarine plateau in the cenral region of the Atlantic, the volcanic peaks of which still protrude from the ocean to form the Azores group.   However, Donnelly was born too early to know that there is a long volcanic ridge with a central rift that continually oozes magma, running the entire length of the Atlantic, from the North Pole right down toward the south polar region!   

From what uncertain traces of this ridge the sounding vessels were able to detect, he concludes that a long arm of Atlantis connected it to South America and on down the Atlantic, almost touching Africa at one point.  He concluded that this central ridge must be the sunken backbone of the elongated Atlantean landmass.   
However, we now know, thanks to the newly emerged science of crustal expansion between continents, that this extended ridge is really quite unrelated to Atlantis, and that this same expansional mechanism may be steadily removing all geological traces of the continent's subsidence  Still, one has to admire Donnelly's amazing conclusions drawn from so little real data!
I will skip over his chapter on flora and fauna here, since it is not so immediately relevant to the main issue of the actual existence of Altantis.  Interested readers can check this biological evidence out for themselves from his book.   But his following chapters on the Deluge Legends and the Biblical Deluge are of more immediate interest, since there are many who tend to attribute the submergence of Atlantis to this cause, rather than its subsidence and sinking by tectonic action.  

From its very title, we have to assume that Donnelly is discussing Atlantis prior to the Deluge or Flood, not only of the Bible, but similar Deluge records of many other peoples outside the orbit of the Hebrew Book of Genesis.  And he makes this clear as he goes along.   However, I personally don't necessarily connect the drowning or inundation of Atlantis with any such localized or even worldwide-flood, Biblical or otherwise.  Nor, I believe, did Donnelly.  I feel that, given the heavily-religious climate of thought in the late 1880s, he was duty-bound to give this possibility some sort of an airing, even if only to avoid being regarded as a heathen and a heretic.  Darwin had already created a furore many years earlier with his ideas on evolution, and had brought himself into bad odor among upright Christans.  

Inundated or just Plain Sunk?
True, I believe it possible that there may well have been a rapid rise in world sea-level due to a sudden melting of the polar ice packs - possibly associated with a polar topple or tilt - which caused the Atlantic to overflow the Atlas mountain-chain and fill up the Mediterranean basin - and subsequently the Black Sea, via the Bosporus.    Thanks to modern marine technology and bathymetric advances, this has been conclusively proven to be true.   But I remain convinced that the sinking of Atlantis was due solely to a tectonic upheaval, and that the so-called “Deluge” occurred much later on in time.  As I have already hinted, the filling of the Mediterranean might have been a long-term follow-up event from the same tectonic collapse that sank Atlantis, as the lower strata of the local crustal area shifted and settled even further.  

This flooding itself might easily have been the origin of the Old World “Deluge” legend.   But it still doesn't account for the legend of a very similar “Deluge” in the Asia-Pacific region. There is, nevertheless, traditional evidence for a “Deluge” in the Americas.   
Donnelly mentions such an American “Deluge” in his chapter on The Deluges of America: “Atlantis and the western continent had from an immemorial age held intercourse with each other: the great nations of America were simply colonies of Atlantis, sharing in its civilization, language, religion, and blood.   From Mexico to the peninsula of Yucatan, from the shores of Brazil to the heights of Bolivia and Peru, from the gulf of Mexico to the headwaters of the Mississippi River, the colonies of Atlantis extended; and therefore it is not strange to find, as Alfred Maury says, American traditions of the Deluge coming nearer to that of the Bible and the Chaldean record than those of any peoples of the Old World.”    

Churchward versus Donnelly?
As I may have already pointed out, Donnelly wrote his book some 38 years before Churchward produced his own masterly work on The Lost Continent of Mu, in which he demonstrated (at least to my satisfaction) how that mid-Pacific continent (or group of continents) sank after the explosion of highly-pressured natural gas-chambers deep in the underlying crust.  An explosion that was due, I understand, to them being ignited by the intrusion of molten lava from surrounding magma layers.  The gas could have been a mephitic by-product of local volcanic formations.  Alternatively, it might have been plain methane gas, produced in the formation of hydrocarbon oil from decayed and compressed biological matter, which is obtained from such chambers via deep-drilled oil wells.    

These chambers, once emptied of the highly-pressurized gas, would inevitably collapse under the enormous weight of overlying rock and ocean.   Thus they could cause a great and sudden subsidence of the upper crustal layers, to depths of anywhere between hundreds or even thousands of feet, depending on their original volume and height.  This is my first major difference with Donnelly's view, in which he appears to simply credit a vast volcanic explosion as the sole and complete cause of its demise.

Is Civilization Inherent?
     Donnelly next discusses civilization and whether or not it is an inherent feature of our species.   He points to the past and our supposed advances in this area then makes the profound statement that: “In six thousand years the world made no advance on the civilization which it received from Atlantis”.   That's quite a statement!   He says that whilst Phoenicia, Egypt, Chaldea, India, Greece and Rome passed on the torch from one to the other, they added nothing to such arts as architecture, sculpture, painting, mining, metallurgy, navigation, ceramics and glassware, or to road, bridge or canal construction!   

And whilst this modern age of ours has entered an alleged “new era”, by subjugating steam, electricity, and now even atomic energy, we have still only really begun to catch up with the backlog from the Atlantean technologies list.  In actual truth, we are still living in an age of barbarism, and it will still take many thousands of years for us to attain again to that once “Golden Age of long-forgotten technology and truly civilized culture.  To all evident intents and purposes, we are still only just managing to hold the status quo.  Human civilization in the 21st century is merely “Marking Time”!   

He then goes on to point out that civilization isn't communicable to all - many savages are incapable of it.  We humans, he claims, are divided into two groups. Civilized and savage.   However, I personally wonder if it's really that clear-cut, and if even those of the races which are supposedly cultured in the arts and crafts, really only wear civilization in the form of a smooth outer “veil” over a rough hide of natural savagery.  One which can be discarded at a second's notice if the wearer is goaded sufficiently!     

One has only to think of the horrendous events that took place in ancient Rome, once hailed as being the heart of world civilization, and then compare that to the horrors of savagery to which the civilized nations have descended since Donnelly's time!   Two major world Wars in which unspeakable acts of debased savagery and butchery were perpetrated, not just by the Germans and Japanese and their allies, but by all the parties involved, in one manner or another.  As well as the dramatic decline in Western morality and civility since then.   

Can we seriously delude ourselves into believing that any of our own modern nations are not suffering from the same downhill slide of morality, honour, trust, chivalry, religion, and true appreciation of real art and music that once were the hallmarks of civilization?    We need only look at the soaring crime-rate, and the ever-deepening decline in moral values - Lack of religious values, pornography, blatant homosexuality, child-prostitution, paedophilia and drug-addiction.  Not to mention all the evils that follow in their wake: AIDS, rape, home-invasions, cowardly attacks upon the aged and frail for drug-money, and rampant depression and suicide.  No. It is all too clear that civilization isn't an inheritance, nor is it a true reality in today's world, either!

What Does “Modern Civilization” Mean?
All we mean today by modern civilization is simply the preparedness of a group of totally dissimilar people from many different cultures to share living-space and public amenities in common; to live cheek by jowl with people they dislike; to allow their children to be forcibly brainwashed into accepting a corrupt “ethical and legal” code and to be taught a pack of outrageous theories disguised as “fact” and “history”.  And, as if this weren't enough, to allow themselves to be governed, taxed, administered and directed by an over-large body of egocentric, power-hungry, “get-rich-quick”, ineffectual political opportunists and a veritable army of so-called “public-servants” (who mostly serve only themselves), whom the populace totally distrust, and wouldn't allow into their homes!    

Moving On
Donnelly then goes into a rambling diatribe about the identity of civilizations in both old and New World.  However, it is essentially a sort of catalogue of the different customs, relgions and mythologies of various ancient “civilizations”, the origins of which which Donnelly attempts to relate back to Atlantis.   So I will skim over this chapter, and leave the reader to delve into it at his or her leisure from Donnelly's original text.    

Central American Evidences of Atlantean Influence?
In Chapter III of Part III, he discusses “American Evidences of Intercourse with Europe or Atlantis”.   This is getting closer to what we are seeking, as he goes into the clear evidences in Central American legends and religious beliefs, which can only be related to visits by people from the Old World.   He begins by describing those MesoAmerican cultural influences which could only have come from the East - such as are today found in Europe, Africa, or the Middle East region of Asia,   

But what Donnelly is really saying is that the true origin of all such cultures was Atlantis - since many of the Old World nations themselves appear to have derived many aspects of their own seemingly “native”cultures from a single common source.   I will not attempt to go into any detail about the many examples which Donnelly points out, but will again leave readers to discover them for themselves from his book.   

Most of these, however, are basically a recital from such works as the Popol Vuand other Olmec, Mayan or Aztec legends, regarding strangers arriving in ships from the direction of the Rising Sun.  Often gray-bearded men who taught them many skills, arts and crafts, including the recording of the days, years and seasons by means of the calendar.   Also it would seem that much of the MesoAmerican etymology has been strongly influenced by the common tongue of the Atlanteans.   That great leader and god of the ancient Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl, (better known as the “Feathered Serpent”) is inferred by Donnelly to have been an Atlantean sage.

Difficulties With Dates
However, here I have to say that I personally wonder if any part of Atlantis was still in existence during the time of the Aztecs or even their ancestors, the Maya and Olmecs, since they are now believed to have first come upon the scene around 2,000 - 1,500 BC, and the last remnants of Atlantis are claimed by Plato to have sunk in 9,600 BC!   I feel that here we may really be looking at a bearded European, quite possibly from Ireland or Britain, according to his description!   We know that both the Welsh and Saint Brendan are reputed to have sailed to Central America, as well as other northern people, such as the Vikings from Scandinavia, long before the advent of Columbus.   

Thus it's possible that Queltzalcoatl (who is the Kuculcan of the Toltecs, and the Gucumatz of the Maya, but still the “Feathered Serpent” to them all) might possibly have been white-bearded man from northern Europe, (like the Viracocha of the Inca), who taught them the arts of agriculture, science, numbers, and the idea of the calendar.

According to Donnelly, the Olmecs and the Xicalaucans were the most important, since they were the forerunners of the Toltecs in Mexico, and “they came from the East in ships or barks to the land of Pochantan, which they proceeded to populate.”  Furthermore, according to his introduction of a translation of the Popol Vuh by the Abbe Brasseur de Bourburg, (who also translated the Aztec “Codex Chimalpopoca”), both the kingdom of Xibalba and Atlantis itself bore striking parallels: “both countries are magnificently fertile, and abound in the precious metals.  The empire of Atlantis was divided into ten kingdoms, governed by five couples of twin sons of Poseidon, the eldest (Atlas) being supreme over the others; and the ten constituted a tribunal that managed the affairs of the empire.  Their descendants governed after them.  

The ten kings of Xibalba*, who reigned (also in couples) under Hun-Came and Vikub-Came (and who together constituted a grand council of the kingdom), certainly furnish curious points of comparison.  And there is wanting neither a catastrophe - for Xibalba had a terrific inundation - nor the name of Atlas, of which the etymology is found only in the Nahuatl tongue: it comes from “atl”, “water”, and we know that a city of Atlan** (“near the water”) still existed on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama at the time of the Conquest.”    (Note. * It is interesting to discover, that according to modern Mayan myth, Xibalba was actually the Underworld of the Maya!  Could Donnelly have been unaware of this?   ** “Atlan”, or “Aztlan”, of course, means “Atlantis”.)  

Donelly remarks that “Plato tells us that Atlantis and the Atlantic Ocean were so named after Atlas, the eldest son of Poseidon, the founder of the kingdom.”  And the prefix (and often suffix also) Atl (which means “water”), often crops up in ancient MesoAmerican Nahuatl language of the Aztecs, such as Quetzelcoatl, Ehecatl and Omecihuatl which are all names of Aztec gods.  This immediately makes one think again about the possibility of a direct connection between Atlantis and the Meso-Americans, regardless of the apparent wide differences of dates.  Could Plato have perhaps been misinformed regarding the date he gave for the demise of Atlantis - or were the last vestigial remnants of the Atlantean Empire still lingering in some modified form among the Maya, the Olmecs, Toltecs, and thus down finally to the Aztecs?    We have no way of verifying Plato's dating of the demise of Atlantis, but we can be much more sure of the Mesoamerican dates, so once again, as with the war between the Athenians and Atlantis, we run into a stone wall in attempting to establish any firm dates on the events surrounding Atlantis.

One feasible solution to this conundrum is to consider that Atlantis might possibly have actually been engulfed after the time-slot Plato ascribed to that event, and also possibly after the time of the filling of the Mediterranean Valley by the inflow of the Atlantic Ocean.  Such a re-dating, however, would in no way compromise the original existence of the Osirian Empire in the Mediterranean Valley, or of their eventual ascent into Libya and their subsequent settlement in the brand-new land of Egypt.  If anything, this would actually serve to enhance the likelihood of Egypt having become an Osirian country whilst Atlantis still existed.   

This would then account for Sonchis, the chief priest of the holy city of Sais, being so vastly well-informed about Atlantis when he talked with Plato's great-ancestor, Solon, because Sonchis may have actually visited that land and spoke from his own personal knowledge of it and its people!  It would also then allow for a direct hand-to-hand war to be fought between the classical Athenians and Atlantis, since they could sail directly into the Mediterranean Sea up to Greece.   So, unless Donnelly can produce a convincing argument against this, further on in his book, I am prepared to stand by the thought that Plato - whilst not a liar - could easily have been given incorrect information as to dates.  Thus if we move the final submergence of Atlantis forward by perhaps a few thousand years, we will find that all the pieces of the puzzle fall into place quite well.   
However, on the other hand, it might well be true that the major sinking of the largest island of Atlantis did occur when Plato said it did, but that some final Atlantean island outposts might still have remained until far more recent times.  (His ancestor, Solon, incidentally, was created the sole Archon (Ruling Magistrate) of Athens in 594 BC, and Plato was a noted Greek philosopher some 200 years later.)   

This is, in fact, borne out quite well by a very close reading of what Critias told his audience in the Dialogues, regarding what Sonchis of Sais told Solon.   Sonchis told him in around 550 BC, that 9,000 years had passed since the the war between the Atlanteans and the original Athenians (who subsequently became the Greeks), and that during that 9,000 years many great deluges had occurred, and that the consequence was that, in comparison to what Atlantis once was, “and what little now remained (in the form of islets), were like the bones of a wasted body.   

Was an Atlantean-Athenian War possible?
With regard to the alleged Atlantean-Athenian War.  This problem calls for a little applied common sense. It should be noted as a matter of historical fact that Athens in very ancient times was not the powerful city-state we learned about in college.  It was the Pelasgian town of Athenae.   The Pelasgians were the prehistoric inhabitants of what we now know as Greece and who had originated in west-central Asia. Their occupation of the Athenae region probably dated back to around 4,000-3,500 BC, even before Khem and Kush (later to become Egypt) began to be settled by nomadic farmers.  

The historically-famed Athenians* did not exist at the time of Atlantis' demise, so it must have been their ancient Pelasgian precursors from Athenae, who fought the stranded descended remnants of the Atlantean Army, who came overland from their secondary capital in Cadiz or Gades, (named after Gadir, the second son of Poseidon.  (Poseidon's first son, the elder of a pair of twins, was Atlas, who was created the first King of Atlantis, which country was named after him).     
(*An interesting sidelight in relation to the historically-famed classical Athenians - renowned for their exploit against Troy, circa 1,200 BC, in which they used the ploy of the giant wooden“Trojan Horse” to gain entry into the besieged city.  Heinrich Schleimann's great discovery of ancient Troy was actually made in Turkey, and not in Greece, as so many people tend to imagine!)
Donnelly on Racial Appearance
     In Chapter 5, Donnelly focusses his attention on the racial characteristics of the people of the world at large and how they might have related to those of Atlanteans.   He points out the general misconception as to the actual coloring of European and American races, (by which, of course, he means ancient or aboriginal Americans, and not the present complex mixture of racial features and colors seen in modern-day Americans).  

     He shows that although Europe was (in his day) supposed to be exclusively peopled by white men, in reality, every shade of color was represented, from the fairest of Swedes to the darker complexions of Mediterranean coastal inhabitants: “only a shade lighter than the Berbers or Moors, on the opposite side of that sea.”  One cannot help but wonder what his reaction would be today to find every major city in every Western nation thronged with people of every imaginable color and race!    He continues on to mention that the same gross error has been applied to the idea that all Indians are “red men” of the same hue, from Hudson's Bay to Patagonia.   

However, he indicates that “almost every shade, from the ash-color of the Menominees through the cinnamon-red, copper and bronze tints, may be found among the tribes formerly occupying the territory east of the Mississippi, until we reach the dark-skinned Kaws of Kansas, who are nearly as black as the negro.”   Then he adds that: “The variety of complexion is as great in South America as among the tribes of the northern part of the continent.”     In short, over the following couple of pages he indicates, from several authoritative sources, that the indiginous native Indians of America possess the same degree of wide variation in skin, eye, and hair color as might be found among the races of Europe or the USA!

He then continues by discussing the racial types that are said to have descended from Adam, and that not only were his own direct Adamic descent “red” men, with ruddy skins, but so too were the Cushites, Ethiopeans and Phoenicians, whom Donnelly describes as all being of Atlantean stock, as also were the ancient Egyptians.  The Arabs, however, (although in my own view of direct Semitic descent, just as were the Hebrews,) were claimed to be distinguished into two races, one red, the other black.
He points to the fact that whilst the ancient Egyptians were themselves red men, they recognized four races of men - the red, yellow, black and white men.  In Egyptian art, they represented themselves as being red-brown skinned, and they colored the Palestinians as yellow-brown, and the Libyans as yellow-white.    But curiously, in all this, Donnelly seems to have overlooked the jet-black Nubians, the blue-black Tuaregs, and the dark-brown Berbers!    However, he does mention that “Herodotus tells us that there was a nation of Libyans called the Maxyans, who claimed descent from the people of Troy (the walls of Troy, we shall see, were buit by Poseidon: that is to say, Troy was an Atlantean colony).”     But here I must pose an important question: If Donnelly is telling us here that all of these races emanated originally from Atlantis, why does he not include the black men?   Especially since the Olmecs seemed to have venerated ebony-black persons of high rank, if not been such themselves!   

Giant Stone Olmec Heads
     I believe that we should pay some particular attention to the fact that Negroid people were not only present in Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula some 1500 years BC, but they were regarded as persons of high standing.  This is evident from the production of these great solid stone-carved heads, which weighed several tons apiece, and must therefore have been objects of almost religious veneration and great significance.  The faces of these heads themselves are quite unmistakably negroid, and they are shown as wearing some form of banded helmet with ear-protectors.  These are either soldier's helmets, or the type of headgear that might be used in certain rough sports, such as football or ice hockey.    

To my mind, this indicates that they may have represented either a warrior-class of the Olmec race, or possibly a class of Negro superstar sports-heroes, rather after the style of the Harlem Globetrotters.   However, before we go leaping to the idea that maybe the Maya and Olmecs were in the habit of importing negroid athletes or warriors, we should also ponder those curious little figurines of Olmec priests, which have been discovered standing in circular groups around some form of totem-stone.  These were carved from some jet-black stone and all appear to have deliberately elongated skulls!   

It is known that many of these curiously elongated skulls have been found, and there is every indication that they are the result of deliberate artificial malformation since infancy.  This is still done in certain parts of Asia, by tightly bandaging the feet of growing female children to give them a permanently small and dainty appearance.  There is every reason to believe that this same method was used on Mayan and Olmec children to produce the curiously-elongated heads that are so often seen in ancient Mesoamerican drawings and carvings.  It's my guess that this strange deformation was perhaps confined only to the nobility.   

There is certainly no sign of it in the large helmeted stone Negroid heads found in the jungles around La Venta in Mexico.   The presence of Negroid people in Central America is not so surprising when one sees that many modern investigative scholars are coming to the conclusion that the Negros are not necessarily the original indiginous inhabitants of Africa. They are believed to have originated elsewhere - perhaps even in MU, as Chuchward believed - or even in Atlantis, according to some researchers.  

However, my own theory is that Churchward may have been right, and that, after the Muvian catastrophe, most of the negroid race (many of whom still inhabit the southwestern Pacific region, in places like Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Australia) fled eastwards instead.  After residing in Central America for some generations, they made their way gradually across Atlantis - again taking several generations  - and then to Africa, a short boat trip away, where they finally decided to sink their roots.  This isn't any more far-fetched than the Celts of Ireland and Scotland migrating over many generations across the whole of Europe from Central Asia, via the Slavic lands of the southern Danube. Or of the Innuits of northern Canada migrating from northern Asia, via a long-submerged landbridge that existed before the Bering Strait was inundated.   

Back To Donnelly
     To continue with our tour of Donnelly's book. We find that the next few chapters are essentially an attempt to posit the Garden of Eden in Atlantis, as well as the general early history of mankind as outlined in the Book of Genesis.   He indicates many parallels between the ancient tribal customs of the world as well as religious similarities.   
Whilst he offers many seemingly-convincing parallels, even including the development of alphabets and bronze age artifacts, I tend to feel somewhat skeptical in this regard.   The nations of the world could just as easily have learned many of these customs, beliefs and metal working skills from foreign visitors, or by visiting other lands themselves.  The coincidence of the coming of a wide-spread Bronze Age could very easily have been due simply to the passing on of technology in this manner. It doesn't necessarily imply that those races were all living together upon one island-continent.

The same thing could have also applied to written alphabets, but I am not convinced at all that the alphabets of the various nations were all stemmed from a single fundamental Atlantean script.  And in any case, since Donnelly is so convinced that the Maya or Olmec were essentially Atlantean, why did they not continue to develop a regular written script like so many others did?   Instead, their written language degenerated further and further into a system of graphic, technical-looking ikons, rather than the definitely written inscription languages of the Phoenicians, Hebrews and Greeks.  

The only ones who could in any way be compared to the Mesoamericans in this aspect are the ancient Egyptians, who also relied largely upon hieroglyphs for most public and religiously communicative purposes.  But even they eventually developed a “demotic script”, a sloping cursive form of scribing down their hieroglyphs, for the simple sake of speed in setting down lengthy communications, if for no other reason.    No doubt the Mayans and their descendants did the same, but materials such as papyrus paper, would not last long in such a humid climate as prevails in Central America.  

Parchments, kidskins, and pulped reed or other vegetable-based documents seem to have weathered the millennia far better in the Old World than in the New, particularly in the dessicated desert regions of Egypt and the Middle East.   But I will concede Donnelly his connections between Egypt and MesoAmerica via Atlantis, since they both have much more in common with each other than either do with any other land.   True pictographic icon-based alphabets, pyramid-building, similar royal and priestly classes, and, of course, religions based upon sun-worship, although this latter was not unique to them.   

However, one should aways remember that the Churchward's Lost World of Mu was also renowned as a sun-worshipping civilization, and thus probably comes closer to claiming the origin of this ancient practice.   Their God was Ramu, that of the Indian sub-continent was Rama and that of the Peruvians was Raymi, so it isn't hard to make out a good case for the Egyptian sun-god, Ra, as being rather stemmed from ancient Mu rather than from Atlantis - as also might Atlantean sun-worship also have been!    

Another Solution!
There is only one other way in which this connection could have come about, and that is if we look upon Atlantis as being itself originally an offshoot or colony of Mu!   If we could accept this, it would at once solve a multitude of vexing problems and stumbling blocks.   It seems obvious to me that, since Donnelly was involved in the pursuit of antiquarian matters so much earlier than Churchward, he simply had no way of making such a connection.  However, I am more than happy to offer that connection here and now as an intriguing alternative - and as a solution to the entire puzzle!    I will endeavour to elaborate on that particular concept in a further article.   But, for the present, I must get on and finish my brief analysis of Donnelly's great work.   
Kings and Gods.
After discussing the sun-worship of many lands, from Peru, throughout the Mediterranean, to the Middle East and India, Donnelly comments upon Atlantean sun-worship as follows (and I trust that the reader will forgive me if I abbreviate his words):  
“Sun-worship as the ancient religion of Atlantis, underlies all the superstitions of the colonies of that country.  The Samoyed woman says to the sun, “When thou, god, risest, I too rise from my bed.”   The Brahmans stand on one foot, with their hands held out before them and their faces turned to the east, adoring the sun.  In Germany or France, one may still see the peasant take off his hat to the rising sun.  The Romans, even in later times, worshipped the sun as Emesa, under the name of Elagabalus, typified in the form of a black conical stone, which was believed to have fallen from heaven.  This was the emblem of Bel (or Baal).  Did it have relation to the mounds and pyramids?

“Sun-worship was the primitive religion of the red men of America. It was found among all the tribes. The Chichimecs called the sun their father.   The Comanches have a similar belief.

“But compared with such ancient nations as the Egyptians and Babylonians, the Greeks were as children.   Sonchis the high priest of Sais said to Solon: “You Greeks are novices in knowledge of antiquity.  You are ignorant of what passed either here or among yourselves in days of old.   The history of eight thousand years is deposited in our ancient books, but I can ascend to a much higher antiquity, and tell you what our fathers have done for nine thousand years; I mean their institutions, their laws and their most brilliant acheivements.”

“The Greeks, too young to have shared in the religion of Atlantis, but preserving some memory of that great country, proceeded to convert its kings into gods, and to depict Atlantis as the heaven of the human race.   Thus we find a great solar or nature worship in the elder nations, while Greece has nothing but an incongruous jumble of gods and goddesses, who are born to eat and drink and make love and ravish and steal and die; and who are worshipped as immortal in presence of the very monuments that testify to their death.  

“These deities to whom the affairs of the world were intrusted, were, it is believed, immortal, though not eternal in their existence.  In Crete there was even a story of the death of Zeus, his tomb being pointed out.  

“The history of Atlantis is the key of the Greek mythology.  There can be no question that these gods of Greece were human beings.   The tendency to attach divin e attributes to great earthly rulers is one deeply implante in human nature.  The savages who killed Captain Cook firmly believed that he was immortal, that he was yet alive, and would return to punish them.  The highly civilized Romans made gods out of their dead emperors.  Doctor Livingstone mentions that on one occasion, after talking to a Bushman for some time about the Deity (God), he found that the savage thought he was speaking of the local chief of the district.

“We find the barbarians of the Mediterranean coast regarded the civilized people of Atlantis with awe and wonder: “Their physical strength was extraordinary, the earth shaking sometimes under their tread.  Whatever was done was done speedily.  They moved through space almost without the loss of a moment of time.”   This probably alluded to the rapid motion of their sailing vessels.   “They were wise, and communicated their wisdom to men.”  That is to say, they civilized the people they came into contact.    “They had a strict sense of justice, and punished crime rigorously, and rewarded noble actions, though it is true they were less conspicuous for the latter.”   We should understand this to mean that where they civilized, they established a government of law, as contradistiguished from the anarchy of barbarism.

“There were tales of personal visits and adventures of the gods among men, taking part in battles and appearing in dreams.  They were conceived to possess the form of human beings, and to be, like men, subject to love and pain, but always characterized by the highest qualities and grandest forms that could be imagined.

“Another proof that the gods of the Greeks were but the deified kings of Atlantis is found in the fact that the gods were not looked upon as having created the world.  They succeeded to the management of a world already in existence.

“The gods dwelt on Olympus.  They lived together like human beings; they possessed palaces, storehouses, stables, horses, etc; they dwelt in a social state which was but a magnified reflection of the social system on earth.  Quarrels, love passages, mutual assistance, and such instances as characterize human life, were ascribed to them.

“Where was Olympus?  It was in Atlantis.  It was a great island, the then civilized world.  The encircling ocean was spoken of in all the ancient legends.  Okeanus lived there with his wife, Tethys.  These were the Islands of the Blessed, the garden of the gods, the sources of nectar and ambrosia on which the gods lived.  Nectar was probably a fermented intoxicating liquor, and ambrosia a bread made from wheat.  Soma was a kind of whiskey, and the hindoos deified it.  “The gods lived on nectar and ambrosia” simply meant that these blessed islands were civilized, and possessed a liquor of some sort and a species of food superior to anything in use among the barbarous tribes with whom they came in contact.

“This blessed land answers to the description of Atlantis.  It was an island full of wonders.  It lay spread out in the ocean like a disk,with mountains rising from it.  On the highest point of this mountain dwelt Zeus (the king), while the mansions of the other deities were arranged upon plateaus, or in ravines lower down the mountain.  These deities, including Zeus were twelve in number: Zeus, (Jupiter), Hera (Juno), Poseidon (Neptune), Demeter (Ceres), Apollo, Artemis (Diana), Hephaestos (Vulcan), Pallas Athena (Minerva), Hermes (Mercury), and Hestia (Vesta).  (NB. The second name in parentheses of each Grecian god is its equivalent in the  Roman pantheon.)   

“According to the traditions of the Phoenicians, the Gardens of the Hesperides were in the remote west.  Atlas lived in these gardens - and Atlas, as we have seen, was the King of Atlantis.  The Elysian Fields (the Happy Isles) were also commonly placed in the remote west, and were ruled over by Kronos.  Tartarus, the region of Hades, the gloomy home of the Dead, was also located under the mountains of an island in the midst of the ocean in the remote west.   Atlas was described in Greek mythology as “an enormous giant, who stood upon the western confines of the earth and supported the heavens on his shoulders, in a region of the west where the sun continued to shine after he had set upon Greece.

“Greek tradition located the island in which Olympus was situated “in the Far West” in the ocean beyond Africa…where the mighty Atlas “held up the heavens.”  And Plato tells us that the land where Atlas and Poseidon ruled was Atlantis.

“The Garden of the Hesperides”(another name for the dwelling-place of the gods)” was situated at the extreme limit of Africa.  Atlas was said to have surrounded it on every side with high mountains, and it is here that we find the golden apples!  This is very much like the description which Plato gives of the great plain of Atlantis, covered with fruit of every kind, and surrounded by precipitous mountains descending to the sea!

Donnelly then goes on to add further back-ups to his claim for Atlantis as the home of the first Greeks (who became their gods), by telling us that Chronos (Saturn), Dionysios (Bacchus), Hyperion, Atlas and Hercules, were all connected with a great Saturnian continent, and that they were all kings of countries on the western shores of the Mediterranean, Africa, and Spain.  One account says that Hyperion, Atlas and Kronos were sons of Uranos, who ruled a great country around the western end of the Mediterranean, together with “certain islands in the Atlantic”.  Uranos succeeded his father, and was then killed by the Titans.  The kingdom was then divided between Atlas who took Northwestern Africa (where we now find the Atlas mountains), together with the “Atlantic islands”, and Kronos (Saturn) taking those lands on the “opposite shores of the Mediterranean to Italy and Sicily.”  (Tunisia and Libya, or Albania and Greece?)     

But it is here that Donnelly undoes much of his good work by dwelling overlong upon the Greeks and their possible royal connections with Atlantis, and attempting to make absolutely too much of a good thing.  Unfortunately, there were twelve Titans, and we have already been told that Atlantis (and its Empire) was always ruled by ten kings or princes!   So on that rather sadly damaging note, I think that it is time to move on and complete our whirlwind tour of Donnelly's book!    

Readers who wish to pursue this connection with the ancient Greeks and their Olympian pantheon in fuller detail can do so in Donnelly's book.    I will simply sum up this section on how“The Kings of Atlantis Become the Gods of the Greeks” with Donnelly's own conclusions, which are as follows:
“It is not necessary to pursue the study of the gods of Greece any farther.   They were simply barbarian recollections of the rulers of a great civilized people who in early days visited their shores and brought with them the arts of peace.   Here then, in conclusion, are the proofs of our proposition…

1.  They were not the makers, but the rulers of the world.

They were human in their attributes; they loved, sinned, and fought battles, the very sites of which are given; they founded cities, and civilized the people of the shores of the Mediterranean.

3.  They dwelt upon an island in the Atlantic. “in the remote west”…Where the sun shines after it has ceased to shine on Greece.”

Their land was destroyed in a deluge.

They were ruled over by Poseidon and Atlas.

Their empire extended to Egypt and Italy and the shores of Africa, precisely as stated  
by Plato.

They existed during the Bronze Age and at the beginning of the Iron Age.

The entire Greek Mythology is the recollection by a degenerate race, of a vast, mighty and highly civilized empire, which, in a remotepast, covered large parts of Europe, Asia, Africa and America.    

Note.       Since the next portion of Donnelly's extremely in-depth opus relates to the gods of Phoenicia and of Scandinavia also being the Kings of Atlantis, as well as an ineffectual endeavour to identify Atlantis with the Garden of Eden, which I believe to be a stretch of credulity, I think it will be better, in the interests of brevity, to avoid more rambling complexity, and move on to an area of discussion that will be of greater interest to most readers. some further supportive remarks by Donnelly regarding Atlantean Meso-american and Aryan colonies, and a direct connection between Egypt and Atlantis.

Atlantean Central American Colonies
     Since the western shores of Atlantis were so close to the American continent, there would have been little difficulty for people in ships to “island-hop” between the two. When Columbus arrived in that region, he found that the local natives made such journeys quite easily in open canoes.  It is highly probable that after the first discovery of their proximity with each other, there would very soon have been a thriving trading of goods between the Mesoamericans and Atlanteans much like that which occurred between natives of a newly discovered land and the Hudson Bay Company in Canada or the British East India Company in the Far East.   

As Donnelly says,  (and I trust that the reader will understand if I edit some of his rather long-winded verbage in the interests of brevity): “We can therefore readily believe that trade between Atlantis and Yucatan, Honduras and Mexico, created colonies along the shores of the Gulf, that gradually spread inland to the high tablelands of Mexico.  Thus we find that all the traditions of Central America and Mexico point to some country in the east, beyond the sea, as the source of their first civilized people; and this region, known among them as “Aztlan”, lived in the memory of the people as a beautiful, happy land, where their ancestors had dwelt in peace for many generations.”

Le Plongeon, who spent four years exploring Yucatan, says. (and again, I will try to abbreviate): “A third of the Maya tongue is pure Greek.  Who brought the dialect of Homer to America? Or who took that of the Maya to Greece?   Greek is the offspring of Sanskrit.  Is Maya?   The Maya is not devoid of words from the Assyrian.”

There can be no question that the population of Central America (including Mexico) was at one time very dense, and had attained to a high degree of civilization; higher even than that of Europe in the time of Columbus.   

And it is also probable that they originally belonged to the white race.  Dêsiré Charnay, who explored the ruins of Central America, says: “The Toltecs were fair, robust and bearded. I have often seen Indians of pure blood with blue eyes”  Quetzelcoatl was represented as large,“with a big head and a heavy beard”.   The same author speaks of “the oceans of ruins all around, not inferior in size to those of Egypt."   At Teotihuacan he measured one building at two thousand feet wide on each side, and fifteen pyramids, each as large in the base as that of Cheops at Giza.

“The city is indeed of vast extent…the whole ground, over a space of five or six miles in diameter, is covered with heaps of ruins…ruins which at first make no impression, so complete is their dilapidation.”   He asserts the great antiquity of these ruins, because he found the very highways of the ancient city to be composed of broken bricks and pottery, the debris left by earlier populations.    

“This continent” he says, “is the land of mysteries; we here enter an infinity whose limits we cannot estimate…I shall soon have to quit working in this place.   The long avenue on which it stands is lined with ruins of public buildings and palaces, forming continuous lines, as in the strees of modern cities.   Still, all these edifices and halls were as nothing compared with the vast substructures which strengthen their foundations. We find the strongest resemblances to the work of the ancient European races: the masonry is similar; the cement is the same; the sculptures are alike; both peoples used the arch; in both continents we find bricks, glassware, and even porcelain with blue figures on a white ground.  Also there is bronze composed of the same elements of copper and tin in like proportions, coins made of copper, round and T-shaped, and even metallic candlesticks.”

Dêsiré Charnay believed he had found in the ruins of Tula, the bones of swine, sheep, oxen, and horses, in a fossil state, indicative of an immense antiquity.  The Toltecs possessed a pure and simple religion, like that described of Atlantis by Plato, with the same sacrifices of fruits and flowers.   They were farmers; they raised and wove cotton; they cultivated fruits; they cut and engraved precious stones; among their carvings have been found representations of elephants and lions, both animals unknown in America. The forms of sculpture were the same as those of the ancient races of the Old World; they burned the bodies of their great men and enclosed the ashes in funeral urns; some of their dead were buried in a sitting position, others lying at full length, and many were embalmed like the Egyptian mummies.

The Mexican Colony
After this, Donnelly next turns his attention to ancient Mexico, telling us of their early government by an elective monarchy, and the structure of their society being based upon a five-teired system - the royal family; an aristocracy of wealthy nobles; a privileged priesthood, a judiciary; and a common peasant-class people.  From his further remarks we read that it was essentially a feudal system, that issues like marriage and divorce were much the same as those of modern Christian societies, and that slavery was tolerated, but not to the degree of neglect and cruelty exhibited in the Old World.

 Their religion was so much akin to Christianity, that priests who accompanied the first intrusions of the Spanish invaders, declared it to be a bogus imitation of Christianity given to them by Satan for the purpose of destroying their souls!
I will not delve further into the many refinements of ancient Mexican society, as the interested reader can check out all the details from Donnelly's book.   

As a final note on Mexico, let me add that much of their architecture compares quite closely with that of ancient Mycenae, as well as that of those other interesting people who appear to have stemmed from the same source as the Greeks, the ancient Etruscans of northern Italy.  In concluding his comments on Mexico, Donnelly remarks that “Mexico, under European rule, or under her own leaders, has never again risen to her former standar of refinement, wealth, prosperity or civilization.”

The Egyptian Colony
Now let us move on to Donnelly's views on the Egyptians as an Atlantean colony.
Although my own personal thoughts on the relationship between Egypt and Atlantis must obviously differ, since, in my own opinion, Egypt did not exist concurrently with Atlantis in its heyday, but followed afterwards.  I will nevertheless pass on a general outline of Donnelly's version of their connection and relationship.  (Here I will again quote a shortened version of Donnelly's text, edited purely for the sake of brevity.):

They claimed descent from “the 12 great gods”, which must have meant the 12 gods of Atlantis - Poseidon and Cleito and their ten sons.

According to Phoenician traditons, the Egyptians derived their civilization from them: and, as the Egyptians far antedated the rise of the Phoenician nation as such, this must have meant that they derived their civilization from that to which the Phoenicians owed their own origin.   Phoenician legends show that Misor, from whom the Egyptians were (allegedly) descended, was the child of the Phoenician gods Amynus and Magus.  Misor gave birth to Taaut, the god of letters and inventor of the alphabet, and Taaut became Thoth, god of history to the Egyptians.  Sanchonathion tells us that Kronos (king of Atlantis) visited the south and gave all Egypt to the god Taaut as his kingdom. (“Misor” is probably the king “Mestor” named by Plato.)

According to the Bible, the Egyptians were descendants of Ham, one of the three sons of Noah, who escaped the Deluge - the destruction of Atlantis.

The great similarity between the Egyptian civilization and that of the American nations.

The fact that Egyptians claimed to be red men.

The pre-eminent religion of Egyt was sun-worship with Ra as their sun-god.  Rama was the sun-god of the Hindus, Rana a god of the Toltecs, Raymi was the great festival of the sun in Peru, and Rayam, a god of Yemen. (And let us not forget that Ra-mu was the sun-god of Mu!).

The presence of pyramids in Egypt and America.

The Egyptians were the only people of antiquity who were well informed as to the history of Atlantis.  They were never a maritime people, so they were unlikely to have sent ships to Atlantis.  The Atlanteans must have brought that knowledge to them.

We find more proof of Egyptian descent from Atlantis in their belief in the         “Underword”.  This Land of the Dead was situated in the West - hence all tombs were placed whenever possible on the west bank of the Nile.   The mourners' constant cry was “To the West! To the West!”  This “Underworld” was “beyond the water”hence funeral processions always crossing a body of water. “Where the tombs were in most cases, on the West bank of the Nile, the Nile was crossed; where they were on the eastern shore the procession passed over a sacred lake” (R.S. Poole) “In the procession was a sacred ark of the sun.”

      All this is very plain: the underworld in the West, the land of the dead, was Atlantis, the drowned world, the world beneath the horizon, beneath the sea, to which the peasants of Brittany looked from Cape Raz, the most western cape projecting into the Atlantic. It was only to be reached from Egypt by crossing water, and it was associated with the ark, the emblem of Atlantis in all lands.

The soul of the dead man was supposed to journey to the underworld by a “water-progress”.  His destination was the Elysian fields, where mighty corn grew, and where he was expected to cultivate the earth.   They were the “Abode of the Blessed” to the Greeks, on an island in the remote west.  The Egyptian belief referred to a real country.  We must not forget that Plato described Atlantis as “that sacred island lying beneath the sun”.  

Everywhere in the ancient world, we find men looking to the west as the land of the dead.  How can we account for this?   It was based on a universal tradition that under an immense ocean in the far west, there was an “underworld” comprising millions of the dead, a mighty race that had been suddenly swallowed up in the greatest catastrophe known since man had inhabited the globe.

There is no evidence that the civilization of Egypt was developed in Egypt itself; it must have been transported (or imported) from some other country.  To use the worlds of a recent writer in “Blackwood”:  “till lately it was believed that the use of papyrus was introduced about the time of Alexander the Great - then Lepsius found the hieroglyphic sign of the papyrus roll on monuments of the 12th Dynasty.  Afterwards he found the same sign on monuments of the 4th Dynasty.... little doubt is entertained that writing was understood as early as the days of Menes, the protomonarch.  

“The fruits of this investigation are truly marvellous. Instead of exhibiting the rise of any knowledge, they tend instead to prove that everything is referable to the very earliest dates.   That as soon as men were planted on the banks of the Nile they were already the cleverest of men that ever lived, endowed with more knowledge than their successors for centuries and centuries could attain to…  As yet we have not yet discovered any trace of the rude, savage Egypt, but have seen her in her very earliest manifestations already skilful, eruditeand strong.  It is impossible to determine the order of her inventions.   How they came by their knowledge is a matter for speculation; that they possessed it is a matter of fact!

          “The explanation is simple: the waters of the Atlantic now flow over the country   where all this magnificence and power were developed by slow stages from the rude beginnings of barbarism.
       “And how mighty must have been the parent nation of which this Egypt was a colony!    Egypt was the magnificent, the golden bridge, ten thousand years long, glorious with temples and pyramids, illuminated and illustrated by the most competent and continuous records of human history, along which the civilization of Atlantis, in a great procession of kings and priests, philosophers and astronomers, artists and artisans, streamed forward to Greece, to Rome, to Europe, to America.   Look at the record of Egyptian greatness as preserved in her works: the pyramids, even in their ruins, are the marvel of mankind.  

(Note: There is much more in praise of Egypt from Donnelly, in the same vein, but I must leave it for the reader to find for him or herself.   The simple constraints of space forbid my inclusion of it all here!   Therefore, let us close this section with a few final remarks as to their society.)

Egypt's Social Advancement
“The state of society in early Egypt was very close to our modern civilization.  Religion consisted in the worship then of one god and the practice of virtue; forty-two commandments prescribed the duties of men to themselves, their neighbors, their country and the Deity.  A heaven awaited the good and a Hell the vicious; there was also a Judgment Day when the hearts of men would be weighed.

“Monogamy was the strict rule.  Not even kings, in the early days were allowed to have more than one wife, and the wife's status was as high in the early days of Egypt as it is today in the most civilized of nations of Europe or America.

“Slavery was permitted, but the slaves were treated with the greatest humanity. In the confessions, buried with the dead, the soul was made to declare that “I have not incriminated the slave to his master”.  There was also a clause in the commandments “which protected the laboring man against the exaction of more than his day's labor”. They were merciful to the captives made in war; no picture presents toture being inflicted upon them; while the representation of a sea-fightshows Egyptian sailors saving their drowning enemies.     When we consider the high ideal of the Egyptians, as proved by their portrayals of a just life, the principles they laid down as the basis of ethics, the elevation of women among them, their humanity in war, we must admit that their moral place ranks very high among the nations of antiquity.

“Then look at the proficiency in art of these ancient people.    They were the first mathematicians in the ancient world.  The Greeks, whom we regard as the fathers of Mathematics, were simply pupils of Egypt.  The Egyptians were the first land surveyors.  They were the first astronomers, calculating eclipses and watching the periods of planets and constellations.  They knew the rotundity of the earth - which it was supposed Columbus had discovered!   They also knew the signs of the zodiac and were using them 1722 yers before Christ.    They had clocks and dials for measuring time.  They possessed gold and silver money.  

“They were the first agriculturalists in the Old World raising all the cereals, cattle, horses, sheep, etcetera.  They manufactured linen so fine a quality that, in the days of King Amasis (600 BC), one single thread of a garment was composed of 365 minor threads.  They were great metal craftsmen and worked in gold, silver, copper, bronze, and also in iron, which they tempered to the hardness of steel. The Egyptians were also the first chemists.  The very word “Chemistry” comes from “Khemi”, and “Khemi” means Egypt!   They manufactured glass and all kinds of pottery; they made small boats out of earthenware, and they even made large seaworthy vessels out of papyrus reeds!   Their dentists filled teeth with gold, and their farmers hatched out chickens using artificial heat.   They were also the first musicians, possessing guitars, assorted pipes, cymbals, drums, lyres, harps and flutes.

With Donnelly, we have considered the high ideals of the Egyptians, as expressed by their illustrations of just and fulfilling lives, the high moral principles upon which they based their strict code of ethics, the raising to rightful status of women in their society, their self-evident humanity in war as is portrayed in their illustrations. The magnificence of their wonderful arts and crafts, especially in their wall-paintings, their carving of stone, their working of gold and their intricate fashioning of jewelry.   

These still-tangible examples of all of these amazing skills stagger our belief that such an ancient nation could have attained to such a tremendously high standard.  One has but to look upon their great architectural and building attainments, and contemplate their many other wondrously brilliant achievements in virtually every conceivable field of endeavor, to realize their true stature in the ancient world!

Modern man, faced with so many evidences of its cultural refinement, cannot help but admit that the moral and creatively civilized land of ancient Egypt must rank extremely high, if not in fact the highest among all the great nations of antiquity.

Other Atlantean Colonies.
Donnelly next touches upon the various other colonies of old Atlantis.  Iberian (or Spanish), Peruvian, and African.   I will not spend much time on these, since they are not nearly so relevant as Mesoamerica or Egypt.  

With regard to Iberia; these people who are descended from the people of ancient pre-Roman Italy and Sardinia are today represented by the Basques.   Donnelly describes them, (via the then 1881 “New American Cyclopaedia”) as being: “of middle size, compactly built, robust and agile, of a darker complexion than the Spaniards, with grey eyes and black hair.  They are simple, proud, impetuous, merry, and hospitable. The women are beautiful, skilful in performing men's work, and remarkable for their vivacity and grace.  The Basques are much attached to dancing, and are very fond of the music of the bagpipe.”  

The Atlantean Basques
To me, they at first sounded very much like the people who currently live in Andalusia, and whose women are famous for their Flamenco dancing. The same description could also be very easily fitted to the itinerant Gypsies who roam over most of Europe and Britain.   However, neither is the case.  The Andalusians carry much Berber or Moorish blood in their veins, whilst the Gypsies are, in fact, descended from the ancient inhabitants of Turkey.

The Basques are actually thought to be of some as yet unidentified and ancient European racial type, and appear to be concentrated in the region of the Spanish Pyrenees, though they come form both sides of the Spanish-French border countries. Their principal origin is thought to have been along the edge of the Bay of Biscay.  

They are remarkably different in culture and language from either Spanish or French, their unique language being of no identifiable European root-tongue.    They are renowned historically as being enterprising long-range seafarers, and it is also interesting to note that representatives of their particularly unique race are also found across the Atlantic, living in close communities in all parts of Central and South America!  Some small groups are also located in the southwestern United States in Nevada and California.  

It is also interesting to learn that their ancestors successfully repelled the Romans, the Visigoths, the Franks, the Normans and the Moors - which probably accounts for the still-intact bloodline of which they are inordinately proud.     

I would venture to suggest that, in view of their great seafaring heritage, their ancient geographical location, and their having spread across to the New World, that this all points to their original homeland having been Atlantis!   In fact, I believe that they are probably the only true blood-descendants of the ancient Atlanteans extant on the planet today, together, perhaps, with some of the descendants of the native inhabitants of the Azores and the Canaries.    

The Basques have ferociously resisted all official attempts to integrate them into surrounding societies, and carefully avoid sullying their purity of line by intermarriage. They are currently waging an internescine guerilla struggle against both Spain and France in order to retain their unique status as non-Europeans.   We can only trust, even if only from an historical point of view, that they retain their identity.

The Bretons
     Apart from the Basques, the only other dwellers on the eastern Atlantic coast of Europe who may qualify as descendants of Atlanteans are the Bretons of Brittany, that protruding peninsula which juts westward into the Atlantic and forms the northern edge of the Bay of Biscay.   These are largely descended from the ancient Amorcians.  In my own opinion, the Bretons are, in fact, the same identical race as the ancient Britons who inhabited southwest England and Wales, and who proved to be such a thorn in the side of Julius Caesar during his invasion of England.  

     All are black-haired and brown-eyed and of short physical stature, and share many of the independent traits of the Basques in instinctive distrust of strangers and obstinacy of nature.    These same traits are also found in the ancient Pictish people of northern Scotland - who are though to be Britons who were driven northwards by the advancing Roman Army.   The Picts, like the Britons, were never conquered by the Romans, but retreated to mountain fastnesses from whence they could not be dislodged.  They are reputed to have caused the total disappearance of at least two entire Roman legions that were sent after them!   The legendary King Arthur and his famous army of “knights” are believed to have been either Welsh Britons or Scottish Picts.   

     Thus we have essentially two groups, the Basques and the Bretons/Britons in western Europe who are extremely likely to have been of direct Atlantean origin and members of her offshore colonies.   Donnelly finds some possibly racial connection between both European groups and the Berbers of Algeria, in northwestern Africa.  He quotes a Dr. Bodichon as saying that: “The Atlanteans were the first known navigators. Like all navigators, they must have planted colonies at a distance.”     This could also account for the presence of Basques in the Americas, too!

     I think that this is about as far as these people can be pursued in connection with Atlantis, so I will now move on to a part of the New World thus far not discussed.   I refer to Peru, on the western coast of the Andes in South America.

The Peruvian Colony
     Donnelly firmly avers that the Atlanteans, during their far-ranging expeditions into Brazil, must, at some time, have followed the Amazon and its tributaries through all its fever-ridden jungles and swamps, into the higher, fertile and heathy regions of Bolivia.  From there they would have travelled much more easily across a beautiful and largely highland country until they reached the northern cordilleras of the Andes, and then followed them southward into Peru.   

     I agree with him in this belief.  If the Spanish and Portugese were able to make such a journey millennia later, clad in hot and heavy armour, accompanied by horses, and bearing heavy baggage, I see no reason why the much more adventurous, experienced and hardy Atlanteans could not have done so, and probably with far greater ease.  In any case, I suspect that for the Atlanteans, this would have been a one-way journey with the intention of colonizing new lands as they went.  

     Regarding Peru, let me again quote a few more paragraphs from Donnelly's book:

     “Here it would establish its outlying colonies at the terminus of its western line of advance, arrested only by the Pacific Ocean, precisely as we have seen it advancing up the Valley of the Mississippi and carrying on its mining operations on the shores of Lake superior; precisely as we have seen it going eastward up the Mediterranean, past the Dardanelles, and founding Aryan, Hamitic, and probably Turanian colonies on the far shores of the black Sea and on the Caspian.   
     “This is the universal empire over which the Hindu books tell us.  Deva Nahusha was ruler; this was “the great and aggressive empire” to which Plato alludes; this was the mighty kingdom, embracing the whole of the then known world, from which the Greeks obtained their conception of the universal father of all men in King Zeus.  And in this universal empire, Señor Lopez must find an explanation of the similarity which, as we shall show, exists between the speech of the south American Pacific coast on the one hand, and the speech of Gaul, Ireland, England, Italy, Greece, Bactria and Hindustan on the other.”

     “Montesino tells us that at some time near the date of the Deluge, America was invaded by a people with four leaders, named Ayar-manco-topa, Ayar-chaki, Ayar-aucca and Ayar-uyssu.  “Ayar” says Señor Lopez, “is the Sanskrit “Ajar”, or “ aje” and means “primitive chief”, and “Manco”, “chaki”, “aucca” and “uyssu”, mean respectively “believers”, “wanderers”, “soldiers” and “husbandmen”.   
     We have here a tradition of the castes like that preserved in the four tribal names of Athens.  The laboring class (naturally in a new colony) obtainedthe supremacy, and its leader was named Pirhua-manco, Revealer of Pir or Light (pu~ur, Umbrian “pir”).  
     Do the laws which control the changes of language, by which a labial suceeds a labial, indicate that the Mero or Merou of Theopompus, the name of Atlantis, was carried by the colonists of Atlantis to South America (as the name of old York was translated in a later age to New York), and became in time Perou or Peru?   Was not the Nubian “Island of Merou”, with its pyramids built by “red men” a similar transplantation?  And when the Hindu priest points to his sacred emblem with five projecting points upon it, and tells us that they typify “Mero amd the four quarters of the world”, does he not refer to Atlantis and itsancient, universal empire?   

     “Manco”, in the names of the Peruvian colonists, it has been urged, was the same as Mannus, Manu, and the Santhal Maniko.  It reminds us strongly of Menes, Minos, etc., who are found at the beginning of so many of the Old World traditions.

     “The Quichuas - this invading people - were originally a fair-skinned race with blue eyes and light even auburn hair; they had regular features, large heads and large bodies.  Their descendants are to this day an olive-skinned people, much lighter in color than the Indian tribes subjugated by them.”

     I will avoid repeating all that Donnelly records regarding the Quichuas concerning their exraordinary skills and constructional achievements, including pyramids, or of their subsequent subjugation by the Incas after a long and bloody struggle, and a descent into barbarism and ravage. This is really history and can be read by anyone interested in their own turmoils in Donnelly's book.  Instead I will focus only upon what concerns our topic.

     “At Cuelap, in northern Peru, remarkable ruins were found. They consist of a wall of wrought stones 3600 feet long, 560 broad and 150 high constituting a solid mass with a level summit.  On this mass was another, 600 feet long, 500 broad, and 150 high, making an aggregate height of three hundred feet!   Inside it were rooms and cells which were used as tombs.      Very ancient ruins showing remains of large and remarkable edifices, were also found near Huamanga, and described by Cieca de Leon.  The native traditions said that this city was built by bearded white men, who came there long before the times of the Incas, and established a settlement.   

     “The Peruvians made use of aqueducts, which they built with notable skill, using hewed stones and cement, and making them very substantial.   One such aqueduct extended four hundred and fifty miles across sierras and rivers.  Think of a stone aqueduct reaching from New York to North Carolina!

     “Their public roads were no less remarkable, they were built of masonry. One ran along the mountains through the whole length of the empire, from Quito to Chile; another started from this at Cuzco, went down to the coast, and extended northward to the equator.   These roads were twenty to twenty-five feet wide, were macadamized with puverized stone mixed wit lime and bitumenous cement, and were walled in by strong walls more than six feet thick!  In many places they were cut for leagues through rock, great ravines were filled up with solid masonry; rivers were crossed by suspension bridges, used her long before their introduction into Europe!    Along these great roads caravansaries were established for the accommodation of travellers.

     As to the gold of the Peruvians.  It can be estimated from the amount sent from Peru to Spain as “booty” in Spanish galleons over the course of 25 years, which amounted to more than 800 millions of dollars. (And that is at the value of the US dollar in Donnelly's day, over 100 years ago! One can barely imagine how many $US billions this would equal in 2001!)  

     Donnelly then goes on to compare similarities between the civilizations of the Old and New Worlds, also applicable to these ancient Peruvians:

1.   They worshipped the sun, the moon and the planets.

2.   They believed in the immortality of the soul.

3.   They believed in the resurrection of the body, and accordingly embalmed their dead.

4.   Priests examined entrails of sacrificed animals and like the Roman, divined the future from their appearance.

5.   They had an order of virgin nuns vowed to celibacy, the violation of which vow was punished in both Old and New continents, by their being immured or buried alive.

6.   They divide the year into twelve months.

7.  Their system of enumeration was by tens.  People were divided into decades and hundreds like the Anglo-Saxons, and the whole nation into bodies of 500, 1,000 and 10,000 with a governor placed over each group

8.   They possessed a caste-system; and the trade of father descended to son, as in India.

9.   They had bards and minstrels, who sung at their great festivals.

10. Their weapons were the same as those of the Old World, made after the same pattern.

11. They drank toasts and invoked blessings.

12. They built triumphal arches for their returning heroes, and strewed the road before them with leaves and flowers, as did the Romans and others.

13. They used sedan-chairs for important personages.

14. They regarded agriculture as the primary interest of the empire, and held great fairs and festivals for the exchange of farmers' products

15. The king opened the agricultural season in a great celebration, like the pharaohs of Egypt, by putting his hand to the plough and ploughing the first furrow.

16. They had an order of chivalry and knighthood, in which the knight knelt before the king to be knighted, and the attendant ceremony was as that of Middle Ages Europe.

17. There were many striking resemblances between the architecture of the Peruvians and that of several nations of the Old World, particularly like that of the Pelasgians of ancient Greece and northern Italy.
18. Their palace decorations were similar to those of many Old World palaces, especially those of ancient Egypt.

19. Their pottery closely resembled that of Egypt and Troy.

20. Their ancient language reflected many similarities to Aryan and Semitic tongues, and to the subsequent Greek and Sanscrit languages.

     All of the foregoing similarities point inevitably to a direct link between both old and New world in ancient times; one which could only have been due to both fundamental cultures originating from a single central source  -  Atlantis!

The African Colony
     Sadly, there isn't much that can be said of the Atlantean colony along the North and Northwestern African coastal regions. So this section will, of necessity, be brief.

     Most of the regions colonized by the Atlanteans, were Berber, Moorish, and Bedouin. But they did extend so far south as to incorporate Nigeria, and parts of the Ivory Coast, so many pure Negroes became incorporated into the Atlantean Empire.   However, it would be wrong to automatically assume that the original negroid “gods” or “sports-stars” (as exemplified by the Olmec monuments and stone heads found in the Jungles of Central America) were necessarily taken there by the Atlanteans.  They might easily have found there way there from ancient Mu in the Pacific, before they ever reached Africa.

Conclusions on Donnelly's Work.
     Although that isn't the final word in Donnelly's great work on Atlantis, I believe that I have covered sufficient of the necessary bases of his theory, for the purposes of giving the reader at least a reasonable foretaste of it.  There are still two further chapters dealing with the Noahic line of descent from Shem, and with the Aryan colonies, as well as his final reconstructive summation of Atlantis itself that I have not covered here, but I feel that these are not central to the basic issues I have already covered.  Thus, I will leave them for interested readers to discover for themselves.    

     The burning question that now remains is this.  How much of Donnelly's story are we to accept, and what should we discard?   This is indeed an extremely difficult thing for a mere scribe such as myself to answer with any great conviction.   True, many of his assertions and assumptions may have perhaps fallen by the wayside, after all the vast increase in knowledge and discovery that has taken place since 1882.  

     Many new, and possibly more exciting, theories have since been promulgated.  Things such as the submarine discoveries of ordered stonework and highways upon the Atlantic seabed off Bimini and the Bermudas, and, latest of all, the finding of a submerged pyramid (or pyramids) in the same general area!    What these will eventually turn out to be is anyone's guess at present, but we can only hope that they are the first of many really solid pieces of Atlantean evidence we have sought after for so long!  

     But it is still my own contention that many of the original finds - monuments and artifacts - which were discovered way back in previous centuries, and were drawn and written about in extremely minute detail, have long since been either destroyed or severely damaged, so we have no other means of learning about them except through the works of such august and seemingly tireless researchers as Donnelly and his fellow antiquarians.  Thus, I do not feel it is up to me to pass any judgment upon his ideas - outlandish though some of them may appear in the modernistic view.   

     At least, in my own view, Donnelly had the good scholarliness to posit Atlantis where Plato claimed it to be, regardless of geological and tectonic difficulties, and not in some other extremely unlikely but more easily geologically explicable location, as appears to have become the fashion of late!    (Frankly, I'm rather surprised that no one has yet gone so far as to situate Atlantis inside the Hollow Earth itself - although there are some who claim it to be a still-viable underwater city!)

     Whilst I give some considerable respect and deference toward people with proven psychic abilities, I simply cannot accept everything I read of such allegedly spiritually “channelled” information.  In my humble opinion, very little of the theosophical and channelled information regarding Atlantis, currently circulating on the Internet and in published books, cannot really be entertained in such a serious matter as the existence of Atlantis.  It is hard enough for down-to-earth researchers to produce convincing proof without attempting to prop up logical arguments and slender proofs with such unearthly spiritual data.   There are just too many materially-minded skeptics to be convinced to even consider putting forward such intangible “otherworldly” notions.  

     I might have included the many “Atlantis” readings of that famed psychic, Edgar Cayce, if I believed for a second that they would be accepted by the vast bulk of readers.  Instead, I have striven to offer only the best supportive “grass-roots” evidence available,  albeit somewhat hoary with age!”  

Some Aspects of this Article that need Explanation
     Upon reviewing what I've written thus far, I find that there are several points which call for some further elucidation.  So, before I conclude this piece I will endeavour to clear them up.
     For example, back in my little piece relating to Osiris, some people may wonder what on earth he has to do with Atlantis?   Well, for a start, I doubt if many Atlantis fans will doubt that ancient Egypt was very closely associated with the whole story. Especially since the only people who appeared to be really knowledgable about Atlantis were the ancient Egyptian priest-scholars of Sais from whom Solon got the story to begin with!  However, Alexander Braghine, in his 1940 classic:“The Shadow of Atlantis”, refers to the mysterious land of Amenti, the abode of the beautiful souls mentioned in the Egyptian “Book of the Dead” as lying in the far west, which was part of the Kingdom of Osiris.
     The Turin Papyrus, which is the largest and most detailed version of this famous scroll and is referred to as “Ani's version”.  Here, this mysterious land is called Aaru, or Sekhet-Hetep - “The Field of Peace” and it is described as being a great fertile paradise across which a mighty river flowed and irrigated it all.   Aaru was said to be the land where the dead socialized with the gods, and were able to occupy themselves just as in their earthly life. They worked the land, hunted animals and played games.  To the ancient Egyptians it must have sounded much like America did to the wretched “huddled masses” of poor Europeans who migrated there during the late19th century.   Strangely enough, the Babylonians also held a similar concept of a sacred paradise - Arulla - which they said was located in the far west, in the middle of the ocean!   They also claimed it to be the dwelling-place of the their “Noah” - Utnapishtim, and his wife!

     Harking back to Osiris.  Braghine mentions that the Atlanteans are believed to have been the original great cultivators of wheat as a staple cereal, and that there is also a legend in The book of the Dead which tells how Osiris taught the first Egyptians to cultivate wheat.    Braghine also points out that because of the testimony of several authors of antiquity, many altlantologists have come to believe that the Egyptians borrowed their god Osiris from the Atlanteans, as well as the notion of the continued existence of the soul after death!     

     In another Atlantean book by Robert B. Stacy-Judd, Atlantis - Mother of Empireswe learn that Osiris was worshipped as a god by the Atlanteans.   Elsewhere, we have found that the Atlanteans were essentially monotheistic sun-worshippers, so how could they have had any other gods?    The only logical answer I can suggest is that Osiris must have been a king of some part of Atlantis (as one of ten), who subsequently was made a god by the people of his own kingdom - the Osirians.  Hence the custom was establishing that was to be subsequently adopted by the Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans, who all accorded godly stature to their kings after death.
     I don't necessarily subscribe to the belief that so many scholars seem to accept, that Osiris was ever actually an Egyptian king.  I believe that I've already illustrated this clearly enough in my little fable earlier in this article about Osiris and his family being hounded out of Atlantis, where he had ruled with his nine “sibling” royals.  Nor do I necessarily believe that the sets of ten rulers were always the twin descendants of the original five pairs of male twins alleged to have been born to Poseidon and his wife, Cleito.   
     To me this sounds completely unlikely, even allowing for any genetic tendency for twins to run in the royal bloodline, which is at least feasible to some degree.  No.  I feel that if this had become a royal Atlantean tradition, such “royal twins”could hardly have been expected to have been born to order by royal decree - no matter how much of a godly  being Poseidon might have been thought to be.   In my view, he was doubtlessly as human as you or I, and even granted a twin-begetting gene (which, incidentally, might just as easily have stemmed from Cleito's bloodline as from his his own), there could be no guarantee that they would necessarily be all twins, much less all boy-twins!   

     Therefore, the only solution to this puzzle is that similar-looking male infants were secretly adopted by those kings who didn't have the requisite twinning-gene, and raised, like Moses was with Pharaoh's natural grandson, as royal “twin” princes - though only one out of of each pair could actually succeed to their father's throne.  This trickery may have only needed to be perpetrated for the first two or three generations. After that, the eldest son of each of the ten kings would have automatically assumed the throne as a plain matter of natural royal descent.   

     I cannot imagine that this “Twin-Sons” business could have persisted for long, if in fact it ever did at all.   Even the roughest of ignorant peasants could never have been hoodwinked as easily as that.  And from the descriptions of Atlantis we read today, there would have been very few peasants among the native-born Atlanteans!    

     Thus, to get back to Osiris being deposed by his brethren, they were quite probably not his true blue-blooded  kinsmen at all, but an ill-assorted group of unrelated and possibly adopted changelings.   However, I do feel quite certain in my own mind that Osiris himself was of the Atlantean royal bloodline.   The noble image and history that has survived him in Egyptian legend seems to testify to that belief, and the same is probably true of Seth, his jealous brother (and let us not forget, his murderer), and Isis and Nephthys, his two sisters.   (Nephthys also being the wife of Seth).

The Question of  ancient Royal Intermarriage     
     This point of close relationship, brings me to another matter that appears to trouble many people who worry about the incestuous inferences of all this.  The Hebrews were forbidden from the time of the handing down of the Sinai Commandments of their god, Yahweh, to marry their own siblings, or to have any sexual relations with their immediate family members.    Yet we see the Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks and Romans blithely marrying their own sisters and brothers, and even having sex with their own mothers and fathers, so why were the Hebrews prevented from doing so?   Obviously, prior to the time of the mosaic Laws being handed down, the Hebrews did exactly the same.   However, their God, Yahweh, knew something that they didn't.  A simple “Rule of Nature” that any modern animal or bird breeder  today knows only too well!  

     After a certain number of generations of inbreeding have passed, the genetic strain of their forebears begins to weaken. DNA links begin to break down and faults start to show up in their offspring.  These can manifest in many ways, but perhaps the most immediate weaknesses seem to affect the brain and the motor neuron sytem.  It is seen clearly in Rome's rulers after Tiberius, particularly in Caligula, a vicious, mentally and physically twisted cripple, and Nero, a paranoid pyromaniac who lusted after his own mother. The sheer mad depravity and cruelty of both of these was legendary.   

     It was probably this tendency towards mental weakness, lunacy, and other hereditary diseases and afflictions among its ruling classes thath led to the rapid decline and fall of the Roman Empire.  The same is probably just as true of the later Pharaonic Dynasties of Egypt, although the familial Royal descent, there, at least, was frequently punctuated by sudden changes in their ruling families.  The only saving grace in both groups was that there wasn't always a sister for the Pharaoh or Emperor to marry!    
     The Greek “gods”, being themselves only glorified human beings, were so utterly inbred that it was impossible to tell who was whose child, sister, or father most of the time.  However, they were allegedly “gods”, and we really know little about the moral proclivities of their actual mortal kings and queens.  This was also true of the Babylonians and the Sumerians before them who revered quite a sex-crazed pantheon of inbred “gods”.  

     Even the Biblical Abraham and his wife Sarah, who originated from Ur, in the Chaldean region of Mesopotamia, hailed from a land where brothers and sisters frequently married.   They themselves were probably unique in being genetically unrelated.  Fortunately for people at that point in time, they were still living well within the original period of genetic grace and cleanliness of bloodline that had begun with Adam.   
     We have absolutely no reason to believe that the Atlanteans were any different in this regard, particularly if the relationship of Osiris and Isis, and that of their co-siblings, Seth and Nephthys is true - as I believe it had to be, for the legends regarding them are altogether too powerful and rich for their relationships to have been otherwise.

A Geological Conundrum Possibly Solved?     
     There remains but one gigantic problem to clear up before I conclude this article on Atlantis.  This concerns the largest stumbling-block to all the theories about an Atlantic location of the “Lost Continent”.    It is essentially a question which has been often raised by geologists, and it generally goes something like this:

     “If there really was once a large continent-sized landmass in between America and The Straits of Gibraltar - why is there no trace of it upon the seabed?  How could such a massive landmass have simply submerged and vanished completely, without leaving some kind of large seamount, and traces of man-made cities or other artifacts upon the ocean floor?”

      Well, since the development of new bathymetric equipment, which can scan the ocean deeps, without the necessity for laborious, and often highly erroneous “line and plumb bob” soundings to be made, several startling features have been revealed upon the seafloor which are indicative of the one-time existence of just such a raised landmass!    According to recent bathymetric charts and graphics of the central Atlantic Ocean floor that I have seen, there is till a large uplifted area of the central oceanic ridge which has been displaced laterally at least 200 miles to the westward of its central fault-line course.  
     Needless to add, it lies directly between the Straits of Gibraltar and the Bahamas and Cuba in the Carribean.   This area also bears several seamounts as well as the Azores Plateau, which is bounded upon its western side by the tectonically-active Mid-Atlantic Ridge.   The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is actually a rift between two tectonic plates which, because of their constant friction, oozes a continuous outflow of molten magma, which in turn is solidified as it emerges at the edges of the rift, by the freezing water of the depths. This has provided the mechanism - the engine - that has been very slowly but steadily driving the American plate and the Euro-African plates apart for the past 65 million years.   

     This same oozing forth and setting solid of molten magma occurs beween all tectonic plates, and it is this multiplied continual separation of plates - probably in increments as small as around 3 inches a year - that has caused the Earth to expand to more than twice its original diameter!  Let's be adventurous and see what sixty-five million times three inches works out at in miles, and you will obtain a result close to the present mean width of the Atlantic!    Somewhere around 3,000 miles!   As the canny Scots would say “mony a mickle makes a muckle”!     

     (I apologize for this digression, but I'm sure readers will take my point regarding the profound effects of tiny annual amounts over a lengthy period of geological time.)    
     But, in terms of years, we are looking here at a relatively short geological span with regard to what happened to Atlantis.  Perhaps eleven or twelve thousand years at most since the final catastrophe.   However, given my earlier suggestion of the collapse of giant gas chambers deep under the ocean floor, and assuming that the area concerned might have collapsed by some three thousand feet, this could have more than adequately submerged most of the island continent.  (Note: If this were to happen to Australia, for instance, nothing would be left projecting above the ocean's surface!)  However, in the case of Atlantis, which is said to have possessed a number of very large mountains, the peaks of these would have still protruded, forming groups of islands, whilst the less elevated portions would have created an irregular submerged plateau.

     The lower plains would have sunk down into the ocean floor, and swiftly been covered over with mud and silt by the strong Atlantic currents.  Which is exactly what we find in bathymetric scans of the ocean-bed!   Close to the edge of the rift we find two volcanic islands, Flores and Corvo, and to the east of them are two other groups, one of five islands, Graciosa, Sao Jorge, Faial, Pico and Terceira, the other is comprised of two islands, Sao Miguel and Santa Maria with its Formigas islets.  All are volcanic and they are estimated to rise from a mean ocean-floor depth of some two miles or more.  

     The original mountains may not have been anywhere near such heights, but we have to allow for the effects of eleven thousand years or more of heavy erosion upon their lower reaches by the powerful and deep ocean currents found out there, in the midst of the Gulf Stream!   However, the bases of these one-time powerful volcanoes are still surrounded by, and buried in, the last eroding remains of the Azores plateau - once the highlands of Altlantis - which still cover a curved area something like 800 to 1000 miles across.  
     It is also possible that a portion of the original continent may have followed along the edge of the mid-Atlantic ridge down perhaps as far south as the latitude of the Venzuela or even the Amazon Basin, but this would be purely surmise, so I will be satisfied if the Azores region and its adjacent southerly seamounts, together with the Azores ridge, which runs east of the Azores directly toward the Straits of Gibraltar, can be made to prove out as what I imagine them to be, in due course.  

     Historically, according to Plato, the northern side of the island-continent was especially mountainous, and this would fit in well as the present location of the Azores plateau.   Beyond this, given our present limits of knowledge, we cannot venture without getting ito a lot of rather heavy speculation.    

On A Final Note
     I must confess that I was originally tempted to set before my readers several different and conflicting theories upon the site, form, nature and demise of Atlantis, as well as the activities of its inhabitants.  But, upon mature eflection, I felt that this would only succeed in further confusing what is already a highly confused and much-argued topic.    So, out of all the many many concepts and theories on this elusive continent, I elected to choose that of Ignatius Donnelly, one of the boldest, yet most straightforward antiquarians on the subject, even though he has been dead for the past century;.   
     I feel that I made the right choice, as he was a man with an alert mental eye for the minutest detail in rendering his account of Atlantean history.  Not that others haven't presented equally excellent and convincing cases, and alternative scenarios.  They have, and I have enjoyed most of them, and concurred with many of their views.   Nevertheless, I feel convinced that Ignatius Donnelly (even though I sense him to possibly be in some error on a few points) has, warts and all, to my mind at least, presented the best and most complete overall  convincing case for an Atlantic Atlantis!  

I can only hope that those who have read - albeit through my eyes - this rather potted glance through his intensely detailed and lengthy opus, will find his work of such interest as to download or purchase his great book, “Atlantis, The Antediluvian World” and read it in its entirety for themselves.    It will certainly give them furiously to think!    

     And so, having manfully fought back the urge to conclude this piece by quoting the final pages of Donnelly's excellent book, I shall, instead, mercifully leave my readers to enjoy that pleasure for themselves - without any further irritating promptings or interjections from me!        

     Thus, I shall now rest my case (and my keyboard-weary fingers) here, totally in favor of the concept of there once having existed an island-continent (or an aggregation of perhaps two or three large islands) called Atlantis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.    

The End

All the above text, excepting quoted sections,
 is the Copyright of Gerry Forster, 2001


“Atlantis, The Antediluvian World”  Ignatius Donnelly.  1882.   Harper. New York   1882.

“Atlantis Mother of Emires”  Robert B. Stacy-Judd.  1939.   Adventures Unlimited Press. 1999.

“The Shadow Of Atlantis” Alexander Braghine.  1940.         Adventures Unlimited Press. 1997.

“Lost Cities of Atlantis, Ancient Europe & the Mediterranean”  David Hatcher Childress. 1996*.

“Lost Cities and Ancient Mysteries of South America”               David Hatcher Childress. 1986*.

“Lost Cities of North and Central America”                                 David Hatcher Childress. 1992*

“Dake's Annotated Reference Bible”   Finnis J. Dake.                Dake Bible Sales Inc.  !979.

“History of Ancient Egypt”  Nathaniel Harris.                             Chancellor Press.  1997.

“Egypt”     Vivian Davies & Renee Friedman.                             British Museum Press.  1998.

 “Timaeus” and  “Critias”(unfinished)    Plato.                            Circa 340 BC.  Internet sources.

plus various Internet Historical References

(* published by Adventures Unlimited Press)


Why are “Hollow Earthers” simply not getting anywhere in their sincere quest for the fabled “Inner Earth”, which is believed to exist within Earth's 800-miles thick outer crustal shell?

Can it be because orthodox science is correct in believing that our planet (like all the other terrestrial planets) is a solid-crusted and semi-molten ball of rock, through to its central core?  Or is it because they have no possible way of knowing if it is actually solid, or not?

Or could it, as many have suggested, be due to some world-wide secretive “Cover-Up” by powerful global political power groups and all the scientific organizations which they control?  

Here, acting as an alternative-science investigator, I will endeavour to present a even-handed but critical examination of the prevailing concepts in an effort to discover if there is any basis of real truth behind the present-day revival of all the time-honoured “Hollow Earth” reports,myths, legends and theories.

Read on and decide for yourself what is the real truth behind the whole concept of a hollow inner earth, and what a political and mercenary power-group on the surface might stand to gain or lose by the honest revelation or admission of the existence of such a vast new territory, which would immediately become available for all manner of exploitation and territorial annexation by the nation who discovered it - if it were proved to actually exist!  

Gerry Forster. 18 Oct., 2000

Kubla Khan.

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan a stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.
So twice five miles of fertile ground with walls and towers were girded round
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills, enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

But O, that deep romantic chasm which slanted down the green hill athwart a cedern grove!
A savage place! As holy and enchanted as e'er beneath a waning moon was haunted
By woman wailing for her demon-lover!
And from this chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething, as if this earth in thick fast pants was breathing,
A mighty fountain momently was forced; amid whose swift half-intermitted burst
Huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail, or chaffy grain beneath the thresher's flail:

And `mid these dancing rocks at once and ever it flung up momently the sacred river
Five miles meandering with a mazy motion through wood and dale the sacred river ran,
Then reached the caverns measureless to man and sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean
And `mid this tumult Kubla heard from afar ancestral voices prophesying war!

The shadow of the dome of pleasure floated midway on the waves;
Where was heard the mingled measure from the fountains and the caves.
It was a miracle of rare device, a sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!
A damsel with a dulcimer in a vision once I saw:
It was an Abyssinian maid, and on her dulcimer she played,
Singing of Mount Abora.
Could I revive within me, her symphony and song,
To such a deep delight `twould win me, that with music loud and long,
I would build that dome in air, that sunny dome! Those caves of ice!
And all who heard should see them there, and all should cry Beware! Beware!
His flashing teeth his floating hair!  Weave a circle round him thrice,
and close your eyes with holy dread, for he on honey-dew hath fed
And drunk the milk of Paradise!

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

(Editor's Footnote.    A Close and attentive perusal of the above poem will reveal
Several astonishing parallels to the concept of an idyllic world within the heart of
the Earth, where perrenial calm and Paradisic bliss are to be found. But the author
also hints at the dangers and savage demonic influences one might well encounter
should one decide to follow Kubla Khan's dreamlike under-world pursuit of peace
and tranquillity.  GF.)  

Is Our Earth Hollow?

A Hypothetical Dissertation
by Gerry Forster.

Since so much has been written and discussed on this allegedly “Far-Out”topic, I feel it is worth examining the concept of a Hollow Earth a little further, if for no other reason than to satisfy the curiosity of any readers who may find this idea of interest.    That it is an interesting concept, cannot be denied, even though it may well be scoffed and sneered at by my more learned scientific thinkers and scholars.   However, since these same people also deride the concept of God and Jesus Christ, I am not terribly concerned about making their lips curl a tad more.  Obviously those extremely profound words of Shakespeare, uttered by his Danish Prince, Hamlet: “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy” carry no particular meaning for the “omniscient sages” such scholars imagine themselves to be!

Hyperborea And Ultima Thule.
     Before we actually look into the actual Hollow Earth theory itself, I think we should perhaps first consider the ancient and subsequent North Polar mythos that led to the Hollow Earth theory being propounded.  We will need to begin by studying some of the legendary lands which have been perpetuated in the folk-history of the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples, even though these legends owe some of their origins to the ancient Greeks and the Aryans of Central Asia.     Two major mystic and magical lands spring to mind here; Hyperborea and Ultima Thule - which both feature greatly in Nordic mythology, besides having, from all accounts, actually existed somewhere within the Arctic regions of the world in ancient times.     However, before we go in search of concrete evidence, let's examine some of the legendary background for both of these places - which might well, in fact, have been one and the same!

     the first mention we find of the Hyperboreans, is in the mythos of ancient Greece, before the time of Homer.  However, Herodotus mentions them as being part of the legendary Theban epic, as being in some way connected with the cult of Apollo, the sun-god, and that their homeland was in a paradise-like country “beyond the North Wind”, which indicates a region that may now lie within the Arctic Circle, or certainly in the North Atlantic!    The Hyperborians according to this same source, were alleged to live for a thousand years, but they had a tradition that any who tired of such a long life could end it in a ritual suicide ceremony, whereby the person involved was decked with floral garlands and allowed to jump off a high pinnacle into the sea!

     Other legends seem to indicate that it was “that happy land lying to the west, towards the setting sun”.    The anciently-famed Garden of the Hesperides, where trees bore golden fruit.  The Elysian Fields, or even the Happy Isles!    Generally, it is believed to have been a veritable paradise on earth, and may perhaps have been an island lying somewhere between the Azores and Iceland, which, like Atlantis, sank beneath the waves after some great catastrophe.     There are some scholars who directly connect the two, and claim that Hyperborea was, in fact, the lost continent of Atlantis!

     My own view, after scanning some of the mythology surrounding Hyperborea and Thule, is that it's possible that they could have been the same place!   It really all depends upon how far back the original legends go.  If they are traceable to the time of the establishment of the Egyptian nation (since they figure in the Theban epic), then it is possible that they go far back in time to the period prior to the last polar shift. In which case, much of the land which now lies within the Arctic Circle was then a warm to temperate country, richly carpeted with grasslands and forests and all of Nature's bounty, both vegetable and animal.   
     It's even possible that we need look no farther than the British Isles, since these would have been well to the “far north-west” of both Egypt and Greece!    (We have to avoid the pitfall of allowing a north European concept of the “north-west” to cloud our geographic thinking!)    However, at that distant point in time, both Britain and Ireland would have been the most north-westerly part of the European land-mass, since the English Channel and the North Sea were both dry land then.    There seems to be a distinct hint in the legends that both Hyperborea and Ultima Thule were always islands, so perhaps this would tend to rule out Britain and Ireland, since they were once part of the continent of Europe.

     My first conclusion, then, is that both were actually the same place, with Greenland as Ultima Thule and Iceland as Thule.   Ultima Thule and Thule seem to be separated in mythology into two distinct islands, and, since “Ultima” Thule implies the furthest away, then Thule must have been closer to Europe than it.   The obvious candidate for Thule then, must be Iceland.    According to Pytheas, a famous Greek navigator of the 4th century BC, Thule was a six-day voyage north of Britain, though whether by sail or by oar-power isn't stated, but it seems to set the location of Thule as modern Iceland.  Common sense suggests that Ultima Thule had to be Greenland.    However, what if both were once united as one largely-submerged land-mass -  the continent of Hyperborea?

The Arctic Homeland: Hyperborea.
     To discover more about the mythos surrounding Hyperborea, we must look briefly at the works of various older authorities on such somewhat esoteric mysteries. Jean-Sylvain Bailly, 1736-1793), who was an astronomer and a mystic, comments that: It is a very remarkable thing that enlightenment appears to have come from the North, against the common prejudice that the earth was enlightened, as it was populated, from the South...”    He then goes on to point out that, according to all the legends and ancient wisdom, “as humanity began to reconstitute itself after the Noahic Deluge, the purest stream of civilization descended from Northern Asia into India, which to this day carries evidence of having the most ancient astronomical system on earth”.   He continues on to point out that, in most of the ancient mythologies of the world, there appears to be a race-memory of a racial origin in the far North and a gradual migration southward.
     Another great scientific mind of the same era, the Comte de Buffon, located the first civilizations in northern and central Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, but he seemed to generally agree with Bailly about a northern origin for mankind, rather than a Middle Eastern or Southern one.     Rev. Dr. W.F. Warren, who was president of Boston University and belonged to several learned societies, revived the polar origin theory for mankind in a book published in 1885: “Paradise Found”, of which the thesis was “That the cradle of the human race...was situated at the North Pole, in a country submerged at the time of the Deluge.”
     His theory compared very well with all the relevant sciences and comparative mythology - especially that of Germany.   Warren was a Christian and an avowed anti-Darwinist, and he utterly rejected the concept of man having evolved from the ape, through a period of primitive savagery.  He believed that the earliest men were the noblest and the longest-lived, ”and it was only after the Deluge, that humanity began to take on the feeble lineaments of ourselves.”    At least, in his work he reveals some amazing insight into what could have caused the Deluge, through God's Hand, by pointing out that, after the survivors of the polar flood settled in their north Asian exile, “they found the skies tilted in respect to the way they had known them: the North Star was no longer overhead”, and he mentions that “they perfectly understood why this was so”....”but their rude descendants, unfavoured with the treasures of antediluvian science, and born only to a savage, nomadic life.... might easily have forgotten the explanation” - which was that, “instead of the human horizon, it was the earth that had shifted”! *     Here, at last, we get the first oblique mention of a polar shift!               (*Accents are mine. GF)

Support from India.
     Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920), a renowned pioneer protagonist of Indian Independence at the turn of the century, was also a scholar in astronomy and Vedic antiquities, who among other feats, was able to place the oldest Indian Vedic civilization at around 4500 BC.  Tilak was jailed by the British for his anti-British writings for several years, and this time he put to good use in studying the Veda scripts, in relation to known astronomical and geological events. He published his findings in a work: “The Arctic Home of The Vedas”, in 1903.  In this he stated that, according to his readings of the Vedas, the original Arctic home of humanity was destroyed around 10,000 - 8,000 BC by the last Ice Age, and that from 8,000 - 3000 BC, was the “Age of Wandering”, before they Vedic people finally settled in India between 5,000 - 3000 BC.   By then, he went on to add, they had already begun to forget their Arctic origins, and their traditions had begun to go downhill.    
As we have seen in earlier accounts, his timing of this cataclysm fits in very closely with what we know of the destruction of Atlantis and Mu, so we can attribute it to the same cause - a sudden polar shift, resulting in both tidal waves and tectonic upheavals followed by a very rapid relocation of the polar ice-caps: the so-called “Ice Age”.      So, we have the destruction of Mu, dated very approximately at 12,000 years ago, that of Atlantis around 10,000 years ago, and, according to best estimates, the destruction of Hyperborea also at around the same time-frame of 10,000 years ago. Could this then, be also the time of the Biblical ”Flood” too?      As far as I'm able to determine by reading sundry authorities, this would seem to be the case.  So it's up to my readers to resolve for themselves whether this is a pure coincidental matter, or whether God chose to bring about the cleansing of an evil and disobedient world by means of a purely natural catastrophic event - which would seem to be a logical thing to do if One were the Supreme Intellect, who created the entire Universe along purely logical lines!
Land of The Midnight Sun.
     Ancient Indian texts seem to point most clearly to the fact that the Arctic region was the “realm of the ancient gods” since they specifically mention that it is where the sun rises and sets only once a year - which demonstrates that the writers had a clear knowledge of the astronomical and seasonal situation at the North Pole.  Of course, they were quite right, since the sun only appears above the horizon for six months of the year, and is below it for the remaining six months!   The question here is how did those ancient Indians know this?   

     The obvious answer is because it was recorded in the Vedic Hymns, which speak of “The Dawn of Many Days” and “The Thirty Dawn Sisters Circling Like A Wheel”. When applied to the Pole, these terms make good sense, since the sun takes exactly a month to actually appear above the horizon after the four-month night.    I say four-month rather than six here, because the sun also takes a further month each year, to set.   So there's a polar twilight of one month, followed by a night of four months. then a dawn of one month, followed by a day of four months!  The Vedas are correct in every detail, even though written thousands of years ago!   Obviously, these ancient forebears of the Indian people, the Aryans, knew this from first-hand experience!     
     The oldest Vedic year had only two divisions, which were called devas and pitras; names which correlated with the “Day of The Gods” and the “Night of The Gods”.    This, curiously enough, is very reminiscent of another dramatic piece of Germanic Aryan mythology - “Gottdammerung” - “The Twilight of The Gods” - which is a strangely apt connection with the Vedic-Aryan Polar Year!

The Advent of The Big Freeze.
     We learn from the Zoroastrian scholar, H. S. Spencer's “Aryan Ecliptic Cycle”(1965) that the “Aryan ecliptic cycle” ran from approximately 25,500 BC to 300 BC - from their residence in the polar homeland during the “Interglacial Age” (or “Inter Pole-Shifts Age”, depending on one's persuasion), to their being compelled to leave it because of the presence firstly, of giant reptiles (dinosaurs!), and then the advent of intense cold and snow!  ( It is important to bear in mind that the same effect would be taking place at the South Pole, also.)     The Big Freeze occurred about 10,000 BC - and was just one of several natural cataclysms of that period which destroyed Atlantis, Lemuria (Mu), and the Gobi Sea (now the Gobi Desert).    From the Pole, the Aryans had to fight their way against the forces of nature, as well as those of the indigenous Asian tribes, including a term of enslavement by the Turanians (Turks).  

Religious Influences of the Aryans.
      However, by 8,500 BC they ruled their own empire in Bactria, where they continued to worship their god, Mazda, whom they had apparently held as their chief deity among several, for at least 19,000 years BC.   It was Zoroaster (better known as  Zarathustra) who introduced Mazdan monotheism around 7100 BC.  The Persian Aryans stayed true to their faith, but the Indian branch joined in the local polytheism, only changing to Hinduism when they believed Zarathustra had been reincarnated as Krishna around 4000 BC.         
     It is also interesting to note that (according to Spencer), the European Aryans accepted this very same reincarnated spirit as Jesus Christ!   The religious influence of these Aryans was to have a great impact upon all the surrounding religions in promoting the supremacy of a male concept of God over the female, which had hitherto dominated Egypt, Babylon, Sumeria, and the Semites, who had all previously worshipped predominantly female gods.

Atlantis and Thule.
     As has been gleaned from Plato's “Discourses”, Atlantis was thought to have arisen in the middle of the Atlantic, opposite the Pillars of Hercules - The Straights of Gibraltar.  And so it was always believed for centuries, until this was challenged in the 18th century by Olaf Rudbeck, who claimed the lost kingdom as having been his native land of Sweden.  This started a new trend of thought among the scholars, and Bailly, whom we met earlier, became convinced that Atlantis had been much further north than had hitherto been supposed, and suggested either Spitzbergen, Greenland or Nova Zemlya as possible sites.   He rationalised that because the rotary movement of the planet close to the poles was so much less, the atmosphere might well have been less agitated, thus making it in reality a place of eternal spring.  Through this idea, he identified his Altlanteans as actually being the legendary Hyperboreans, living in their golden “Garden of the Hesperides” close to the North Pole!

A Place of Perpetual Spring near The Pole?
     Despite the original report by the Greek, Pytheas, around 300 BC, that he had reached a sea of ice just one day north of Thule - which he evidently thought was, in fact, Iceland - he was disbelieved, and the myth still persisted that a warm polar sea existed around the Pole, with a very clement and temperate land environment surrounding it.   Even Columbus believed it, and he sailed 300 miles north beyond Iceland before reaching ice-bound waters.  Most of his critics discredited this feat, as they firmly believed the northern Atlantic to be quite impassable.  (However, it was Columbus' feat which caused later explorers to search those northerly Arctic oceans for the legendary North West Passage into the Pacific!)    However, I am digressing!.

Atlantean Nazis?
It was the Roman historian, Tacitus, who started the Germanic people believing that they were the descendants of these Atlantean-Hyperborean Aryans from the North Pole.  He had already remarked that he could hardly believe that people would choose to live in such a rigorous climate as that of Germany, let alone anywhere further north, but it was he who later agreed with those who believed the Germans to be a pure race, who had never intermarried with any other, and that this was shown by their distinct familial likeness, both physically and in character, even though they were a numerous race.  
They all had stern blue eyes, fair ruddy hair and large physiques.    It was this Nordic Aryan, tall, blond image -  projected by Tacitus - that was later to become the racial ideal of the Hitlerian Nazis - despite Hitler himself and many of his Nazi colleagues, being short and dark-haired and typically Southern European in general appearance!   
     This led to the concept of a Nazi Thule, the three godfathers of which were Von List, Von Liebenfels, and Von Sebottendorff.  All three were pretenders to grandeur and had added the nobly-suggestive “Von” to their plain family names.  This in itself was a classical symptom of master-race delusion, as they all firmly believed themselves to be of this chosen aristocratic Aryan race.     I could pursue this Nazi-Aryan association and their Thule Society at great length, but, whilst it is of great significance in terms of racial distinction and discrimination - as witnessed by their subsequent anti-Semitism - it has relatively little to do with the actual racial origins of mankind as a whole or of the Polar entrance to the Hollow Earth!    The Nazi attempt at world domination is now relegated to the political history of the world, which is not the province of this work.     Readers wishing to learn more of the Nazi-Thule mythos should read Joscelyn Godwin's absorbing book: “Arktos - The Polar Myth”.
However, it's in that same book, that Godwin does unearth many interesting points regarding the Boreal Race, whether Altlanteans or whatever.  He says that two major and distinct streams issued forth from these people during their migrations, one from north to south, and the other at a later time from west to east.   The Hyperboreans took with them the same spirit, bloodline and system of communication, symbolic, written or spoken, first to North America, and then to the Northern Eurasia.  Tens of thousands of years later, a second wave of Hyperborean migrants appear “to have thrust as far south as Central America, and to have settled principally in a vanished land situated in the Atlantic region, founding there a centre in the image of the polar one*”. (*The emphasis is mine). “In this regard,” he continues, quoting Evola, ”one should properly speak of a “Nordic-Atlantic” race and civilization”.    

Decline and Fall.
      “In Evola's view”, says Godwin, “the latter, Atlantean stream, became polluted with telluric (earthy) and demonic elements from the even more ancient Lemurians, (the Muvians) whose distant descendants survive in the dark races.   From this blending came the cults of the Mother and of the Earth, which would forever remain in opposition to the original cult of the Sun, preserving the purer Nordic stream.”     We have already seen how the Atlanteans were far more concerned with aggression and sorcery than those nations they tried to dominate, so they do not really deserve to be compared with the still-pure Nordic Aryans.    However, as history shows, even the most pure and racially-clean nations eventually succumb to their own glory and go into moral decline.  As, much later on, would the Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans do also.

What Became of Hyperborea?
     One would imagine that after the Hyperborean region became a frozen waste of ice and snow that it would cease to feature in world mythology, except perhaps as a fondly-remembered homeland in the race-memory of the Aryans and perhaps the Atlanteans.   However, this appeard to be far from the case!   As mentioned earlier, that first group of Hyperboreans who migrated to Atlantis were very much given to sorcery and conquest, whilst those who went to Asia, retained much of their pure character.   Could this signify a division of the Hyperboreans into two moral factions?   Those who chose the Left-Hand Path and those who preferred to follow the Right?    Perhaps this might account for the first contingent (the Atlanteans) leaving Thule so much earlier than those who became the Aryans.    
     Obviously, if there was a gap of thousands of years between the two groups leaving the Pole, it seems to infer that perhaps the first group (the Atlanteans), were expelled from their homeland by the rest of the inhabitants.   Clearly, the second, Aryan group, only left because of the ice cataclysm which overtook their homeland and didn't initially seek anything other than a place to live in peace.   This would seem to indicate that they were of quite a different and more peaceable nature to their Atlantean cousins.    Maybe, in this expulsion of the first group from this “Garden of The Hesperides” we are seeing some sort of parallel to the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the “Garden of Eden”?    

Shambhala, Agartha, and “The Hole at The Pole”.  
     That there was some further mystery related to the Boreal region, is indicated in the myth of Shambhala, which is supposed to have emanated from the early lamas of Tibet.   It is thought to have been an ancient  realm once located somewhere in Asia - possibly in the Gobi - when it was still the Gobi Sea.  It was thought to have been an island realm, called the “Sacred Island” which, in many respects seems to have been curiously similar to Thule or Hyperborea!
     The mystery deepens when we learn that its inhabitants were the last survivors of the “White Island” which had perished long ages earlier!     According to Madame Blavatsky, the inhabitants were descended from the Lemurians, but, since her information was alleged to be from a Theosophist, spiritual origin, we might be wiser in concluding that they were more likely to have been from Hyperboria-Thule!     
     From some of the accounts available, Shambhala appears to have been a centre of spiritual enlightenment, very reminiscent of James Hilton's “Shangri-La”, but others say that it was a centre of occult power and arcane teaching.
       Its leader was thought variously to be either an evil, tyrannical Sorcerer-King or a God-like “Lord of The World”.   We seem to be left with a choice of which story we prefer to follow, and evidently which Path one desires to follow, too.  The evil Left, or the good Right!    Apparently there were two factions (as in Hyperborea), one of which followed the Golden Sun, and the other the Black Sun.  (The “Black Sun”, incidentally, was as prominent an emblem of the Nazi mythos as was the Swastika!)        According to Jean-Claude Frére, author of “Nazisme et Sociétiés Secretès”, the people of Hyperborea, after migrating to the Gobi Desert over 6000 years ago, founded a new centre, which they named Agartha.   It became a great centre of world learning, and people flocked there from all over the world to enjoy its culture and civilization.  
However, a huge catastrophe supervened, and the earth's surface was devastated, but the realm of Agartha somehow survived, under the earth.   The legend continues to relate that, as with the original Hyperboreans,  the Aryans now split into two factions:  one group heading north-west, hoping to return to their lost Hyperborea, and the second going south, where they founded a new secret centre under the Himalayas.  
Jean-Claude Frére concludes:   The sons of the Outer Intellegences split into two groups, one following the “Right Hand Path” under the “Wheel of The Golden Sun”, the other the “Left Hand Path” under the “Wheel of the Black Sun”. The first preserved the centre of Agartha, that undefined place of contemplation, of the Good, and of the Vril force.  The second supposedly created a new place of initiation at Shambhala, the city of violence in command of the elements and human masses, hastening the arrival of the “charnel-house of time.”  A portent of the Jewish Holocaust in World War Two?

The Aryan Swastika.
     As a matter of passing interest, in this connection of Right and Left Hand Paths, it's intriguing to note that the swastika, which is a true Aryan symbol and represents a “square wheel”, has a duality in its symbolism.  The right-handed swastika represents the “Wheel of the Golden Sun” and the Right Hand Path of Good, whereas the opposite applies to the left-handed swastika.   Hitler chose the right-handed swastika as the emblem of his Nazi Party because it was the  Aryan symbol of power and good fortune.  The left-handed and far more appropriate one, he rejected, fearing that it might bring him evil and misfortune!  That he was in error on both counts, is matter of history!

 Asgaard -Agartha.
     “Asgaard” in Norse mythology, is the Home of the Gods - rather like Olympus is to the Greeks, and strangely, a French student of Indian mythology, named Louis Jacolliot, tells us in one of his books on the subject, “Le Fils de Dieu” (“The Sons of God”), how local Brahmin priests in Villenoor told him the story of a place called “Asgartha”.   It was known as the “City of The Sun”, and was the ancient seat of Brahmatma.  It appeared to date back to 13,000 BC, and Jacolliot claimed it was there long before the advent of the Aryans.   He completely discredited the Aryans, saying that they were merely a break-away caste of Brahmins.  In 10,000 BC, these  “Aryan Brahmins” rebelled against their priestly masters and took over Asgartha, forging an alliance with the other priests, who under their leadership became a warrior caste, instead.        Later, in 5,000 BC, two Norse brothers, Ioda and Skandah, who invaded Hindustan from the Himalaya region, finally destroyed Asgartha, before being driven away by the Brahmin warrior-priests.  These two, continued northward, back to their homeland, the land of the Norsemen.  Here they became immortalised as “Odin” and “Scandinavia”.   The Norse remembered the story so well, that when they set off to pillage Rome, they cried: “We go to sack Asgaard, the City of The Sun!”     Thus the legend of Agartha was born, and it continued to crop up in legends always connected with the Aryans, the Brahmahatma, and various mysterious Mahatmas - including those who communicated with Madame Blavatsky and her Theosophists!
Eventually, another French mystic investigator, Saint-Yves d'Alveydre, in 1886 revealed in his book, “Mission of India”, that Agartha is a hidden land beneath the surface of the earth, ruled over by a black sovereign Pontiff, called the Brahmatma.  He goes on to say that the realm was shifted underground around 3,200 BC, at the beginning of the Kali Yuga (or Golden Age) and that Agartha has known technology such as artificial lighting, mechanised transport, and even air-travel, far in advance of our own modern technology, for millennia!    Periodically, Agartha sends emissaries to the upper world, about which it keeps well informed. Agartha also has huge libraries which enshrine the whole wisdom of the ages, engraved in stone.   Many great secrets lie there, regarding many esoteric and spiritual subjects, including amazing skills and abilities long-forgotten by those who dwell on the surface.     

Fiction, Fantasy or Fact?
     His book, which reads like pure science-fantasy, bears a great resemblance to Bulwer-Lytton's book “The Coming Race”, which also tells of an underground world of high-tech beings possessed of that mysterious “Vril” force, so keenly sought by the Nazis in World War II, and who will one day emerge from their subterranean realm to take over the surface!    Saint-Yves insists that such a day really is coming, and that we will be totally defenceless against these super-beings, who will become the true world-rulers.    Nor is he the only one to insist that this is true!        Many other authors, mystics and investigators have attempted to solve this whole mystery, with varying degrees of success or failure.   However, most seem to agree that Agharta and Shambhala seem to be closely connected, either as being one and the same place, or as two totally opposed realms, one of light and goodness the other of darkness and evil.  

The Holes at the Poles.
     However, it is only comparatively recently that they have again captured public attention through the alleged NASA photographs of the so-called “Hole at the Pole”, which seem to lend some positive evidence of what had been suspected for centuries.  Namely, that there has always been a hole at either pole giving access to an inner earth, somewhat akin to Rice-Burroughs famous “Pellucidar”, but with a highly advanced people and technology, instead of the wild, prehistoric surroundings, savages and animals with which Burroughs furnished  his subterranean world!       

Scholars have written about these polar holes for centuries, and it would take several pages to go through their theories and notions, so I will avoid retelling the many legends of these “entrances to the underworld”.   Some suggested giant maelstroms, down which careless sailors could be swept,. Others spoke of them as the portals of Hell itself.  Yet others went so far as to describe fantastic voyages, whereby sailors entered at one pole and emerged safely at the other, after sailing an internal ocean and seeing a whole new world within, lit by a central sun!   Science-fiction is not a new thing!    
However, to return to our subject.  Let us now consider some of the more much modern views on this fascinating concept.  

     In 1926, a young New England student, named Amadeo Giannini, had an “epiphanous experience” during which he was taken upon an angelically-conducted tour of  a land beyond the polar regions, and shown the great, magical secret of the earth.  That instead of us being dwellers upon the outside shell of the globe, we are in fact, living inside it!   The stars  of the interior sky are actually simply distorted visions of the underside of the heavenly sky, although the sun actually exists in the centre of the earth -  though he does not present a coherent account of why (or how) it sets at night, or rises in the morning!   

     Giannini's cosmology is, to say the least, unique, in that he is able to shift the inner earth's shape to suit every difficulty he encounters.  Sometimes it seems flat, and at others it's like a doughnut!    Often his picture is of an infinite flattened disc with the earth surrounded by a  polar-style ice barrier. Above, below and beyond all this disc-world the heavens extend into infinity.    He even supported his wild fantasies with the discovery of land beyond the South Pole by Sir George Wilkin's 1928 expedition, and also with Rear-Admiral Richard Byrd's polar fights in 1947.  Then, later still, he alleged that the U.S. expedition of 1956 had flown over 2000 miles beyond the South Pole!    Naturally, Giannini's ideas were ridiculed by science, although he did attract a lot of attention from the “flying-saucer” fraternity. There have been several other claimants to “indisputable knowledge”of the existence of these polar holes, and some have even heard first-hand accounts of trips in flying-saucers into their depths!    

However, here we are getting into another realm altogether, as there are those“UFOlogists” who believe that “flying-saucers” are not from outer space at all, but are actually “Vimana” craft sent from the inner earth, to keep watch upon our outer surface activities.

The King of The World.
     Whilst this entire business of Shambala and/or Agharta might appear to be merely a fantasy, there are many who believe that they really exist, either as an underground realm, or as a lost city, hidden away somewhere in the Himalayas.   It is also called “Paradesa”, the University of Esoteric Knowledge, and  a large number of  travellers and mystics claim to have visited the city over the past century, in search of  spiritual and occult enlightenment.   The leader of the Aghartans, by the way, is claimed to be “The King Of The World”, the Metraton and the “High Lord of Agharta”, and, according to Ray Palmer and Richard Shaver ( who wrote the “Shaver Mysteries”, published in “Amazing Stories” in the 1940s), he is said to be a Venusian, who came here thousands of years ago from the planet Venus (then orbiting between Mars and Jupiter) to instruct and guide our then dawn-age humanity.  According to “witnesses”, notwithstanding his enormous age, he still appears youthful and very well-developed!  
However, despite this seemingly altruistic desire to help humanity, there are other accounts which say that Agartha is really a centre for evil occult forces bent upon our destruction, and Metraton is identified with Set, the Egyptian god of the Underworld and Evil, who is, in fact, none other than Satan. (The name “Satan” was originally derived from “Set.)    It would seem appropriate then that, if this were so, that this Satan should be from the very planet which now so closely resembles the real hell which Venus has now become, according to Russian “Venera” lander photos!  
Also if this person were Satan, his incalculable age yet continuing youth would also be accounted for, as would his title of “Prince, or Ruler of This World”, since Satan is thus styled by no less an authority than Jesus Christ, in the New Testament of the Christian Bible!  There is some additional support for this concept in the earlier comment that Venus was also referred to as Lucifer, The Morning Star.  “Lucifer” was,   of course, the original Archangelic name of Satan!  And, let us not forget the the coming World Dictator prophesied in the Biblical Book of Revelation, the so-called seven-headed Beast, whose name will add up to 666.  The number of all evil incarnate

The Switched Swastika?
     Thus we are faced with the possibility that the alleged Right-Hand Path / Left Hand Path positions as they relate to Agharta and Shambala, respectively, might well have been deliberately switched, and that the opposite may be the truth.   This could also apply to the direction of “rotation” of the swastika, to right or left, since, when we compare a swastika with a spiral galaxy - with regard to its “arms” and direction of rotation - the swastika-emblem of the Nazis then really does becomes a left-handed one!  The Aryan symbol of Evil and Misfortune!.    
     Oddly enough, and whilst we are discussing all these curious coincidences, it is worth remembering that Hell was always believed, even when I was a youngster, to be a huge underworld region deep inside our own earth!     Modernist Christian thinking has since come up with the concept of a Planet Heaven and a Planet Hell, but perhaps the old beliefs might have had some reasonable foundation in fact - if such an evil inner realm of Agartha does exist.

Nicholas Roerich.
     Before I close this brief introduction to the Inner Earth mythos, I should perhaps make mention of  Nicholas Roerich, who was a famous Russian explorer, artist and mystic, who traversed these mysterious regions  during  the 1920s and 30s in search of adventure and enlightenment.   Roerich was particularly interested in the lost realm of Shambala, about which he later wrote a book, entitled simply enough “Shambhala” published in 1930, along with “Himalayas: Abode of Light” and “Heart of Asia”, among others.     
 At one time, Roerich had possession of a “magical stone from another world” which was known as the Chintamani Stone. It was supposed to have come from the Sirius star system, and ancient Asian chronicles said it been given to Tazlavoo, the Emperor of Atlantis,  by an angelic messenger from the skies.  Legend says that it was sent from Tibet to King Solomon in Israel on a vimana airship (one of which he was also believed to have owned)!     

The stone, which is said to have had magical properties, is believed to have been Moldavite, a magnetic stone which is sold in many crystal shops, and is thought to have fallen in a shower of meteors some 15 million years ago.  (The sacred black stone inside the Kabah at Mecca,  which all Muslims venerate, is also a fragment of meteorite, and could well be of the same Moldavite stone).   Roerich wrote of Shambala in his book that: “Shambhala itself is the Holy Place, where the earthly world links with the higher states of consciousness...many speculations have been made about the location of the earthly Shambhala. Certain indications put this place in the extreme North, explaining that the rays of Aurora Borealis are the rays of Shambhala.... but this is incorrect, Shambhala is only north in relation to India, being perhaps on  the Pamir, in Turkestan, or in the Central Gobi...”    He associates it with the underground city of “Agharti” and with the “White Island”, and that its “Splendid Valley” is reached via subterranean passages from the Himalayas.   He further adds that “the underground caverns of Central Asia are inhabited to this day by the people called the Agharti, or Chud, and that when the time of purification comes, say the legends, they will emerge in their glory”.

The Religion of Shambala.
     If one can properly describe it as a religion, according to Roerich, that of Shambala is of Fire.  He relates it to the old cults of Fire and Sun, and the Swastika is its emblem, found carved or painted everywhere.   He definitely associates it with the Aryan Race.    However, it was not only confined to Buddhist temples.   He found it also connected to Bön-Po, a pre-Buddhist Black Faith “which reveres some mysterious gods of the Swastika.” He said that they drew the symbol counter-clockwise or left-handed - which, as we've seen, was the version chosen by the Nazis!  (There seems to also be some confirmation here that “Bön-Po” was adopted by the Aghartis.)

Flying Saucers and Atom Power.
     It was on August 5th, 1927, that Roerich and his party had a typical UFO sighting, 20 years before Kenneth Arnold saw his in 1947. “We saw, in a direction from north to south, something big and shiny reflecting the sun, like a huge oval moving at great speed. Crossing our camp, this thing changed in its direction from south to south west. And we saw how it dis-appeared in the intense blue sky. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with a shiny surface, one side of which was brilliant from the sun.”

     According to a lama who was travelling with Roerich's group, this was a good omen ”A very good sign.” he said. “We are protected.  Rigden-Jyepo himself is looking after us!”   He was referring to the prophesied “Lord of Shambala's New Era” .  The “Ruler of The World”, “Maitreya”, the “Last Avatar of the Kali Yuga”, who was to herald in a New Age - somewhat as Christ is to bring in the new Millennium of Peace upon the earth.   however, there is reference to an esoteric college of astrology, which was to be established in Urga (Ulan Bator, Mongolia) “as a centre from which comes the impulse for the imminent renewal of humanity, and to a Lord, King or Ruler of the World who is neither Christ nor Lucifer”.   
It's of interest to note that in the mid-1980s, a full-page advertisement appeared in all the world's leading daily newspapers announcing the imminent revelation of the “Maitreya”, who would appear to everyone in the world simultaneously, whether by direct sight or by television.  I personally still have a copy, in my files of this advertisement!   (But, as I write this, almost twenty years later, he still hasn't put in an appearance!)

     Roerich's wife, Helena, herself a mystic, wrote in her own book, ”Agni Yoga” about the Agni or Fire of Shambhala, and how it will be used in the New Age, describing it as “the great eternal energy, this fine imponderable matter which is scattered everywhere and which is within  our use at any moment”.  Roerich himself said of this same power in the 1940s: “energies of cosmic fire will approach the earth and create many new conditions of life”.  Joscelyn Godwin comments in his book, “Arktos, The Polar Myth”, “This could be a definition of Bulwer-Lytton's Vril force.....if Nicholas Roerich, the indefatigable worker for world peace, had known the form in which Agni would be compelled to manifest in 1945, he might have been more cautious in recommending it...”     It seems patently clear that this Agni fire, or Vril force, (which appear to be the same thing) could only have been what we nowadays describe as atomic energy!     

Anyhow, the foregoing should more than suffice for the historic background to the Hollow or Inner Earth concept, so I shall now pass on to the theory itself.

Whence The “Hollow Earth” Theory?
     It was Sir Edmund Halley, the 17th century astronomer who discovered Halley's Comet, who first suggested a hollow earth.  His idea was that it comprised three concentric spheres, that each supported life and which had at their centre a white-hot shining core.  He ascribed the shifting of the earth's magnetic poles to their movements one within another.  This might sound rather crackpot, until one considers that other reputable scientists have deduced that “polar wander” might be due to slippage of the mesosphere within the lithosphere, or the slippage of the latter over the former, as hypothesised by people like Wegener and Hapgood.   

     A theological dabbler in Science, Thomas Burnet, in his book “Sacred Theory of the Earth”, proposed that the waters of the oceans came out of a hole at the North Pole, but only in accordance with Divine Will, as and when required for Deluges and suchlike Heaven-sent catastrophes, but not as a continuous, self-sustained process of replenishment.
Alexander Colcott of Bristol subscribed somewhat to Burnet's idea, in 1768, but he chose to posit a hollow sphere, with an inner surface covered by a vast ocean.  In his view, the biblical Flood was caused when this welled up to the outer surface through a polar gap.   

     However, none of these thought of a hollow earth that had land and a central sun, which could be the habitation of  humanoid and animal life.    Nor did they conceive of any connection between holes at both ends of the earth.   (Perhaps this was because the South Polar land-mass had still to be discovered.)     This expansion of possibilities was left, as I have mentioned earlier, to the writers of popular fantasy-fiction, from the 17th century to the present-day. Particularly writers of the so-called Romantic Era, like Edgar Allen Poe, with his great story, “The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym”, and Bulwer-Lytton's “The Coming Race”, not to mention Jules Verne's immortal classics: ”Voyage To The Centre Of The Earth” and “The Sphinx of the Ice”.  Plus, of course,  the unrivalled Edgar Rice Burroughs series of adventure tales of “Pellucidar” and “At The Earth's Core”, etc; which I shall be mentioning again later in this article.

Three Possible Kinds of Hollow Earth…     
Before I go on to describe and discuss this intriguing subject, I must point out that there are really three types of subterranean “world” which are implied under the general heading “Hollow Earth”.         

The first of these is really just what it says - a planetary outer rocky crust, or “shell”, of variable thickness (600 to 800 miles), surrounding a vast, open or hollow spherical centre that is usually said to be illuminated by a small central “sun” of some kind.  This inner world, which has a largely similar surface to the outer one - except that the ratio of the amount of dry land to ocean is generally reversed  (i.e: four-fifths of land to one-fifth of ocean) - is usually described as being accessible by means of polar-openings or “holes” through the axial regions of the Earth's crust, as well as by means of extremely deep cavern-systems which connect both the outer and inner surfaces.  
It is supposed to be the home of a highly intellectual humanoid race which fled there many millennia ago to avoid an external world-catastrophe, and who now have no wish to contact present surface-dwellers because of their experimenting with nuclear devices and other stupidly dangerous technologies, which are bringing about the general destruction of the surface environment and atmosphere.  It is also thought that these same “Inner-Earth” dwellers are responsible for the so-called UFOs, which are said to exit and re-enter the Inner-Earth through the polar-openings, and are used simply to monitor our activities - especially those which threaten the global safety and integrity of the Earth.       

     The second “Inner-Earth” theory actually refers to extensive systems of either natural or “engineered” caverns and tunnels, deep within the Earth's crust, which are claimed to be occupied by very ancient “alien” humanoid races, somewhat akin to our own, but not particularly well-disposed toward modern humans on the outer surface.  These peoples are said to subsist on hydroponically-grown vegetables, fungi, and subterranean animals of various kinds (as well as, in some cases, captured surface-animals (including humans), and have developed their own mysterious societies along with strange forms of technology to suit their trogloditic environment.  

Their caverns are usually lit by some form of electrical or natural fluorescent energy, which possesses the same life-giving as, but more benevolent qualities than naked sunlight.  They, too, are often said to have retreated underground in very ancient times to escape catastrophes that were about to envelope the Earth's surface.   However, some accounts claim them to be variously either extraterrestrials, fallen-angels, demons, hominid reptoids or the more esoteric creatures of human fable, such as trolls, dwarfs, elves - or even yetis and sasquatch!     

But Don't Laugh Just Yet!
     Before we laughingly dismiss any possible existence of such mythical creatures, let us pause for a moment, and recall that all of the nations, both current and archaic, of the surface-world possess ancient legendary traditions regarding weird and eldritch dwellers in the “Underworld”, and the continuing persistence of such tales implies that there must have once been at least some substance to such fables for them to crop up  so universally and often identically in world folklore!   Many ancient folk-legends claim that our own human race originated in just such a subterranean world - and that many of the wicked among us will probably end up in one, too.  Hell, perhaps?     
The third inner-earth hypothesis is perhaps the most utterly incredible-sounding theory of the three - except that it embodies several key elements of the accepted modern laws of physics and relativity, which, strangely enough, render it beyond all repudiation by anyone who considers themselves to be  true disciples of modern academic science!   I will not expand on this curious mystery at this stage, lest I might inadvertently reveal too much of this quite astounding concept too early in the piece!    I think I shall save this one for the last, in the much the same manner as a dinner-host might reserve an irresistable dessert to add the final fillip to an already sumptuous banquet!          

A Matter of Considerable Gravity.
One final point I should perhaps raise (before my critics do) is the scientific feasibility of such a thing as a hollow earth being able to even exist under what we currently understand to be the natural physical laws that govern our universe!  I cannot undertake to answer these likely objections or questions in highly technical detail, since I do not possess a university doctorate, or even a plain degree in physics.  All I can rely upon is simple common-sense and what basic science and physics I learned in school - or have picked up since (which fortunately amounts to considerably more!)
One of the first considerations is that of pure gravity.   Could such a hollow Earth ever have formed in the first place, under the generally-accepted theory of cosmic-dust accretion ascribed by modern science to the planets of the solar system?   The immediate academic, orthodox scientific answer would seem to be an emphatic “No!”  That is, until we look more closely into possible ways in which it could have become hollow since its original accretion into a spherical mass!   

This could have happened in two or three different ways, but I will focus here on the one which sounds the more feasible to most lay-persons.  And that is by an axial spin-induced centrifuging effect upon the heavy material and elements that lie underneath the Earth's crust, together with a corresponding hollowing of the planet's centre and the shrinkage of its hypothetical radioactive core to form a central internal luminary.   Orthodox science, of course, confidently continues to assert that the Earth's core is probably made up of highly-compressed nickel-iron; in either a heated solid or a white-hot liquid state - even though there is no possible way of actually knowing or proving that such truly is the case!
Note how the word “probably tends to crop up with alarming frequency in “Cast-In-Stone”scientific text-books, but, in my view, it really stands for theoretically”. And, since anyone is perfectly entitled to formulate a theory about anything, I will now exercise that entitled freedom to set forth my own hypothesis regarding the possibility of the Earth being hollow!
  Some Basically Acceptable Precepts
     Let us accept, for the sake of argument, the general notion that the sun and the planets was formed out of a swirling mass of cosmic dust and gas in one of the far-flung “limbs” of matter trailing out from our spiralling Milky Way galaxy.  Because everything in the universe is demonstrably in motion, and all nebulae and galaxies rotate about their “hubs” or axes, so also had the mass of cosmic material which was to form our solar system itself been imparted with a swirling motion.   As it swirled, the amorphous mass of space-debris, dust and gas began to steadily coalesce into a central lump of matter, and, as the lump increased in size and mass, its gravity also grew, attracting more and more material by accretion into its growing and rotating bulk.   

Soon this gestating star, our Sun, had begun to form into a dimly-glowing ball, steadily developing greater heat as its material rapidly became compacted by the ever-increasing pressure of its mass.  And, as its rotation increased more and more, eddies began to develop in the wide, circular “skirt” or disc of residual matter which swung around with it.   Now these swirling eddies themselves began to attract and accrete matter also, and to rotate ever faster as they grew in mass.  These proto-planetary masses were, of course, still orbiting in the same basic plane as the original disc of dust and gas, at a 90º angle to the solar axis and parallel with the equator of the burgeoning Sun, which held them firmly in place, almost perfectly-balanced, through the opposition of strong gravitational and centrifugal forces.
These rotating proto-planets, now having settled into steady orbits, gradually accelerated their rates of axial revolution as they grew in size and mass, building themselves up into individual, roughly-globular bodies.    They steadily continued to pack themselves tighter and denser as they swiftly accreted more and more dust, gas and debris from the last remnants of the original cloud of matter.    Eventually, instead of sporting a swirling `skirt' of disorganised cosmic material, the already-luminous Sun now turned swiftly upon its axis, pulling along with it a burgeoning family of developing planets.  

Each of these was now becoming spherical in shape* and rotating rapidly about their own axes, and they had now begun to glow redly, to varying degrees, according to their size and distance from their parent.  This was due to the enormous internal heat produced by their own gravitational compression and consequential friction of particles of matter.   Because of this increasing, self-generated heat, the cosmic debris of which the fledgling planets were composed now began to turn from glowing cindery clinker into molten magma - a thick cosmic “hot-pot” of assorted elements.    (*However, I have since come to another likely conclusion re the formation of planets and stars, which is included later in this article as a “Speculative Discourse on Hollow Planet Formation”   GF)
So Far, So Good!   
But it is here that we must part company with the accepted orthodox view of the development of the planets, and consider certain natural physical laws which had by now come into play - and which orthodox science appears to have overlooked in its complacency!   Also, let it be clearly understood that, even among those of us who do not blindly accept all the dogmas of orthodox science and physics, there are certain groups who do not accept the concept of “gravity” and other kindred “forces” as such,  preferring instead, to substitute the attraction and repulsion effects of electro-magnetism, the pressure of light-photons, “soft-ether” particles and other such natural phenomena and photo-electrical effects, in their stead.   
However, for the express benefit of those who are newcomers to this “Hollow Earth” theory, rather than cloud the basic “Hollow Earth and Planets” issue with any internecine wranglings over what are really secondary issues in the fundamental debate, I will couch my argument in terms of the more commonly-understood Newtonian physical “Laws” and science.

Gravity Versus Centrifugal Force.
      Orthodox science has thus far worked upon the assumption that, because the planets were once molten balls of magma, and because all of the terrestrial planets (with the possible sole exception of Venus) now possess solid surfaces, they must have cooled gradually, from the outside inwards, until a hard crust of rock (the lithosphere) had formed and that this cooling process is still gradually advancing inwards toward their cores.   Mercury and Mars are assumed, in scientific circles, to have already solidified right through.  Thus, it is plain that the main bulk of scientists assume that these planets are all basically solid or solidifying bodies.  (Science makes many assumptions!)    

Hidden Effects Inside the Earth.
     However, what seems to have been overlooked (perhaps because there has been no reason to think of the terrestrial planets otherwise than simply as balls of once-molten magma which are all in the process of cooling to a completely solid state), is exactly how they were formed, and what hidden effects that formative process might well have produced internally.   I've mentioned above that the two principal forces which caused the planets to form as Science claims they have, are gravity and centrifugal force.   We have noted how, as the eddying matter which formed each planet gathered together and accreted, first into an amorphous mass, then into a discrete body, and then - partly because of the Sun's own rotation, but largely because all such forming bodies of accreting matter in the universe, whether they be planets, stars, or nebulae - seems to acquire a self-imparted rotary motion in obedience to an as yet ill-defined set of physical laws which govern this universal tendency in all celestial objects toward rotation.  

This phenomenon can best be understood if one visualises an ice-skater who slowly starts to rotate his body on a particular spot, with his arms outstretched. Then, as he draws his arms in toward his body, his rotation (or angular momentum) begins to increase, until he is spinning around very rapidly indeed.   This angular momentum is actually the product of inertia (which is the tendency of a body to retain its state of “rest” or uniform motion in a straight line) and angular velocity (which is the rate of its motion through an angle, about an axis).    The accreting planets are already locked in a struggle between the forces of angular momentum and inertia, since they are already in motion around the Sun, but they are also held in orbit as its gravitational prisoners, so that their tendency to fly off in a straight line is prevented.   It's this paradoxical combination and opposition of physical forces that sets up the angular momentum to begin with, and as the accreting mass of matter forms rapidly into a highly-compressed shape, the angular momentum (axial spin) increases considerably, just like that of our body-hugging skater..

     I guess this may all sound fairly technical, but if you can imagine our skater spinning faster and faster as he draws himself together into a tightly-compacted form, you can likewise imagine the Earth picking up rotary speed as it becomes more and more ball-shaped.   However, let us return to the orthodox mechanics of the matter.  

What happened inside the rapidly-rotating Earth as it spun so rapidly upon its axis?  (Remember that, although its cooling crust, under the deep cold of space may have swiftly begun to solidify into rock, the underlying highly-heated magma inside the Earth would still have been in a molten, semi-fluid and mobile state).   Again, perhaps we can use another imaginary illustration from our own everyday experience, to illustrate this interesting point.    

By Way of Illustration.
     If we picture the Earth at that stage of its development to be a sort of gigantic vertical washing-machine doing its “Spin” cycle, with its solidifying crust as the wall of the washing-machine's tub - or its gravitational “shell”, if you like - we can imagine how the heavy molten matter and elements would be thrown up against the inside of the solidified crust, in very much the same way that the wet clothes in the washer-tub are plastered around its drum-wall - by centrifugal force!    This would leave an empty space or hollow core around the central or vertical axis of the tub, just as we discover upon opening it, although the centrifugal force would be virtually none existent along the whole central axis of rotation of both the tub and the Earth!  This effect is demonstrably true of any naturally (or mechanically) rotating body of matter.  Also, since the mass of the tub's contents would no longer be in the centre of the tub, the location of the centre of gravity would be moved away from the central area, and instead of being a single focal point, the gravitational locus would now form a circular configuration or field.  
A typical example of this effect would be the vortex created when one removes the plug from a wash-basin or bath full of water.  The centrifugal effect comes into play very swiftly and the centre of the vortex is left open and clear of water.  The same phenomenon is also seen in any revolving storm, such as a hurricane, cyclone, or a spinning tornado, where the centre of the vortex is the open “eye”.   

And the same rule is true of all naturally-revolving objects throughout the universe, whether nebulae or galaxies (or even black-holes ), where the main central bulk of the object has not yet compacted into a solid mass.   It appears that, wherever this particular clash of natural physical forces occurs, the phenomenon of rotation is always the natural outcome, and with such a rotation comes centrifugal (or centripetal) force, and this invariably produces a central vortex-tube or core-aperture of some kind!    

The centre of gravitational force  in such a vortex would be somewhere in the walls of its tube - not down the open centre of the tube's axis, which would be gravity free.   (Hence Dorothy's home being lifted up the “eye” of the whirlwind in “The Wizard of Oz”!   There was no gravity inside the vortex to hold it down!)    Get the picture?  (If not - get the video and see for yourself!)
Another (rather messy) Example.     
The same effect as that found inside the spinning washing-machine would apply if we were to fill a child's educational “Globe of the World” with piping-hot, sloppy  mashed-potato or milky porridge, then spin it at high speed for a while until it cooled off.  Upon opening it up, we would (hopefully) find the mushy mashed potato or porridge now tightly compacted around the inside of the globe, with its thickest deposit plastered around the inside of the equatorial region of the globe and a sizeable empty space in the centre.  We would probably also be surprised to discover that, at the polar ends of the globe's axis, there would be only a very thin deposit - if, in fact, any at all!     (You can test this for yourself - but don't sue me for a new World Globe!)    This same effect, incidentally, can also be observed in any DIY concrete-mixer, as many of us may have perhaps already discovered to our cost - especially if we forgot to sluice the drum out with water and left its contents to set overnight!   Agreed?   

     The reason why there is little or no matter deposited at the poles of the toy Globe's axis is the same as that applicable to our “Spin-Cycled” washing-machine tub - and it is my contention (along with that of many others more knowledgeable than I), that this same phenomenon could equally well, and quite logically, apply to the Earth and the other planets, (even the stars, too) due precisely to the same set of circumstances, physical laws and mechanics being brought into play!  Unfortunately many scholars who draw diagrams of hollow planets forget to take into account this added effect of the centrifugal force caused by the planet's rotation, so their diagrams are not entirely accurate.  
Incidentally, I should make some mention of the known fact that it is this same centrifugal force which causes the Earth to bulge outward  to some extent at the equator, and to flatten somewhat at the poles. In short, its exterior is more of a horizontally oblate shape.  This means that the Earth's crustal shell is markedly thicker around the equator than it is at the axial poles.  Thus the interior of a hollow rotating Earth would not be so much spherical as vertically oblate in shape.  

But apart from this added centrifugal force acting upon its interior, and making objects or people around the inner equator a shade heavier, the general overall effect, gravity-wise, would be fundamentally similar to that in a non-rotating planet.   Any gravity-free zone at the axial centre would, of course, be similarly vertically oblate.      

Still Have Any Doubts?
I would suggest to anyone who may have any reservations about this “internal-centrifuge” concept that they really ought to go and fully load up their washing-machine, do the washing, then carefully observe the Spin-Cycle and its subsequent effect upon the articles washed.  The laundry items, (which represent the accreted cosmic material or magma inside the developing planet), are flung outwards against the rotating drum, and the centre remains open and clear.  The fact that the rotating-drum of the washing-machine is a cylinder, whilst the Earth is a sphere, really makes little difference.  

Obviously, if the machine continued to operate on “Spin Dry” indefinitely (as is the case with our Earth), the washed items (or magma) would eventually solidify around the sides, just as would happen to the mashed potato in our child's World Globe experiment, or the hard-setting mixture of cement, sand and gravel, in the concrete-mixer.  But the centre, in all three cases - as with our hypothetical Hollow Earth - would always remain hollow to some greater or lesser degree!    However. Don't forget to make mental allowances for the actual downward pull of our Earth's gravity, in these experiments.  (Unfortunately, you and I cannot try them out in the free-fall “zero-G” of a space orbit!)       
If nothing else, this exercise (beside getting some of the washing done, ruining a perfectly good toy Globe, or gunking up a concrete-mixer), should give any “Doubting Thomases” good cause to reflect upon the implications of this combination of simple and observable physical laws when applied to such a situation on so vast a scale as the formation of a planet!    However, I believe that I've laboured this particular point far enough for the moment, so I will leave it there for the time being and move on to those other very closely-associated phenomena of our Hollow Earth theory - the “Holes at the Poles” and the “Central Sun”!

The Holes at The Poles.
     Most accounts and descriptions of these entrances to the Earth's interior include huge holes, apertures, or suchlike anomalies at either or both polar caps.   These have been “reported” and hinted at in some of the more dubious accounts of otherwise reputable polar explorers and adventurers as being anything between 100 and 1400 miles in diameter!  Among the notable people who are claimed to have encountered these strange phenomena is the renowned American, Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, who flew all over the northern polar icecap in 1947, and over Antarctica in 1956, on aerial exploratory expeditions.  His astonishing reported accounts of the strange phenomena he met with, are a matter of uncertainty, but I refer my reader to the many accounts of his alleged findings in works by other authors.   

Other famous explorers who encountered similar (but more verifiable) baffling anomalies in the vicinity of the North Pole include Dr. Frederick Cook, in 1908, and Rear Admiral Peary, in 1909.  And long before any of these, the famous Norwegian polar explorer, Fridtjof Nansen, had some extremely eerie experiences during his Arctic expedition in search of the North Pole in 1885-86.  
Many other explorers have had the same sort of uncanny experiences at the poles since, but I will again have to refer the reader to the multitudinous accounts, on the Internet and elsewhere, of their astonishing discoveries, in order to save myself having to write down page after repetitive page of these very similar amazing and often quite incredible reports.   However, first things first!  I think I should explain a few salient background points about the poles before going any further!

Some Background.
In his famous book:The Hollow Earth, Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., PhD. went into some considerable detail about the widely-held belief in the Earth being hollow, and he was able to unearth some intriguing data to support his own support for this belief.   I will quote a few notable extracts from his engrossing work.  First, he deals with the scientific assumption that the Earth is a solid body by saying this - and I quote:

The belief in the Earth having a fiery center probably arose from the fact that the deeper one penetrates into the Earth, the warmer it gets.  But it is a far-fetched assumption to suppose that this increase in temperature continues until the center of the Earth.  There is no evidence to support this view.  It is more probable that the increase of temperature continues only until we reach the level where volcanic lava and earthquakes originate, probably due to the existence of much radioactive substances there.  But after we pass through this layer of maximum heat, there is no reason why it should not get cooler and cooler as we get nearer and nearer to the Earth's center.

     “The total surface of the Earth is 197 million square miles and its estimated weight is six sextillion tons. If the Earth was a solid sphere, its weight would be much greater.  this is one of the scientific evidences that the Earth has a hollow interior.   The author believes that the truest conception of the structure of the Earth is based on the idea that when it was in a molten state during its formation, centrifugal force caused the heavier substances to be thrown outward, toward its periphery, in the form of rocks and metals to form its outer crust, leaving its interior hollow, with openings at the poles, where centrifugal force was less (or none existent) and where there was a lesser tendency to throw materials outward, which was greater at the equator, causing the bulging of the earth in this region.  It has been estimated that as a result of the Earth's rotation on its axis during its formative state, polar depressions and openings thus formed would measure about 1,400 miles in diameter.

     “Also we shall present below evidence to indicate that some of the original fire and incandescent (possibly atomic) materials (may have) remained in the center of the Earth to form a central sun, much smaller, of course, than our sun, (in fact quite miniscule by comparison) but capable of emitting light and supporting plant growth.  We shall also see that the Aurora Borealis or streaming lights that illuminate the Arctic sky at night come from this central sun whose rays shine through the polar opening.  

     “Thus, if the Earth was originally a ball of fire and molten metal, some of this fire remained in its center, while centrifugal force as a result of its rotation on its axis caused its solid matter to be thrown toward the surface, forming a solid crust and leaving its interior hollow, with a fiery ball in its center, forming the central sun, which provides illumination (and heat!) for plant, animal and human life”.       
                                                                                        (Parenthetical comments and emphases are mine. GF)
     Bernard goes on to mention that the first person to present this theory of a hollow earth with holes at its poles was an American philosopher, William Reed, author of the book:Phantom of the Poles, which was published in 1906.  A book which provides the first compilation of scientific knowledge, based on the reports of Arctic explorers, supporting the theory of a hollow earth with polar openings.   Reed apparently estimated the crust of the Earth to be around 800 miles thick at the equator, and that its hollow interior is 6,400 miles in diameter. Reed summarised his revolutionary theory thus - and again I quote:  
“The earth is hollow.  The poles, so long sought, are phantoms.   There are openings at the northern and southern extremities.  In the interior there are vast continents, oceans, mountains and rivers.  Vegetable and animal life are evident in this New World, and it is probably peopled by races unknown to dwellers on the Earth's surface”.     
     He also pointed out that the Earth is not a true sphere, but is flattened at the poles, or rather it begins to flatten out as one approaches the hypothetical North or South Pole - which really do not exist because the openings to its hollow interior occur there.  Hence the (imaginary) Poles are really positioned in mid-air, in the centres of these polar openings, and are not actually on the surface, as would-be discoverers of the Poles suppose.   He goes on to add that the Poles cannot be discovered because the Earth is hollow at its Pole points, “which exist in mid-air, due to the existence there of the polar openings leading into its interior”.   Then Reed goes on to stress that, when explorers believed they had reached the Poles, they were actually misled by the eccentric behaviour of the compass in high latitudes, both north and south.  He claims that this was what happened in the case of Peary and Cook, neither of whom really reached the North Pole.   Let us just take a few moments off and examine this particular problem in greater depth.

Problems with Compasses.
     According to all the evidence I have discovered thus far, virtually all the great polar explorers experienced serious problems with their magnetic compasses once they had passed the 80º to 85º latitudes, and found that their compass-needles performed all sorts of erratic swings, dips and  rises.  As we have noted, this happened to both Peary and Cook, and caused them to miss the North Pole completely, just as it did to many others, before them and since.
Admiral Byrd's aerial expedition certainly had problems with their instruments, as he noted in his log how both his magnetic and gyroscopic compasses began to “gyrate and wobble” so much that they were “unable to hold our heading by instrumentation”. However, being fairly high up in an aircraft, he managed to take bearings with a sun-compass, and this told him he was approaching the pole.  (But I shall have to return later to Byrd's polar flight, since it proved to be such a totally amazing one!)   
A famous Russian polar explorer, Snegirev, told how  the magnetic pole “made some kind of tricky curve making it “inconvenient to travel by compass alone.  The arrow would point northward, then it would veer to the west, and then almost reluctantly it would return to its former position”.    Dr. Raymond writes in his book:The Hollow Earth”, how this weird action of the compass had “been observed by many Arctic explorers, who, after reaching high latitudes near to 90 degrees, were dumbfounded by the inexplicable action of the compass and its tendency to point vertically upward”.  He then goes on to add, by way of explanation, that: “They were then inside the polar opening and the compass pointed to the North Magnetic Pole which was along the rim of the opening”!        (Emphases are again mine. GF.)

     Ray Palmer, American author and editor of several sensational magazines connected with mysterious phenomena, mentioned in an editorial article entitled The North Pole - Russian Style, in which he described “remarkable discoveries made by Russian Arctic explorers, which confirm the theory of a hollow earth and polar openings, as do the observations of Arctic explorers to which we shall refer below”.   I cannot quote his article in full here, but I will quote an extract from it which is pertinent in this age of daily over-flights of the pole by commercial and military aircraft.   It says this:
     “One of the things we have been most insistent about is that no one has yet been to the North Pole, all claims to having done so being false, because the Pole is not a `point' and cannot be `reached' in the accepted sense of the word.    We have successfully challenged those military and civilian pilots who have claimed that they fly `daily' over the north Pole.  In the case of the military flyer, we have pointed out the maneuver which is standard, which automatically makes it impossible for him to fly beyond the Pole by flying straight across it. (That is across the polar opening, instead of going into it - Author.)  

Because of navigating difficulties stemming from compasses of all kinds”.   “A `lost' flyer (whose compass doesn't work as it should) regains his bearings by making a turn in any direction, until his compasses again resume function.  In the case of commercial airlines, whose advertised boast is that they fly twice daily over the Pole, they are simply stretching the truth.....(They simply cross over the magnetic rim of the polar opening, where the compass registers the highest degree north, but do not actually reach the North Pole, which is the central point of the polar opening inside this rim - Author.)”   
                             (The emphases placed on parts of the foregoing extracts, incidentally, are my own - GF.)      

However - A Word of Caution…  
     I should point out that, according to reported past geological surveys in the Arctic Ocean, the ocean was said to deepen considerably as the 85-degree latitude was approached.  Nansen himself sounded it at that latitude and found  it to be over 2,000 fathoms (12,000 feet), and he noted that it continued to deepen as he ventured further.  (The latest official bathymetric depth-figure for the estimated North Pole ocean-bed position is 13,600 feet).    

However, I must also add that more recent bathymetric oceanographic charts of the Arctic sea-bed show two large and parallel ridges enclosing the polar abyssal plain, where the North Pole is believed to be. (Though no one can really be certain, even today, because of persistent magnetic-compass aberrations).  These are the Lomonosov Ridge and the Nansen Cordillera (also known as the Gakkel Ridge on some maps), which are 400 or 500 km apart, and would thus seem to considerably limit the largest size or diameter of any possible polar-hole to a maximum of less than 400 kilometres or so, rather than the earlier claims for holes over 1000 kilometres or more across!    (Personally, after studying data and computer-images based upon satellite Earth-topography radar scans, I think that the “polar hole” (if it exists at all) may prove to be less than 100 km in diameter.)
     As a matter of special interest; I only recently stumbled upon an Internet report concerning a Swedish polar research expedition which departed upon 12 July, 1996,  in the ice-breaker, Oden, to study climatic and environmental developments around the innermost circumpolar regions of the Arctic.  Oden was to be accompanied by the German research-vessel, Polarstern.   These two ships had cooperated very successfully before, during the 1991 IAOE (International Arctic Ocean Research Expedition), when they claimed to have actually reached the North Pole - by water!   I was particularly interested to learn that one of their geological objectives was to study the Arctic Polar Basin sea-bed by using remote-sensing apparatus and to deep core-drill parts of it and the surrounding Lomonosov Ridge and Nansen Cordillera.  I have yet to locate the ultimate findings of this expedition, but will include them in these notes if and when they eventually come to hand!    They should make interesting reading!  

...And a Few Words of Optimism, too!
     But, we should not lose sight of the fact that some of these polar depths could very well have been “guesstimates” or “fudged” figures, due simply to the patently obvious impossibility of taking an oceanic-survey vessel right around, let alone through, the central, solidly-frozen Arctic ice-pack, and even nuclear submarines would still be dependent upon magnetic-compass bearings for their precise positions!     

Perhaps, if the same sort of satellite-mounted, Martian orbiting laser-altimeter (or MOLA) - such as was used to map the depths, heights and general topography of the Martian surface - could be employed to try and resolve this and many other strange mysteries of our own terrestrial ocean-depths - such as the notorious Bermuda Triangle (for explanation of vanished ships and planes), the south western Pacific Ocean (for traces of the lost continent of Mu), the Indian Ocean (for evidences of Lemuria), and the Antarctic continent (for some signs of a possible southern polar-hole, and perhaps even of a lost Atlantis there, beneath the huge icecap),  we just might begin to learn a lot more about our own planet, and, also in this way, a lot more about the actual internal structure of the other terrestrial planets, also!     
It is my own humble opinion that there is still a vast amount of exploration and discovery left to be done both upon and inside our own planet, which would involve infinitely less cost in money, time, and effort than that which is currently being expended on the apparently fruitless exploration of space!  (Of which more later.)   Not that I have the slightest objection to our exploring our neighbouring planets, of course, but I think we should find out all we can about our own still very mysterious and enigmatic planet first!   

Some Relevant Points to Consider.....
     Before passing on to other interesting aspects of this “Hollow Earth” concept, let me point out that the North Pole is frequently covered by cloud and/or fog, and thus, from high-altitude jet planes and earth-orbiting satellites, any such phenomena as a large hole in the ice (if not in the underlying ocean) might be concealed from view for a great part of the time - although, given the presence of a bright central “sun” within the earth, it would probably not appear as a dark hole, but rather one which would emit light. (Perhaps some sort of a shining patch?)   
During the daytime, one could well envisage that the external sunlight on the surrounding ice and the brightness of any inner luminary might well cancel each other out, especially since the sun's rays reflect back quite brilliantly off the ice and water during the six-month Arctic summer, when the cloud-blanket would often be very patchy or even totally absent in some areas, from time to time.     

The Aurora?     
During the Arctic spring, and autumn, another phenomenon can often be observed at either pole; this is the auroral spectacle known as the “Northern or Southern Lights” - the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis, respectively.  Science has explained these vertical and beautiful curtain-like effects as being “caused by charged particles from the Sun striking rarefied gases high in the ionosphere and illuminating them” - in much the same way as an electrical charge illuminates the gas in a neon tube.   However, if we think about an internal sun” shining out through apertures in the Earth's crust at the poles, might we not expect to observe something very similar on suitable, comparatively cloud-free nights - much like the effect of a battery of diffused searchlight-beams shining upwards from the icecap?   Hmmm…Possibly!

Another official explanation seems to be that the aurora are actually due to solar protons and electrons being drawn down toward the Earth's magnetic poles and changing colour in relation to “the altitudes at which these collisions occur and on the wavelengths of the particles involved”.    However, what if the situation were to be reversed, and the particles were being discharged upwards instead, by the “inner sun” (also perhaps a moderately radioactive body) through the polar apertures?  Would we not expect to observe a very similar phenomenon?  Again, possibly.  Orthodox science would probably reject such an idea as totally preposterous - but is it such a ridiculous idea?

Well, after much careful thought, I reluctantly have to admit that this idea is a bit of a stretch, and find that I have to agree with the scientific explanation that such auroral phenomena are most likely caused by cosmic and solar particles impinging upon, and being “braked” by the earth's ionosphere causing photonic excitation which makes them fluoresce, and then possibly being subsequently burned up in the stratosphere.  The discharge of great amounts of light upwards from “polar holes” in both the Arctic and the Antarctic would surely have been remarked upon by many polar aircraft pilots long before this!   Thus the “upward-shining” theory clearly isn't true.

It's also well worth remembering that the North Magnetic Pole is reckoned by geological science to be located in northern Canada, near Bathurst Island, at about latitude  78º North - which is some 750 kilometres south of the geographical North Pole, whilst the South Magnetic Pole is claimed to be off the coast of  Wilkes Land, at latitude 64º South, which is over 2700 kilometres north of the geographic South Pole, and apparently, these magnetic poles are inclined to change their positions from year to year!     

One would surely expect the magnetic poles to be located upon a magnetic axis running through the north-south middle  of the Earth, just as the true polar axis does - if the Earth truly is a gigantic spherical magnet - which it is generally assumed to be, and which I always thought it was?   However, I have since learned that the magnetosphere - which includes the Van Allen Belts - is really more in the shape of a very fat “doughnut” that girdles around the main bulk of the Earth, but leaves the polar regions more or less open to solar EMF fluxes.  

So why then do we find this strange anomaly, which indicates that the magnetic axis of the Earth does not run through its actual geocentric point, but instead runs out from 90ºN to 64ºS,  and is thus angled away and aberrated from the north-south geographic polar axis by a whopping 36 degrees?  

I hasten to add that I myself can offer no concrete answer to this riddle, beyond the possibility of heavier concentrations of copper or iron ore being present in the Earth's crust in these regions, and thus playing some major part in the mystery - but I'd be extremely interested to hear what the geological fraternity have to say about it!   One could be forgiven for thinking that perhaps the magnetic and geographical poles might have no actual physical bearing upon each other at all!   

Whatever.  I have yet to be convinced that the auroral phenomena actually does focus directly upon either magnetic pole - in which case, the true reason for the auroral effects may be related to the Earth's own magnetosphere in the way I suggested earlier, and are simply related to solar and cosmic particles fluorescing in the ionosphere.   

I recall very clearly seeing the Aurora Borealis many times myself, as a boy in northern Britain, and it always appeared to be towards true north to me, and according to the Pole Star, Polaris.  Otherwise I would have had to look somewhat away to one side, toward the north-north-west!    (I should perhaps add that I was a Boy Scout at the time, so I was possessed of an excellently-developed sense of direction!)  
Another possibility regarding this “Earth Magnetism” is that it may very well prove to be only a sub-surface, localised phenomenon which is confined entirely to the crustal lithosphere of the Earth - a phenomenon which may be applicable to the other terrestrial-type planets also - and that it may be of no particularly vital importance to our planet's mechanics or “well-being” -  apart from providing a useful “orienting-guide” for such migratory animals as caribou, musk-oxen and reindeer, as well as birds, which can all apparently utilise the natural earth-magnetic force via some sensory-faculty that we humans seem to have lost - or, in our case, via mechanisms like the magnetic-compass.   

However, some new information may yet be forthcoming about all of this, in due course, which might radically change current scientific thinking about the Earth's so-called “Magnetic Poles”!

A Late Update on Geo-Magnetism.
     Further to my comments above regarding “Earth-Magnetism”.  I discovered a fairly recent report from the Geological Survey of Canada (within whose territory the North Magnetic Pole is located), which indicates that the Earth's geomagnetism, as manifested in the Magnetic Poles, is now believed to be produced by electrical currents that originate in the super-heated magma of the Earth's (assumed) liquid outer core, or even in the large subterranean “seas or lakes” of molten magma - which I personally believe, would most likely be principally concentrated beneath the tectonic plate-edges, in between the deeper crustal layers.   This flow of electrical currents is believed to be in a constant state of flux, and thus implies that the magnetic field which they produce is also continually changing.   

This phenomenon has been born out by a study of reported locations of the North Magnetic Pole harking back to 1829.   Subsequent locations of the magnetic pole in 1831, 1903, 1945, 1962, 1973, 1984 and 1994, have shown that, over this period of 165 years, the North Magnetic Pole has “wandered” along a somewhat weaving path from the Boothia Peninsula (70ºN) to the Noice Peninsula (77ºN), some 1100 kilometres northward, roughly along the 105º line of longitude, and continues to move northwards, at a steadily accelerating rate, from an earlier 10 kilometres per year, now up to 15 kilometres per year!  
One might perhaps be forgiven for expecting that there would have also been a similar shifting of the South Magnetic Pole towards the south, but thus far, the opposite seems to be true, with a much slower migration of the South Magnetic Pole northward of about only 200 km along the 140º line of longitude!   It's precisely because of this constant shifting of the magnetic poles, and their consequential dubious value as precise charting-loci when using a magnetic-compass, that I am inclined to suspect that the estimated position of the true North Pole could easily have varied quite considerably since the time of the earlier explorers - a margin of error which might conceivably still persist in many currently-charted calculations of the Pole's actual position!  

Latest News on IAOE Findings.
     Since writing the above “Latest Update”, I have learned some preliminary results of the 1996 International  Arctic Ocean Expedition.   No less than 29 sedimentary piston-cores were extracted from the Lomnosov Ridge between the latitudes of 85º N to 89º N, and, at the time of the new report in May, 1997, these were still being evaluated.  A comprehensive computerised, visual geological-model of the Arctic Basin should soon be forthcoming of both the Lomonosov Ridge and the adjacent Arctic Basin.  

Nonetheless, this highly-detailed research seems to indicate that the possible existence of a hole in the seabed at the North Pole is now, (alas) rather less likely!    Otherwise, despite any alleged official security “Cover-Up Conspiracies”, I feel sure such a discovery would have been “leaked” by now, and would long since have become headline-news in the world-media.
However, after some deep consideration of this “Polar Hole” idea, I feel that whilst there might conceivably be an axial aperture at each pole, if we accept the notion that a “shell”planet's centre of gravity would take the form of a spherical gravitational field around midway through the thickness of the Earth's shell, then it is logically to be expected that over the millennia, the sediment from the polar oceans, or airborne dust and other general detritus, will have long ago filled up these holes, either partially or entirely.
This is simply because the gravitational-zone halfway through the rocky shell, will have created an invisible “floor” of electromagnetic force which would prevent any of this sediment from falling through into the inner earth.   This would also work the other way round, too, since exactly the same effect would apply within the planetary shell as outside it.  Thus any holes would be filled in with firmly stable “plugs” on either side!   

Because of this simple “spherical centre of gravity” pheneomenon, it would be virtually impossible to detect the locations of any holes in the Earth's shell, using any of the side-scan radar, laser, or other ground-penetrating scanning methods currently in use.  

Also, there is no logically sound reason to think that the axial poles would be the only locations for such apertures.  They could have occurred in many other places around the globe for a variety of reasons, including extremely forceful penetration by bolides and meteors travelling at vast speeds.  Even a gravitational force-field can't stop everything!

This leaves us with a lot more room for speculation as to where such concealed holes could lie hidden, and might even permit some speculation about notorious areas of sea and land where many inexplicable disappearances have occurred, expecially of large objects, such as ships and aircraft, or even ancient buildings and cities!  Think of the Bermuda Triangle, and of cities like Atlantis!  Nor is it entirely inconceivable that the “plugs” of such apertures might sometimes be rendered penetrable by powerful hi-tech means, such as a directional antigravity beam, operated from the interior. For those who believe in such things, these apertures could even be the means of ingress and egress for UFOs, to and from the interior   We simply have no way of guessing at the degree of technology such an ancient and isolated race might have reached.  All we can do, in our present ignorance of real clues regarding such fantastic matters, is speculate and theorise.           

However, let's always bear in mind that even the wildest imaginative speculation and theorising has frequently led mankind to making astonishing scientific discoveries in the past, so we should continue to pursue this objective zealously and relentlessly.

The only possible glimmer of hope for those who still seriously believe in the existence of open polar holes, twinkles dimly in the very faint chance of some kind of official and extremely-tight “Security Lid” having been clamped down upon any true findings of this nature by the US-led  New World Order hierarchy; as would appear may have have happened in connection with several other important scientific discoveries which have attracted NWO covert attention, and have subsequently been suppressed and classified as Red Label “Top-Secret”!   “Pro Bono Publici” -  as the American CIA, FBI, and other Military Intelligence agencies would probably describe such clamp-downs!   

One really can't ignore such undercover and clandestine activities as those which occasionally come to light, relating to hush-hush operations such as “Roswell”, “Area 51”, Dulce, Cheyenne Mountain, and other alleged Government “Conspiracies, Cover-Ups, and Secret Facilities”, not just in the USA, but also in Europe, Russia, China, and even in Australia, too!  Ever heard of Pine Gap?    (And who knows - maybe even “Stargate” actually lives inside its own secret hollowed-out mountain?!)   
“Should We Tell The People?”
     There seems to be little doubt that a great deal of sensitive information is being kept from the public all around the world, in order to prevent massive public outcries, uprisings, and even panic among the population.   We have all seen those “Armageddon-type” movies (usually American) where some great and unstoppable catastrophe or other threatens to destroy the world, and the scientists and politicians struggle to keep the awful fact secret because of the predictable chaotic consequences such news would have upon the populace at large.    

Perhaps they are actually prophetic!   However, if concrete proof did (or does) exist that there is another race within the Earth's interior, possessed of technology far in advance of our own, and of which “surveillance-UFOs” are merely an example - how do you think the “New World Order” chieftains would react - particularly in view of their apparently obsessive penchant for secrecy and covert operations, agendas  and activities?    

It is a sad commentary on the times in which we live today that the duly-elected politicians of most countries in the developed world, seem to feel it is their bounden duty to keep such vital matters covertly hidden from the public, rather than the opposite!   They follow the old, tried and tested axiom that “Knowledge is Power”, and, after all, “Power” is  the very life-blood and real purpose of politics!   And I don't need to remind my readers of what Power does to politicians!    However, I fear I'm digressing!

Getting back to Cases…
     I apologise if I've been forced a tad “Off Course” for a while by the Magnetic-Poles and Polar Holes issue, plus the IAOE seabed and seamount survey-results, but I am duty-bound to lay all the scientifically-proven facts before my readers (disappointing as they may, alas, very often be), as well as the much more exciting (but largely speculative) concepts of internal worlds and underground cities hidden deep within our planet.

The Central Sun.
     Now I will return to our original “Hollow Earth” discussion, as promised, and, having spoken about the Polar Holes, let us now consider the Central Sun, which is thought by many alternative-science writers to illuminate the “interior earth” - or “Agharta” - as it is more widely referred to by some of the more enlightened souls who claim to be “In-The-Know” concerning such mysteries!   
As we have already noted in previous pages, the “washing-machine”-style centrifugal action of the Earth's spin could have pushed all the heavier elements of cosmic matter it contained outward toward the solidifying crust of the forming planet.  However, the lighter gaseous elements, such as hydrogen or helium, etcetera, would have remained floating in the vicinity of the axial-hub region (previously mentioned under the heading“By Way of Illustration” on an earlier page) close to the region of zero-gravity, and thus would not have been affected by the centrifuging-effect of Earth's rotation.   
Thus, as a consequence (although I described the center then as being virtually empty and clear of cosmic material), such extremely light elements as neon, hydrogen, helium, and so forth, would most likely tend to aggregate together around the central locus of the hollow region. There they would be held locked in place as a gaseous globe in a completely gravity-free zone by either the Earth's own gravitational effect, or by seeking the furthest place away from it.   The rest would, in all probability, be a miniature re-enactment of the Sun's own birth from gaseous elements at the centre of a coalescing mass of cosmic dust and other space debris.   The gases would then heat up under their own gravitational compression, thus causing atomic action and interaction, which would in turn, trigger off  a sustained nuclear fusion reaction such as we see on an infinitely more gigantic scale, in our own Sun.  

     In essence, for the purposes of this exercise, we can reasonably imagine that the Central Sun of the internal earth would function in very much the same way as the Sun itself, but on a greatly miniaturized scale, both in terms of heat, light, overall radioactivity and solar output.  This point is an extremely important one to consider, with regard to its assumed proximity to the inner surface of the thick solid shell of the planet.  The radiation of both heat and light from this tiny “sun” (especially ultraviolet, actinic, and nuclear) would have to be at a sufficiently low level as to permit lifeforms to develop and flourish in safety, without being subjected to harmful levels of atomic or ultraviolet radiation.  (Although it mightn't be entirely too unreasonable to hypothesize that the inner-earth inhabitants may perhaps, have developed a natural capacity to cope with higher levels of radiation than we can, here on the surface - though I seriously doubt it).   
However, since this whole concept is purely speculative (nobody in the 20th century having been there and come back to tell us about - with the possibly dubious exception of Rear-Admiral Richard Byrd, of course!) - we can only assume that any radiations from an interior “sun” would have to be perfectly within safe-limits for humans, since so many accounts claim that the occupants of the Hollow Earth originally fled there in order to avoid catastrophic events that affected the outer surface of the planet, including massive solar-flares - and, more than likely, periodically recurrent depletions of the ozone-layer!   
( Quite frankly, I don't subscribe to the alleged cause of the current ozone-layer holes being due to the over-use of aerosol-sprays.  Surely we would need to pump out literally billions of litres of the actual undiluted fluorocarbon propellant to cause such enormously  deleterious effects upon the ozone-layer?)    

…Or Perhaps Another Light Source?
But there is another possible means of illuminating the “Inner Earth” - or any of the suspected enormous caverns which are believed to exist deep in the Earth's crust.  This alternative is natural phospherescence which occurs in many places - even the sea !  I have seen for myself huge areas of this oceanic phosphorescence during the long sea-voyage from the UK to Australia on board an ocean-going liner.   

It's astonishing how much one can see from the uppermost deck of a large passenger-ship, and particularly after dark, when I was able to see these eerie but quite brilliantly shining phenomena for myself.  Someone told me that it was thought to be caused by a specific type of plankton which secreted this glowworm-like phosphoresence.   However, I've since learned that the same effect is frequently encountered in deep and otherwise pitch-dark cavern systems.   Some of this is actually bioluminesence, which is a cold green-blue light found in many living organisms, including plankton, algae, and of course, fireflies and glow-worms which inhabit dark caves in vast numbers. In living creatures it is  due to the secretion of a substance known as luciferin, but  there are also other naturally occurring causes for luminescence in nature and physics.   

It is the nature of atoms to emit photons when they are excited, and we see this in many forms of natural radiation, including polar auroral light displays.   Without going to any great lengths in explaining all this in a high-flown scientific way, let it suffice to say that, when such an emission of photons occurs immediately the atoms are excited by an energy-source, this is called fluorescence.  But when this glow of light or illumination persists for some length of time following the cessation of the stimulation, it is then referred to as phosphorecence.    An electric current passed through a gas is a common method of creating luminescence, and we see this all around us in fluorescent-light tubes.   It is fast-moving electrons which produce the bright pictures on a television screen, when they strike the coating of phosphorus on the inner surface of the picture-tube.   Thus it isn't hard to imagine a scenario in which the very atoms of the atmosphere itself might be made to glow inside a hollow planet or a vast cavern, by means of some perfectly natural electrical-excitation phenomena which may occur there.        

     The odd thing is that, despite the far-fetchedness of the whole concept, there are many aspects of it which make perfectly sound and logical scientific sense.    Take for example, the circumstances which would follow a gigantic meteor strike in the Pacific Ocean - such as that which some claim to have destroyed the ancient civilization of Mu - or perhaps a sudden polar tilt of the Earth itself - both of which would send enormous tidal waves as high as mountains sweeping around the globe.  

Given the powerful centrifugal effect of Earth's rotation, which we have considered earlier, and the fact that its effects would be virtually zero along the polar axis, it isn't hard to figure out that these highly destructive tidal-wave effects would barely affect the polar regions - if at all.   So even if there were polar openings into this Inner Earth, the tidal waves would not come crashing in through them.   Nor would a polar-shift affect such an inner world to anything like the same extent as that on the exterior of the thick crust.  

Certainly there would be some sort of upheaval of oceanic water - but since the interior sea is claimed in some circles to be only one-fourth the size of the landmass (virtually the opposite of our external surface ratio of four-fifths ocean to one-fifth land) it would not create anything like the havoc that would be wreaked upon the outer surface.    
Incidentally, whilst on the subject of such catastrophes as 1000-foot tidal waves, or comet-strike dust-cloud “blackouts” lasting for decades, wouldn't it be handy if the creatures of the outer crust, both men and animals, were freely able to seek refuge within the interior of the Earth!   This is another possiblilty that I shall be examining more closely at a later stage of this hypothesis!
Admiral Byrd and “The Land Beyond the Poles”.
     Referring back briefly to this issue of polar openings, before I leave it for the present.   It's always possible that there might conceivably be a secret agenda of some sort (probably of the “Government Cover-up Conspiracy” kind) to keep their existence a carefully-guarded secret from the general population, whilst the government-agencies concerned acquire and exploit the advanced technology of any such advanced race as may dwell inside the Earth, for their own nefarious “Defense” purposes.   
     If this were to turn out be the case, it might perhaps explain the curious “will'o' the whisp” virtually-mythical log-diaries of Rear-Admiral Richard Byrd, in which he is reported to have  claimed to have actually visited the land beyond the Poles (i.e; entered a polar hole into a green, warm land beyond) and been escorted in by “strange, disc-shaped type of aircraft” bearing oddly-familiar “swastika” markings, to a landing-place, from whence he and his radio-man were escorted, via a “moving-platform without wheels” by several tall, blond men into a highly-futuristic and wonderful “Buck Rogers”-type city.  There, as Byrd is alleged to have written, he met the seemingly ageless patriarchal Master of this inner world (apparently called “Arianni”.*)    

The Master's bodyguard, whom Byrd is said to have claimed in his account, spoke English with a Nordic or German accent, then guided him and his colleague, Howie, into a  guest apartment, where they were left alone for a short while.  Then two of their “wondrous-looking hosts” allegedly came and escorted Byrd, on his own, down below ground in some kind of silently-operating open elevator - informing him that he was being taken to have an audience with the Master.   The lift stopped and Byrd was now ushered into a great, palatial room, the luxuriant and wondrous beauty of which “defied his powers of description”.   
*(Note: The crafts' insignia, the blond super-beings, and the very name of their inner world “Arianni,” leaves the reader in little doubt as to the “Pure Germano-Nordic Aryan” nature of this race!  GF.)

     Here, as Byrd is alleged to have said, he was greeted warmly and entertained politely by this individual, who then conversed with him at length about all the pointless wars and other stupid destructive activities of the external race, and their foolish technological weaponry developments, like the atomic bomb, which he insisted would lead to ultimate disaster for humanity. “It was at that alarming time we sent our flying-machines, the “flugelrads”*, to your surface world to investigate what your race had done” the Master told Byrd.    The “Master” then went on to add that he had already been in touch with the great leaders of the outer world to warn them of the terrible peril in which they were placing the Earth, but they appear to have chosen to ignore him.  

     Byrd had been especially chosen to witness and attest to the fact that the inner world of the Arianni really did exist, and that their culture and science was many thousands of years beyond  those of the surface-race.   The Master was now giving Byrd this final warning message to deliver personally to his nation's leaders, to alert them to this approaching disaster:-  
“Your race has now reached the point of no return, for there are those among you  who would destroy your very world rather than relinquish their power...” he was told. “there is a great storm gathering in your world, a black fury that will not spend itself for many years.... the dark ages that will come now for your race will cover the Earth like a pall, but I believe that some of your race will live through the storm.  We see at a great distance a new world stirring from the ruins of your race....when that time arrives, we shall we shall come forward again to help you revive your culture and your race!”

     After this astounding audience, Byrd rejoined his equally-stunned companion, Howie, and they were taken back by the two blond supermen, via the moving-platform, to their plane, where they found its engines already idling.   They boarded, and as soon as the cargo-door was closed, the aircraft was immediately lifted by an unseen force to an altitude of 2700 feet, where two of the strange, circular-winged aircraft guided them, with their plane's controls mysteriously locked, on a return flight through the entrance-aperture by means of some unknown power or force-field, - “at a very rapid rate”, as Byrd allegedly wrote.  Once outside, the “flugelrads” took their leave, with this final parting message over the plane's radio: “We are leaving you now, Admiral, your controls are free.  Auf Wiedersehen!”     From there onward, Byrd and his companion, the radio-man, Howie, (of whom, alas, we find no further mention in Byrd's mysterious diaries), flew back without incident over Arctic snow and ice to their base-camp at the edge of the north polar icecap.   

     On March 11th, 1947, Byrd attended a staff meeting at the Pentagon, where he is said to have stated in full the whole of his amazing discovery and experience.  Everything was duly recorded and the President was advised.   Byrd was then detained for several hours, and was subsequently interviewed very closely by Top Security officers and physically checked over by a Government medical team.   Following this drawn-out ordeal, he found himself placed under strict control by the National Security Provisions of the USA, and was ordered, rather incredibly, to “remain silent in regard to all that I had learned, on the behalf of Humanity”!  The reports allege that he was strongly reminded that he was a military man and that he must obey orders.

     According to all available accounts, Byrd faithfully concealed his discovery for nine long years until December, 1956, when ill-health finally overtook him, and he resolved to reveal his long-kept secret, so securely hidden away in his private diaries and log-book.   During the intervening years, since his return from the inner-earth, he had continued to conduct and supervise aerial polar-surveys over both the Arctic and the Antarctic, despite the staggering secret knowledge that he nursed in his heart.   We don't know if he ever re-discovered the entrance to the inner world, since he never mentioned it again.   But he was showered with honours and acclaim by a grateful nation for his many courageous known flights of exploration.   Byrd's last polar flight - this time over the Antarctic - was in January, 1956, when he had been appointed senior US Government Officer in Charge of US Antarctic Affairs.  He died early in March, 1957, and was buried with full military honours in Arlington Military Cemetery.

The Big Question!
     I suppose that what we have to ask ourselves is this.  Could an eminently sound and rational military officer of such high standing in US official circles - including in the White House itself - as well as in the hearts of the American people - really have simply dreamt up or fabricated such an amazingly incredible scenario as this?   Would he really have risked writing it down, in such minute detail, in his carefully-noted secret diary, even if he had invented it all?   

And, if it was all merely the “fantasy of a twisted mind”, as some sceptics have remarked, what possible personal gain or kudos could  he have hoped to achieve from it, in view of the fact that he was already revered and venerated, almost as a god-like hero, by the President and the population of his own country?     
Alas, Rear-Admiral Richard E. Byrd has taken that particular secret - if secret there still was - to his grave with him - as have those who were his Pentagon superiors and interviewers back in 1947.     All we have today are his reported “secret diaries”, allegedly discovered after his death, to offer in evidence - as well as thousands upon thousands of alleged “sightings” of the mysterious “Flugelrads”* (or UFOs) described therein!       * (“Radial-Flyers or Wheel-Wings” in English. GF)  

     Thus ends the enigmatic and challenging mystery of Byrd's discovery of what he himself described as “The Land Beyond the Poles”.  Or does it?   To quote Byrd's own words: “Just as the long night of the Arctic ends, the brilliant sunshine of Truth shall come forth again, and those who are of Darkness shall fall in its Light”.   However, despite all this touching rhetoric and technical detail, one feels inclined to wonder whether all those “secret-diary entries” were, in actual fact, really penned by Richard E. Byrd, or whether they are all part of a gigantic hoax, perpetrated merely to sell quasi-scientific books?    I must confess that, after reading a lot of what has been written about the Hollow Earth, I find it would be so very easy to be totally sceptical of the whole idea, and of the feasible-sounding “science” in which it seems to be cleverly enveloped.  

Arriving at a Conclusion?
     My first general feeling, after initially looking into the“Hollow Earth” idea was that it could very possibly be the elaborate invention of several, if not many, clever minds, triggered off by the brilliant tales penned by such ingenious science-fiction writers as Jules Verne, Edgar Allan Poe, H. G. Wells and Edgar Rice Burroughs.  Thus, it might have proved, for many creative thinkers, to be far too exciting and enticing an hypothesis to be simply  left lying around without being pseudo-scientifically exploited, even if only in the high-flown Arthur C. Clarkean realms of super-science-fiction, or, at best, perhaps taken up and elaborated upon as an intriguing and challenging exercise in abstract philosophy by some bored intellectual.  
     Perhaps the “New Age” thinkers are right, in that such seeming “sci-fi fantasies” (as this may even yet turn out to be), are often worth testing out by proper scientific methods.  We already owe so many true-life major scientific advances in all fields of cosmic and technological discovery and invention to the initial vivid imaginations of inspired science-fiction visionaries like Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke!
Sober Afterthoughts…
But still, however much one  tries to airily dismiss the whole idea as pure nonsense, there is a certain inescapable something in all of this “Hollow Earth” concept that draws otherwise perfectly rational “feet-on-the-ground” scientific thinkers to it like iron-filings to a magnet.   I, for one, feel inexplicably loathe to simply walk away from it all and return to more pragmatic mental pursuits.    No matter how one tries to rationalize it away with sound scientific argument, the whole idea lingers on in the back of one's consciousness as a gigantic shadowy mystery, still worthy of yet further consideration and investigation!   

My own “gut-feeling” today, after very carefully considering all the clues and inferred evidence is that all planets and stars, including the Earth, are hollow.   Not only that, but I also tend toward the concept that our human race might perhaps have actually originated there!   I do not make this statement lightly, or off the top of my head.   Such an origin for our particular species would account for our apparently total lack of any natural protection from the rigours of the external Earth, both as it is today, and even more so, as it probably was a couple of hundred thousand years ago, when the solar radiation was far more powerful, and would have burned naked human skin quite mercilessly, not to mention its effect upon our eyes.  

One has only to consider that humanity is probably the only species on the face of our planet which has had to resort to artificial protection for our tender skin, not only from the UV radiation of the sun, but from all the elements as well - extremes of cold and heat, windburn, sand-blasting, general cuts and tears from thorny trees and sharp rocks, etcetera.  Most of the animals of the world have been naturally protected from such hazards by thick pelts of fur, thick scaly skins or hard, leathery carapaces, as well as possessing eyes capable of seeing in the dark.  So why hasn't Man?    

True, some men have hirsute bodies and can grow thick beards and long head-hair, but they are in the minority.   Most men in the world, especially Negroes and Asiatics, tend to be virtually free of body-hair by comparison.  And all of the women are generally smooth-skinned.  (Head-hair, however, would be an essential protective-cover for cave-dwellers - against cracking their skulls upon tunnel roofs and other overhead projections, like stalactites!)  There has no doubt been a lot of adaptation, especially in peoples from cold climates, to compensate for this lack, principally in the men, since women, both prehistorically and to this day, have generally been largely confined to the interiors of caves, huts or houses by their natural roles as mothers and home-makers.     

The men in ancient times, were the hunters and providers of sustenance, as well as the warrior-guardians of women and children.   Thus, because of this role, they had to adapt, as well as they could, to the direct rigours of the outdoor world, by developing what little protection they had in terms of beards and head and body-hair.   Where this was still not enough, they soon learned to wrap themselves in the pelts of the animals they hunted and killed.   In hot sunny climates, where the warmth of animal furs would have made life intolerable, humans had to adapt to some extent, by secreting extra melanin pigmentation to protect their naked skins from the Sun's UV radiation - often to the saturation point of becoming indigo-black.    

However, despite all of this adaptation and artificial protection, we humans are still naked and vulnerable creatures, struggling to survive in our fabricated clothing and sunglasses and hiding from the sun and elements as much as possible inside our air-conditioned, artificially-constructed “cave-houses”.    

It should, therefore, be patently obvious that we are a species battling to survive in an alien environment.   Even though its elements, such as air, water, earth and even fire, are natural to us, this cannot be the original environment of our ancient progenitors.  We are creatures of the shadows and the half-light, not of the open plains or the blazing sunshine.   Nor are we truly safe in forest or jungle, since our skins are not thick enough to withstand the constant scratches and rips of sharp thorns and rough branches, or contact with poisonous plant-leaves - not to mention all the dangerous lurking denizens of the jungle!   If we were, we would possess thick pelts or tough leathery hides, as well as effective natural weapons of defence, such as powerful claws and fangs - as well as powerful night-vision!     

Regardless of all the claims of anthropologists that we have evolved into a tool and weapon-making species, and have thus lost all need for such natural defences, so that these have now atrophied completely, I remain totally unconvinced.     The domestic dog, which was once a ferocious wolfish or dingo-like carnivore and needed these attributes to stay alive, has now been domesticated by Man for more than a hundred thousand years - or even ten times that - yet it still possesses all of its original attack and defence-equipment, even down to the bone-crunching molars and premolars!   Surely, one would have expected the dog - or any of the domesticated animals - to have at least begun to shed some of this unnecessary ancient “survival-equipment”, after so many thousands of generations in Man's company and care?    But this is simply not the case.   

All dogs can become ferocious, ravening beasts in the twinkling of an eye, should the occasion demand, and can return to their original feral condition and appearance within just a couple of generations, if released or dumped into the wild.   This says little for Darwin's “Evolutionary Theory”, since even genetic modification, artificial cross-breeding, and behavioural conditioning should neverthless bring about some measurable degree of “evolution”, if Darwin's theory really works.    Quite evidently, it doesn't - as has been proved more than adequately by many other modern researchers, far better educated and learned in such matters than I.    

Thus I completely reject the concept that humans have evolved from some lower mammalian order, such as the progenitor of the great apes.  I would rather champion Creationism - except that those of my readers who are of an atheistic inclination might be put off by such a theistic belief - so I'll simply leave it lie as a plain repudiation of Darwinian evolution as a genuinely viable theory.   

Instead, I put forward for the reader's consideration, the suggestion that, in view of all the contraindications for Man having evolved or developed upon the open surface of this planet, that his origins must lie elsewhere, in one of two possible locations:-   
1)   Within the gloomy caverns and layrinthine tunnels of the earth's crust  - or even from deep inside the actual hollow centre of the Earth itself - or:  
           2)  Upon some extraterrestrial home-world, preferably within our Solar System than that of some other far-away star.  (Perhaps Mars - or its parent planet, now long defunct - might qualify, since neither Mercury or Venus are, in my opinion, remotely capable of sustaining life as we understand it, and since the great gas-giants seem equally untenable to Earthly types of lifeforms, as also do their satellites - at least, as far as we know!)                
Much as I would love to develop this “We're From Elsewhere” concept here and now, and speculate upon which option is the more tenable, I feel I must resist the urge, and stay with the basic question of “Is Our Earth Really Hollow?”   However, I shall pursue it much more vigorously in another closely-related hypothesis concerning Mars.

Back To the Main Question…
I guess I shall now have to continue on with my investigations and theorizing upon the possibility - however unlikely - of there actually being another realm hidden deep inside our earth.   There are so many facets to the idea, that it holds one in its thrall like a spinning golden trinket in the hands of a hypnotist.   One feels totally compelled to follow it through to the end, wherever it may lead!    I suspect that there's more than a dash of the “Indiana Jones” mentality inside the minds of most imaginative thinkers.  And what greater adventure can our present well-trodden and thoroughly known surface world offer us now - having yielded up so many of its jealously guarded but superficial secrets to those earlier intrepid explorers -  than such a vast and last greatest secret of all; that there is another  totally new and wonderous living world inside our own!  

Further Issues and Revisions…
     Below, I have taken the liberty of included part of a letter I wrote some time ago to an old friend overseas, which I believe is worth repeating here, since it both qualifies and supports many of the points raised above, as well as incorporating other associated current scientific issues.  I hope that some of my readers will find it both entertaining and edifying!   It goes like this…..

A Speculative Discourse on Hollow Planet Formation
abstracted from a long letter written by Gerry Forster
to a friend overseas
“Dear D….,
…I'm still enjoying my studies on the Internet, by the way, and I recently joined a couple of discussion-egroups on the Net, who were talking about the possibility of the Earth actually being hollow inside (rather similar to a tennis-ball, with the centre of gravity actually being in the form of a sphere and lying midway through the thickness of the “tennis-ball” Earth's crust, which they claim to be around 600-800 miles thick!)  

“I know that it may all sound a bit far-fetched to you, but the fact is that nobody - not even the world's greatest geologist - can possibly know if the Earth is actually solid or not!  Nor can they deny that it could be hollow!  The deepest borehole that has yet been drilled is in South America, and they're currently down to around 17.5 kilometres deep at the time of writing - and still drilling!  The last I heard was that they'd struck a thick layer of basalt, which came as a totally surprise, as they'd been expecting to tap into the upper semi-molten magma layer several kilometres earlier.  Also the temperature down the bore has long since stopped rising, and has instead begun to fall again!   So clearly, something is radically wrong with current geological textbook knowledge.  

“This “Hollow Earth” concept would certainly help to clear up a great many anomalies regarding gravitation, and especially in connection with the newly-discovered fact that the Earth as a globe has actually been expanding since Jurassic (Dinosaur) times - 260,000,000 years ago!    This excitingly new “Expanding Earth” geology supports the continental-drift theory extremely well, and with it, one can now demonstrate that all the continents once fitted together perfectly and entirely covered an Earth only one-third the size that we see it today.   

Tectonic plates are the culprits, since, where their rough edges meet and grate together, they cause the thrusting apart of the world's continental plates by extruding molten lava - which is produced either from substrata of underlying foundational rock, melted by the heat of constant unimaginable friction, or directly from the mantle of semimolten matter - and which has emerged and solidified continuously along and between the plate-edges for hundreds of millions of years.  

“Thus, by the simple continuous accretion of solidified lava upon their edges, the plates carrying their respective continents have been slowly thrust further and further apart.   It also explains how identical species of dinosaurs were able to spread out on to different continents all over the globe - especially since so many of them were so large  and enormously heavy and cumbersome that they couldn't possibly swim.   

If this great new “Expanding Earth” concept is correct, then 260 million years ago the gigantic dinosaurs would have simply been able to amble across from one future continent to another upon dry land, because Africa, Europe and South America would then have been snugly nestled in close conjunction against each other!

“It has been discovered that the Atlantic Ocean is currently widening at the rate of some 2 -3 centimetres a year - thus pushing the Americas ever further away from Africa and Europe!   It might not sound like much , but one has only to do the necessary math calculation (as I did) to discover that this amounts to around an average distance of 4,500 kilometres over the past 260 million years - which is what we find to be the current actual average width of the Atlantic Ocean!  

The “engine” that is providing all this thrust is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which is known to be an 8,000 mile-long volcanic rift in the ocean floor, and which is still constantly extruding new molten lava to this very day!   The globe of the Earth's crust is criss-crossed by such plate-rifts, so all of the continents are being pushed apart from each other - with the obvious result that the Earth itself has to be steadily expanding in size!   
“The old concept of the “subduction” of plate-edges down beneath each other into the inner molten magma, is no longer a puzzle, since it simply doesn't happen!   From what I can discover and deduce, there's really no need to assume that the tectonic plates which carry the continents around are floating upon a sea of molten magma, at all.  These lava catchments may simply occur in deep subterranean “reservoirs” or “lakes” here and there, principally beneath the plate-boundaries, where most of the tectonic activity is largely concentrated.   

“But here's the real “kicker”!   The Earth could only have expanded like this if it was hollow like a tennis-ball!   Despite their apparent solidity and hardness (to us, at any rate), the rocks, on a global scale, are surprisingly plastic and bendable.  Interesting notion to contemplate, isn't it!   Thus, it logically follows that, if the Earth is a hollow spheroid, then so also must all the other planets be!    In fact, if you think about this a little more carefully, the hollow sphere is extremely common in nature and in physics right across the universe.   Consider the simple bubble, then think about ball-lightning.  

“It isn't hard to envisage that most so-called “solid” particles, photons and electrons, and even atoms themselves, which carry electrical charges are merely miniature“bubbles of energy”.   From there it's an easy mental step to scale the whole thing up to something of star proportions, and onward further still to galactic and even universal dimensions!

“If you then think of the Earth as being at its outset a sort of “balloon” of electrical energy, which gradually (due to natural electromagnetism or static electricity), became coated with fine particles of cosmic dust.  This continued to build up to such an extent that eventually it had formed into a solid thick spherical shell of rocky matter. Then, because of the accreted mass of matter, the original EMF sphere became one of gravitation - you can then see that there is a far simpler way in which the solar system, or even the entire universe, became formed!   

I recall as a youngster having the expansion of the universe explained to me, with my teacher using this imaginary, “self-inflating invisible balloon” concept, upon which all the nebulae and galaxies were represented by tiny dabs of paint equidistantly marked upon the invisible balloon's skin.  I was able to grasp his meaning instantly, and to comprehend why all the nebulae are seen by astronomers to be fleeing away, not only from a common centre of origin, but also from each other!    The old “Red Shift” effect!

“As far as the solar system is concerned.  I used to think the sun was a spinning ball of conglomerated cosmic matter or space-dust, which trailed  a wide wheel-like disc of dusty matter around its equator like a ballet dancer's swirling skirt, and that the planets were formed out of eddying clumps of clotting dust within this rotating “skirt”.   
But now I'm tempted to believe completely that the planets could possibly all have been free-travelling spheres or balls of energy that were “captured” by the sun's rotating gravitational field, and that they are now held at their orbital distances simply by the conflict of opposing electromagnetism between themselves and the Sun, dependent upon how strong their own individual EMF fields are.   
“If it were simply a combination of gravity and centrifugal force alone which held us in orbit around the Sun, one or the other would surely have won out eventually, since our Sun is far from being gravitationally or electromagnetically stable, and its power-output waxes and wanes quite fitfully according to the varying phenomena of “sunspot”- EMF activity (vast magnetic storms and vortices) which flare up at spasmodic intervals.   

“Ergo, the orbits of the planets could be extremely erratic and our orbital distance from the Sun could vary beyond highly lethal parameters for all life upon them,  particularly Earth, where a matter of 20-30° C variation could either freeze or scorch all life from the surface almost instantaneously.    

I believe that electromagnetic-force is inextricably intertwined with what we call “gravitation”, so such violent fluctuations of the Sun's EMF should, in the ordinary course of events, have long since either drawn our planet into itself during an upsurgence of its EMF power. Or, alternatively, during a waning of such solar EMF power, the Earth's orbital centrifugal force could well have carried it free upon a tangent, out of  the Sun's range of influence!     

“Therefore, I can only conclude that my earlier premise of opposing EMF fields must be a correct one, and that Einstein's Theory of General Relativity operates exactly as he  predicted it would.   (You can check out his theory for yourself - if you're game!)   

“Incidentally, before I leave this subject of uttermost “Gravity”, I ought to point out that, if the Earth were a huge “rock-coated energy-bubble” with a carapace or shell of around 600-800 miles thick, the centre of gravity would not be a focal point located at the centre of the globe.  It would much more likely prove to be a completely spherical “focus”, probably located around the midway-point through the crustal coating, since that is where the hollow earth's mass (and therefore its gravitational attraction) would be at its strongest, and from which, if we continued onward inside the hollow earth, the gravity would grow steadily weaker again until we reached the central locus of the globe, at which point it would effectively be cancelled out by conflicting weak gravitational “pulls” from every direction.  I would expect this to be more or less a gravity-free zone.    

“Soft Particle” and “Non-Gravitational Push” Concepts.
“I simply can't bring myself to subscribe to any of the complicated alternatives to mass-based gravity - such as Euler's Impulsation Theory of invisible etheric particle-pressure exerting an unseen “pushing” effect which more or less pins us, and all other massy objects, down upon the Earth - or Cater's Soft-Particle Physics, which imply a very similar effect.  I simply do not believe it is necessary to step outside currently-accepted and proven physical laws to demonstrate why the Earth, its sister-planets, and most celestial bodies could be hollow.  

 “Whilst I am quite happy to accept the concept of a universal “ether” which acts as a non-intervening carrier for all forms of radiant energy, I cannot contemplate such an unseen and insubstantial impulsation as Euler proposes as being any alternative to straightforward, plain and honest Newtonian gravitation, which has served us well enough in all of our space-endeavours thus far - and should also serve equally well in proving the Hollow Planet theory!   The familiar, widely-accepted laws of nature and physics tend to support the “Occam's Razor” view: “The Simplest Answer is Generally the Right One”- so why try to complicate it further?

“Incidentally, before I leave this proposition of planetary globes being hollow shells, let me mention the curious anomaly of the Asteroid Belt, which circles between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.   Many physicists and astronomers have tried to determine the origin of these orbiting rock fragments - which to my mind, at any rate, can have only come from the explosive shattering of a planet which once occupied that same orbit.  But sadly, most astronomers seem to agree that this cannot be the case, because all the fragments added together would not make up a planet even as small as our Moon!   
They tend to believe, as I do myself, that any planet located in that orbit must have been quite a sizeable one - certainly the largest of all the terrestrial planets - even if only to comply with the basic requirements of Bode's Law!  Dr. Tom Van Flandern, astrophysics-doyen (in my opinion) of the Internet, evidently shares this same view.  

“However, if that planet, instead of being a solid ball of rock, had actually been a spherical rocky shell - as I've suggested that all the remaining terrestrial planets are - then the rocky matter of which it was originally comprised may pretty well be accounted for by the remaining asteroid fragments - even though quite a number of those fragments may have been flung far out into space by the explosion, to return periodically on very long orbits as meteors and meteorites.    I feel that, if one were only able to retrieve all the asteroids and meteorites, and the debris dumped upon Mars, one could virtually reassemble the original fragments and matter into a semi-giant terrestrial shell-planet, of which the planet Mars may well have been a major moon.   Our own familiar Moon might conceivably also have been one of this super-terrestrial planet's satellites, as might several of those which now circle Jupiter and Neptune.

“As to the rotation of stars or planetary bodies.  This appears to be a universal law which mysteriously comes into play as a celestial body accretes matter to a certain critical mass and reaches a corresponding compressive heat from the increasing friction between and within the accreted particles of its shell.    You will never get an adequate explanation for the causes of rotation, spin or revolution from any orthodox scientist, because they simply don't have any to offer!    Nebulae, galaxies and solar systems all rotate about central hubs, and all stars and planets revolve about their individual axial centres.  It seems to be simply an immutable law of the universe, which starts with the humble atom, and ends with the universe itself, that all such bodies of matter must rotate and orbit.

“I myself can only describe this phenomenon as a natural consequence of the acquisition of mass and heat to a certain critical degree.  I believe it all comes down to simple kinetic energy, which is produced by chemical reactions releasing infinitesimal electrical charges (photons) from atoms.   Although orthodox physicists may dispute this, I believe that all atomic nuclei carry electrical charges within electrostatic dipoles, and thus possess their own tiny magnetic fields, no matter how miniscule these may be.  Their accompanying electrons are similarly equipped with electrostatically-charged dipoles, both negative and positive.  Therefore, the repulsion and attraction between adjacent atoms (including their orbiting “satellite” electrons), must cause some form of general electromagnetic agitation which produces a basic EMF tumbling or spinning motion through their dipoles - a fundamental rotation, if you like!  

“If one considers the cumulative effect of trillions upon trillions of such magnetically-charged atoms in mass-motion, the prime cause of such a generalised overall motion in large masses of matter becomes clear.   It can only be initiated by the generation of a collective electromagnectic field after a certain large amount of kinetic energy has been attained through the combination of mass and heat.   Let us bear it firmly in mind that, if even the tiniest molecule, particle, atom, or even electron, already inherently possesses such a potential for agitation or motion, then it logically follows that a vast aggregation of such self-motivated, negatively-and positively-charged particles will further combine their effects into an infinitely greater rotary motion of the whole body or mass of aggregated particles.  

Whilst as a mere amateur, I can't be entirely certain about all of this,  I suspect that atomic reactions are produced in a somewhat similar sort of manner, after a certain “critical mass” of radioactive matter has been brought together.     

“But, again, no atomic scientist seems to be able to clearly explain just why a critical mass should combust, explode, or otherwise react with such instant spontaneity. From what I've read on the subject, they only discovered that there was such a thing as a “critical mass” by simple trial and error - more often the latter, alas!   (I believe it's loftily called “Experimentation”.)  

“I guess that this is just another of those uncanny things which makes us poor fumbling mortals look marvellingly towards that Higher Inventive Authority who laid down so many other similarly astonishingly simple Universal Rules (which we so  ponderously and grandly refer to as the “Laws of Nature and Physics”), when He designed this whole original “Box of Tricks” which we call the Universe!

 “I think I'll leave it at that for now, old son, and get down to a bit more hard thinking!   One doesn't really require a Doctorate in Mathematics or to be a whizz-kid genius in Applied Celestial Physics to find sensible answers to these sorts of conundrums. Remember that it was through the actions of his tremendously-gifted (even if fictitious) detective, Sherlock Holmes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who was a total duffer at maths, showed us that his own common-sense, down-to-earth logic and deductive reasoning-powers were flawless.   It took a real live genius to invent an imaginary one of Sherlock Holmes' astounding calibre!   

“It's also worth noting, en passant, that Sherlock Holmes was probably one of the greatest exponents of lateral-thinking; an ability which is a wonderful asset to any armchair-philosoper or amateur scientific theorist.   By the way. The dictionary definition of “Science” is simply stated as follows: “The study of the nature and behaviour of the physical universe, based on observation, experiment, and measurement.”   Then it goes on to say: “Systematic and formulated knowledge; the pursuit or principles of this.”   Alas! I'm no good at either of these disciplines - systems or formulae!   But then again, if we delve a little deeper, we discover that the real answer lies in the etymology of the Latin word “Scientia”, that plainly and simply means “Knowledge” - which is something that we can all freely acquire if we set our minds to it!  

     “The foregoing rambling diatribe is probably more than a trifle rough-hewn and disconnected.  I tend to write on the run!   But maybe a better disciplined mind than mine might be able to glean something worthwhile out of it all!     Anyhow, I'll catch up with you later on, after I've done a bit more mental digging and delving in the cerebral back-garden!   I'll let you know what else I've  turned up, next time I write!
     As always, your good friend,
                                                                     Gerry Forster          Ó Gerry Forster. 2000    

And there the abstraction ends, but my readers might find the thoughts and conclusions aired therein of some use in extending their own cogitations upon the subject-matter of this paper.    Now I will move on to some of the other possible aspects of whatever curious realm may lie concealed inside the earth beneath our feet!  

The Second Inner Earth.     
As I mentioned at the outset, there are three possible “inner worlds” to contemplate, when we speak of a Hollow or Inner Earth.  We have already taken a cursory look at the classic prime example, about which so much has been written and fantasized over during the past two centuries.   However, there still remain two other possibilities to consider.  

The second inner world is the terrifying, gloomy, redly-glowing hellish realm of devils and demons, and other fearsome creatures which love the darkness.  It is the lurking-place of the bogeys and ghosts of our infantile nightmares, and the grisly ghouls, trolls, goblins, dwarfs and dragons that haunted our later childhood.  This is the dreaded Stygian habitation of those horrific beasts and monsters which still fill the of annals of ancient, classic legend - the vampires, zombies and undead corpses from Gothic tales of terror.
(Speaking of vampires, by the way, it's interesting to note that they are said to shun the UV-laden sunlight, are of pallid white skin colour, and subsist directly upon human and animal blood.  These same characteristics appear to be shared by the so-called alien “Greys”, who also appear to venture forth only at night, who are renowned for their abduction and “experimentation” upon humans and large animals - from whom they remove organs and body fluids - and, according to purported autopsy-reports, possess only the most rudimentary of digestive systems - which would be ideally compatible with a diet of such direct nutritional value as fresh blood!  Could there be some relationship?)  

However, according to some of the myriad stories about this uncanny underworld, all is not entirely gloom and doom.  It is also the daytime hiding-place of fairies, pixies and elves; the enchanted domain of wizards and witches and their enslaved princesses and changeling frog-princes.  It is also the time-honoured shadowy resting-place where Britain's once and future King Arthur and his valiant, virtuous knights, slumber together with their great snow-white chargers, awaiting Merlin's great Clarion Call to Arms to join in the final battle of Armageddon!   
The Awsome Underworld.
The eerie subterranean world underneath our feet, of which we first learned in our childhood; a weird and frightening place of labyrinthine tunnels, caverns and chasms, which are the alleged home of goblins, dwarfs and trolls, of demons, devils and other fearsome creatures of the darkness, has long been greatly feared by most of mankind.

Yet, despite our inherent dread of deep, dark underground places, they have always held a strange fascination for mankind, and have ever been a continuing source of great  wonder, excitement and interest to us.   Perhaps there may be some atavistic racial memory within us all, of such places having once provided our first surface ancestors with the only really safe and secure shelter from a violent and vicious world of giant carnivores, volcanic and tectonic upheavals, and appalling storms, despite the ferocious cave-bears and mountain-lions (aye, and even dragons!) with which they shared such fearsome and dangerous underground lodgings.     

Today, daring young adventurers boldly go down such awsome chasms and tunnels, at great risk of life and limb, purely in the name of spelaeology, both as a science and a sport, since it has rapidly become very popular among fit young men and women over the past fifty years or so.     

Spelunkers”, as they are called,  were once fairly thin on the ground - or rather under it - and many, alas, remained under it, too, fifty or sixty years back, when proper caving equipment was either non-existent or, at best, extremely flimsy and clumsy.  However, since the advent of suitable and lightweight safety-headgear, easily portable powerful electric lights and equipment, body-harness and virtually unbreakable nylon ropes, the sport has taken off in quite a big way, and many previously quite inacessible caves and tunnel-systems have now surrendered their long-guarded secrets to these daring latter-day “Cave-Men and Cave-Women”.  They have brought back many thousands of excellent colour-photographs of the often incredibly lovely and awsome chambers and vaults which they entered underground, their high ceilings often filled with amazing hanging stalactites  and equally astonishing stalagmites rising up to meet them.   

Nature's Hidden Sculpture Galleries…
Some of these pieces of Nature's artistry are quite spectacular, as also are some of the wonderfully delicate traceries of varicoloured limestone, which adorn the caverns.    One really has to marvel at the handiwork that has been so intricately and gloriously moulded and woven, entirely by the relentless drip-dropping of tiny droplets of calcite-laden water, filtering down through the porous limestone for long millennia of time!   I myself as a boy was a great fan of Norbert Casteret, a long-departed French speleologist, who wrote a series of excellent books about his amazing adventures and discoveries in the deep caverns and gulfs of the Pyranees and other mountainous regions of France. I collected several of his fascinating books, profuse with old flash-photos, and I grew up with this awareness of that terribly dangerous yet wonderously-sculpted subterrannean world beneath our feet. Casteret's almost poetical descriptions of his finds really fired my imagination with marvellous visions of the incredible fragile natural beauty which he was privileged to be the first to discover.

If this is (as I for one, most truly believe) God's marvellous craftsmanship, one wonders why He has allowed it to grow and blossom forth unseen for so long!    Then, one realises that Man, by and large, is a terribly destructive creature, who loves nothing better than to tear down and destroy his natural surroundings, rather than leave them to thrive in their original natural beauty.   If it were not so, we would have no need for National Parks, National Trusts, or Preservation Orders to save our surroundings from being vandalised or falling victim to commercial devastation.

However, this is not the proper forum for airing such environmental preservation sentiments, no matter how heartfelt, even though my reader may fully endorse my views, so I must proceed apace with my main discourse.

The Hollowness of The Earth's Crust.
One of the major outcomes of all this spelaeological interest in the labyrinthine underworld has been the amazing revelation of how much the apparently solid ground beneath us is literally honeycombed with caverns, tunnels, and gargantuan shafts and grottos like some gigantic Swiss cheese!   

No wonder our far-distant forefathers believed that it was a veritable gloomy world of darkness and death, filled with all kinds of lurking, frightful  creatures!   However, one might expect that ancient concept to have died the death in today's enlightened world, where there is hardly a corner which has not been explored by men and illuminated by his electric lighting.   But this apparently, is not the case at all!     

If we are to believe all the plethora of disturbing reports which today flood the Internet - primarily from American sources - the ancient and fearsome reptilian hominid inhabitants of that realm of darkness have returned in strength to threaten modern man in his underground mining activities, his subterranean geological explorations, and his construction of deep underground military facilities and radiation-proof shelters for the political, financial  and military élite.    We're constantly reading of reported encounters with these demonic denizens of the abyss, and their threatening activities toward those who dare to poach upon their underground preserves - not to mention their alleged horrific predilection for human flesh and blood!    

It's from these alleged encounters that a whole new mythos appears to have sprung up, particularly in the USA (though not exclusively so), positing that these vile creatures - and their “Gray” helpers, who are humanoid in form - are in fact aliens from outer space, who have set up secret hive-like subterranean headquarters, in preparation for a massive world-wide take-over of the surface of this planet!  
“Non Alienus, Sed Terrestris!”
My own personal view of all this is that, whilst most of it is probably pure hype and sensationalism - not unmixed with a liberal measure of hysteria on the part of those who believe themselves to be under threat - there must be some basis for such a notion, just as all world-mythology has a certain measure of foundation in factual events and occurrences in the ancient past.   However, given the extremely long history of encounters with such subterranean dwellers in the myths and legends of most countries in the world, I feel strongly inclined to discount the idea of them being “aliens from some other star-system”.    If such humanoid subterrannean races do indeed exist at all, then they are far more likely to be as anciently native to Planet Earth as are we ourselves - and perhaps even more so!    In such an event, does it not seem far more likely that they have been shunning the surface-dwellers for millennia, and have only lately come out of hiding to confront the threat of modern man's high-handed technological intrusions into their territory?      But let us now pass on to the third alternative inner world.

The Third Inner Earth Concept.
The third and final Inner-World scenario, however, is really a comparatively old but recently-revisited concept, in which all of our present comprehensions of the Earth and the universe are  turned completely and literally inside out.  Yet it is still a virtual Inner Earth, which, if we were not made aware of it, would never affect our normal daily lives or our global perceptions in the slightest degree!
This one is by far the most controversial notion of the three, since it implies that we are actually already residing (right at this very moment!) upon the inner surface of a hollow sphere!      This particularly “far-out” concept is known as the Celestro-Centric model, and it is part of a universal “Cellular Cosmogeny” in which Heaven and Earth are both considered to be parts of a single hugely gigantic cell-like organism.   One of the principal promulgators of this seemingly curious notion was an American named Cyrus Teed, and he developed the concept principally for the satisfaction of his own personal religious beliefs, and strangely, they appear to fit perfectly within God's framework of Creative order, exactly as set out in the first chapter of the Bible Book of Genesis!   

Naturally, one would expect that Teed would have factored all the events of the six creative days into his theory, but what is particularly astonishing about the whole concept as he described it, is that, even with all the enormous modern knowledge of physics that they now have available to utterly destroy Teed's theory, our modern physicists and other scientists simply cannot scientifically disprove the theory - no matter how hard they might try!   It has been described as “A  Maddening Theory That Can't Be Disproved”, and this is no idle statement on their part.      

Needless to say, Teed's concept of cosmology appealed especially well to those who held fundamentalist religious views, and it was received gladly by them, since it restored the status of our Earth from whence it had been relegated by cosmologists as being a minute dust-mote in enormity of the Universe, back into a position of primary cosmic importance again.   Just as is set forth in Genesis 1.    In Teed's view, all that we consider to be the great external infinity of space and all the scattered nebulae, galaxies and star systems, are actually contained within an amorphous, dark spherical mass at the very centre of our inverted world-globe, the focal point of which is, of course, Infinity.  Our sun and moon orbit around inside the earth-sphere, somewhere in between this “Heavenly or Celestial region” and the concave inner surface of our hollow world.  

Even Albert Einstein would not have been able to find any scientific fault with this concept, since he himself proved that all space is curved, as are all light-rays, thus, according to his Relativity theory, even a ray of light must eventually return to its starting-point!   This concept itself implies that the Universe is as spherical and finite as our hollow globe.   Einstein's famous Theory of Relativity fits this idea of Teed's to perfection, so if Einstein had ever examined Cyrus Teed's inverted world-view, he would have had little choice but to accept it, since all of his own much-cherished cosmological ideas are demonstrated in it!   This is why Teed's theory is well-nigh impossible to disprove by the application of modern geometry and rules and laws of physical science.  

In Teed's world (or “Hollow Cosmos”), science as currently taught, is turned completely on its head.  We are held to the inner surface of this hollow globe not by gravity, but by simple centrifugal force!    Any stunt motor-cyclist who has ridden around that spectacular vertical fairground cylinder or spherical cage called the “Wall Of Death”, will attest to the exact similarity to gravity of this force - which also applies in a like manner when the cylinder rotates as at an amusement-park and people who take rides on it, are held firmly “glued” in place anywhere upon its inner surface.  Many of my readers have no doubt experienced this for themselves during their childhood or youth.   This same centrifugal force is what used to prevent old-time flyers from falling out of their open cockpits as they “looped the loop” in their old biplanes, unhampered by seat-belts and with their heads pointed towards the ground!   

The Curious Cosmogony of an Inversed World.
Apparently (and being no certificated scientist, I must accept the words of others on this), what happens is that all the laws of geometry and physics become inversed, and, following Einsteinian relativity, everything slows down and shrinks as one approaches the centre of the cosmic globe - including oneself and whatever measuring-device one might be using - thus, because of the circular bending of light rays, if one were to look back, one would get a “fish-eye lens” view of that portion of the inner-earth shell immediately below, which - due to a common photographical phenomenon called “spherical abberation” - would appear exactly as a NASA astronaut currently sees the Earth when viewing it the from his space-shuttle!         

Thus, for all intents and purposes, there is simply no scientific way in which we can demonstrate that Teed's world isn't our own!   From the ground, we would see the inner sun in the sky as it passed over our region, and its brightness would naturally prevent us from seeing the central dark globular cosmic mass, dotted with stars, just as the glare of our external sun stops us from seeing the blackness of the cosmos and its stars.   As the inner sun passed behind this mass, light would begin to fade and the stars would become visible in the ensuing darkness.  Because of the spherical-abberation effect I mentioned earlier, and which works both ways, we would appear to see stars scattered to all the limits of our visual horizon - which, incidentally, is also an optical illusion!    During daytime hours, one would not be able to see the antipodal region of the Earth directly overhead, for the following  reasons.  

Firstly, the density of the air - which has a misty blue opacity, due to oxygen and ozone - would prevent us from seeing through two thick densities of atmosphere - above us, and above that other, opposite area.   Secondly, even if we were able to see across a distance of six or seven thousand miles (the assumed diameter of the inner Earth) - the brightness of the inner sun's light would pretty well preclude us from doing so, since it would be scattered by the atomic particles that compose the atmosphere, thus effectively obscuring distant views.

This same effect would also limit our horizontal range of vision even more, due  to our looking through a much denser layer of atmosphere, thus creating the effect of a hazy circular “horizon” all around our viewpoint.   If the reader has ever travelled across a wide ocean on board a ship, he or she will probably recall this effect clearly.  It is as though the ship is alone in a circular ocean which appears to cut off rather abruptly at the limit of horizontal vision where the density of the atmosphere “fogs” out the distance.   

As to the “horizon” itself.  Teed himself invented and constructed a very long and horizontally movable apparatus called a “rectilineator”, with which he was able to demonstrate that a dead-straight beam, exactly parallel to the surface of a perfectly still stretch of water, such as a long lake, and projected onward visually as a straight line from its end, would vanish into the water within a mere four miles distance!  

This same experiment has on several occasions since been duplicated by different groups of scientists with exactly similar results!    How can we possibly refute this by any other scientific methodology?     A leading Canadian Professor of mathematics, H.S.M. Coxeter, has already stated that he could think of no scientific way he could prove that we aren't currently living inside a hollow world sphere, since, to use his own words: “any observation we can make on the outside of the Earth has an exact duplicate version inside.  There would be no way to tell which was the truth.”

A popular Egyptian science-writer, Mostafa A. Abdelkader, wrote a recent article which seriously considered the proposition that we are actually living inside a hollow Earth.   In it he said that the only way for us to test the theory's validity is to drill a tunnel straight through the Earth, from one side to the other.  He wrote that “until such an experiment is performed, it seems that the odds are strongly in favour of a hollow earth being our actual universe.”  

Religious Aspects.
     Teed stated that the earth shell beneath our feet (as occupants of this inner-Earth) was around 50-150 miles thick, and what lies outside it is really only known to the Creator.  But in view of the fact that all major religions teach that beneath our feet lies an Underworld of thick darkness, from which God is absent, this would seem to be the place that Jesus referred to when he said  “But the children of the kingdom shall be cast into outer darkness: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.” (Matthew: 8:12)  Jesus also spoke of the end of the world when angels shall come forth and sever the wicked from among the just: “and shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth” (Matthew: 13:50)  (Emphases are mine. GF.)

So what does this tell us but that on the outside of our earth-shell lies a region of both darkness and fire!    Some sort of vast, stygian region, in which the pitch-dark blackness is relieved only the dull red glow of raging volcanoes, and lakes of lava, springs instantly to mind.   Thus, what we seem to draw from this is that what lies beyond the Earth's shell is either Hell or the Lake of Fire.   However, since Jesus will one day cast even Hell itself into the Lake of Fire (complete with its occupants?) Hell has to be a separate place - possibly in the bowels of the Underworld?

Also the idea that the Earth is a “contained” world, in the sense of it being enclosed in some way, is inferred many times in the Bible when it speaks of things and personages “entering, or coming into the world, or the Earth” - just as one might come into a room or a building.  Also there are some Biblical references to Christ having visited the interior of the earth (in a spirit-body), during the three days His body was entombed, after His Crucifixion.   Could this mean He had perhaps been ministering to the Inner World inhabitants - or does this simply describe a “rescue-mission” to those trapped in Hell?     However, there are, of course, also many references to people beingupon the Earth”, too - which, to my mind, at least, implies standing upon the outside of the Earth's crust, so, perhaps this particular line of interesting semantics may not appear as productive as it could be!   

Other Noteworthy Points.
     Perhaps, in considering all the foregoing, one might well bear in mind that scholars and academics are, by their very nature, conservative, and will fiercely resist any and all changes in “orthodox knowledge” when new truths are revealed.  Unfortunately, it is in their academic interests to do so, since there's always the chance they might find an entire lifetime of study and academic achievement instantly vanishing down the pan with the discovery of an entirely new and different foundation for a particular science than that on which they erected their own splendid intellectual concepts!   

Unfortunately, academics seldom propose tentative theories.  Once a theory is proposed and hailed by their colleagues, they at once endeavour by every means in their power to transmute it speedily into a “scientific truth”.   Hitler's publicity henchman, silver-tongued Dr. Joseph Goebbels, developed this skill to a fine art during the frightful Nazi reign of totalitarianism and terror.  Under his clever administration of propaganda and disinformation, black could be conclusively proved to be white, beyond any shadow of doubt.  At his command, turning theory into undeniable fact became a science in itself, by a little glib talking and a few airy waves of his hand!    This spirit, alas, still lurks in the hallowed halls of learning.  So we must always be very vigilantly suspicious of anything that scientists present to us as “validated and attested fact”.  Remember that, as simple laymen, we only have their word for it - and they, by and large, do tend to believe themselves to possess a sort of scientific “Papal infalliblity”!   

Questions of Proof.     
     Pontius Pilate once asked the question: “What is Truth?”   He was probably right to do so, since most of us simply can't tell truth from nonsense.  We have to depend upon “reliable authorities”.  (Poor Pilate had the very Author of All Truth standing before him at the time he asked this rhetorical question, but sadly, he was totally ignorant of the fact!)   A classic case of the misplaced trust we have in seemingly “unimpeachable  authorities” is demonstrated by the Western World's utter blind faith in all the acts and pronouncements of NASA.  Most of us accept without question every scrap of information they feed to us regarding their satellites and space-missions.  Why would they ever want to lie?     

However, since the advent of the Internet, there has been a major public reviewal and revisiting of their Apollo Missions to the Moon.    Many of the photographs which NASA released as having been taken by the Apollo astronauts, upon the Moon's surface, are now being reappraised by private experts and called into question.  
Why?  Simply because it would seem that many of these Moon-photographs can now apparently be demonstrated, even by amateur astronomers and armchair physics students, to be palpable fakes!   Without going into great detail - which readers can easily study for themselves upon various websites that are dedicated to this particular search for scientific veracity - the photos are claimed to be full of strange anomalies, such as wrong shadows, backlighting, the absence of stars in the background skies, clearly impossible activities and images on a world where everything should be starkly lit and blackly shadowed, due to the complete absence of any lunar atmosphere whatsoever - that should totally preclude any  possibility of the softly-graduated, reflected light and shade that is depicted so clearly in NASA's photographs of astronauts or craft on the Moon.

Apollo - A Hoax That Backfired?
It seems to be the belief of a growing number of very intelligent, professional people - including trained photographers and astronomers - that many of these pictures could only have been shot by earth-bound cameramen on a Earth-based movie-lot - whether inside a studio, or out on a suitably arid and deserted location - in a dense, earthlike atmosphere!   So many apparently simple yet blatant visual “errors” seem to have crept past the final inspection of the finished pictures that they would be laughable - if it were not for the absolutely vast amounts of American tax-dollars that are claimed to have gone into perpetrating such an alleged massive exercise in “kidology”.   

But why on Earth (literally!) would the US Government wish to go to such enormous and deceitful lengths to fool people all over the world into thinking they had landed men on the Moon?  The answer may be right there:“people all over the world”!    Especially those who were then regarded as the sworn enemies of the USA, such as the former communist Russians and the present Chinese!    

If such a charade really had happened, it must essentially have been just a huge “P.R.-Sabre-Rattling” propaganda-exercise designed to impress them with good old State-of-the-Art, American technological wizardry and “Know-how” and to indicate that the United States of America was not a nation one should tangle with!    

However, I must stress that it is also equally credible that NASA may conceivably have made a studio version of the “Lunar landing” just in case anything went radically wrong on the actual mission, or even as a “backstop” in the event that relayed television picture quality from the Moon might  prove so poor and blurry as to be virtually indecipherable to the eagerly-watching world viewing audience

The Van Allen Belts.
However, the Russians already knew about (and studiously avoided) the dangers of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and the magnetosphere, which lie largely between 50 to 200,000 miles above the Earth and protect all life on its surface by shielding it from deadly solar and cosmic radiations.   As far as is known, their magnetic layers trap almost all harmful radioactive particles before they can approach near the Earth.  Thus the two layers, which act as filters, are densely-clogged with captured highly dangerous particles,  and represent an extremely deadly region for any kind of terrestrial lifeforms which may conceivably try to pass through it, en route to the Moon, or to anywhere else in space.   However, the Moon and outer space can be reached without passing through these radioactive belts, since they form a thick, “inflated-doughnut” shaped region around most of the Earth, but leave clear openings over the polar and subpolar regions.  Thus space isn't quite  as “Off Limits” to humans or other lifeforms, as many debunkers think.   Nevertheless, it's certainly odd that US astronauts haven't revisited the Moon since December, 1972.

Orbiting Space Satellites.
The various Earth-orbiting satellites and space-stations generally orbit at no higher an altitude than around 180 to 240 miles, so there is relatively little risk to their crews from this source.   But it is unlikely that any actual attempt has ever yet been made to orbit manned craft within the first Van Allen Belt.  And therein lies the reason for all the “Apollo Hoax”outcry - which was based on the assumption that those in authority had underestimated the true measure of knowledge of such space-matters among the general lay public.   This alleged “conspiracy” is regarded as the real reason why there have been no “Follow-Up Trips” to the Moon during the 30 years that have elapsed since. Conspiracists believe that NASA authorities were made suddenly and painfully aware that their bit of alleged “illicit movie-making” had been badly compromised, and had to scramble to find something else to distract attention away from it - like Skylab!   

Thus we had the “Viking” and “Voyager” programmes, and others of a similar ilk, including the Mars “MOLA” missions, none of which required live crews on board their craft.  Personally however, I find all of these missions, manned and unmanned, to be perfectly credible, since they are well within the bounds of modern space-technology.     

Nontheless, the Van Allen Belts must still pose a major stumbling-block to manned space-exploration, certainly in the immediate future, since neither the Russians or the Europeans have attempted to, or plan on, send a manned spacecraft to the Moon.  Why they couldn't use the North polar-aperture, as NASA must have done with the Apollo missions, is difficult to understand.   Perhaps even that is still quite risky, although I don't suppose it will remain an insurmountable danger for very much longer.   I believe that NASA will soon evolve a fully effective lightweight radiation-shielding for their spacecraft and astronauts, or perhaps even a magnetic-repulsion field against both radiation and the hull-puncturing micro-meteorites - which represents a very major,  though much down-played threat,  far beyond the Van Allen-Magnetosphere region.      

So much then for my potted study of human fallibility!  (Even among the Olympian godlike NASA scientists!)  Now, having discussed the nature of proof, let us move on or perhaps return to another very pertinent question concerning our previous subject.  The curious matter of clear scientific proof for Teed's Concave World theory!

The Strange Business With Plumb-Bobs.  
     Around 1901,  whilst attempting to discover with greater accuracy the size of the Earth, so that they could then make better calculations about our distance from the Sun,  the French Government's geological boffins came up with a novel idea.  They found a way to measure the distances apart (at both ends) of two very-elongated, vertical parallel lines.  Since no structure of the length they needed could be erected upon the surface, some bright Gallic spark had the brilliant brainwave of using a mile-deep mineshaft, down which two long plumb-lines could be hung, side by side a couple of feet apart, and they were thus able to measure the difference in the distance apart between both ends of the two lines - at the surface, and at a mile below the surface.  

Naturally, they expected to find the lines to be somewhat closer together at the bottom of the shaft than at the top, and from this they could then calculate with some considerable precision, by projecting the lines geometrically, the exact point inside the Earth at which the lines would finally meet.  This would mark the exact centre of gravity, and would give a very accurate radius for our planet.  But, surprisingly, the result of the experiment proved to be quite weird. The plumb-bobs were found to be further apart at the bottom of the mineshaft than they were at the top!    

Further trials produced the same results, so, in desperation, they contacted a famed professor of physics, a Dr. MacNair, of the Michigan College of Mines, USA.  McNair repeated the experiment, but upon gaining the same curious result, he suggested that the plumb-bobs might be magnetically repelling each other, and that lead weights should be used.  However, this didn't change a thing - the results were still exactly the same.

By this time the matter had attracted the attention of another American professor at the Columbia University, Professor Hallock.   He believed that it was the two lines of piano-wire used to suspend the weights that were attracting each other, and arranged for a fresh experiment to be conducted in the Tamarack mines at Calumet, in Michigan.   Of course, none of this made a scrap of difference, and despite the lines being hung down two widely-separate mile-deep mineshafts, that were connected by a perfectly horizontal tunnel at their bottoms, the results still gave the same incrediblely illogical and incomprehensible result!   By being farther apart at their bottom ends than at their tops, the plumblines indicated that, if the lines were geometrically extended upward instead of down, they would actually meet at a point 4,000 miles up in space!     

A Maddening Implication!
The implication of this was that the earth's centre of gravity was not at a single point 4,000 miles down inside the Earth, but was instead located at any point that same distance up in the sky!  This meant that the Earth's centre of gravity must actually be in a spherical configuration of around 16,000 miles diameter, which surrounded the Earth like an invisible, globular gravitational shield!  

This whole strange business caused a great uproar in geophysical circles, and the US Geodetic Survey team spent a further two years in further experiments, one of which involved the measurement of the surface of a lengthy Florida lake, on the assumption that its calm flat water must conform to the precise curvature of the Earth, and would therefore demonstrate that curvature perfectly, if a long enough and gunbarrel-straight level were used to for sighting and projecting a true sightline.   Alas, this also produced a very strange result, in that the lake's unruffled surface appeared to curve upward in all directions, instead of downward, as they had expected!     They appear to have retired completely baffled by this result, probably trying to forget the whole maddening exercise.   

Enter Koresh.
It was at this point that Cyrus Teed made his appearance, now having adopted the role of a religious mystic, under the name of Koresh (the Hebrew version of his first name).  Despite his mystic guise, Koresh was completely practical in his own application of the same experiments which had so mystified the academics.   He repeated them all in true engineering fashion, and then proceeded to build an entirely new religious concept of the Earth to fit the same scientifically-inexplicable results.  In fact he used them to excellent effect in scientifically proving the Earth to actually be a concave sphere, with all of humanity - and everything else, including the sun, moon and stars - inside it - instead of an imagined convex one, where all creatures and plants appeared to live on its outer surface, and the heavens and celestial bodies seemed to be visible high above and around it, floating in the infinite space of the Universe.    

From there on, Teed was able to attract a large following of convinced disciples and to create a brand-new Koreshan religion, founded entirely upon his incredible new theory.  Teed-Koresh might have gone considerably further with this entirely new world-vision, but unfortunately, he now began to see himself as the returned Christ, and whilst his congregation accepted this blasphemy and remained faithful to their newfound “faith”, Koresh decided that only true celibacy would get them into Heaven.   Thus, without properly considering the later effects of his actions, Koresh/Teed unwittingly built a natural “Run-Out” or “Self-Destruct” period into his organization, and in due course, all of his ardent followers simply died off, leaving the movement to fade into complete self-extinction.    And there, if only for the sake of conserving page-space, I  must finally conclude the curious fragment ofbackground history to this third and extremely weird variation of a “Hollow Earth” -  the Cellestrocentric, Inversed Earth!  
In Conclusion.

What Can One Conclude?
What, if anything can be offered in rebuttal of this apparently undisprovable theory?  Sadly not a great deal, other than plain observation and commonsense.   One idea is that, if we are held to the inside of a rotating sphere by centrifugal force, surely that force would diminish to zero at the axial poles of its rotation , with the result that anyone venturing to the poles would cease to be affected by that force and would begin to float upwards as they neared the poles.   Thus far, there don't appear to have been any reports of such weird anomalies from either the Eskimos and surveyors of the Arctic region, nor from the weather scientists based at or around the Antarctic pole!    

Also, one has to wonder, if this Earth-Cosmos is spinning, the laws of mechanics (if they actually apply to such an Earth) dictate that it has to spin about an axis.   But why would it need to spin, if all the Universe is already in here, with us?  And what could it be spinning in?   If there is nothing beyond the crust we live on, what would be making it spin - and for what reason?   Just to hold us to the inside of its shell?    Maybe these are questions we should be asking the One who allegedly designed it thus!     

However, one of the most interesting and telling points that I've not yet heard mention of, is the plain fact that, when at sea, the first sighting of an approaching vessel on the horizon, is the tip of its foremast, then its funnel comes into view, then gradually the superstructure and the hull eventually appear to emerge from the edge of the ocean.  This is surely crystal-clear evidence that the sea curves upwards over the horizon line and then runs down toward the viewer, in a convex manner!  

Also, I gather that, in the Teed model of a concave Earth, the focal centre of the globe is alleged to be occupied by a dark, inky-black mass which contains an Einsteinian “relative universe”, where every celestial body we see in outer space is to be found, whether with our own eyes, or through the telescopes of our astronomers.  The Sun and the Moon are claimed to orbit around this mass, between the inner surface and the cloud of starry darkness, and it is when they orbit beyond and behind its edge, away from our position, they appear to set and rise again. However, again, just as in the case of the distant ship approaching over the rim of the ocean, simple observation shows that we always see the Sun (and the Moon) drop down  (or “set” beyond the western horizon, to rise again out of the eastern horizon.  What further proof do we require that the Earth's suface upon which we live  is truly convex?

But why should the Sun and Moon need to orbit, if the earth-shell itself is rotating?  But modern Koreshans would answer this by flatly stating that the Earth does not move at all.  It is, they declare, perfectly static and is surrounded by some dense and tangible plasma of Stygian “Outer Darkness” (to which, as we've seen, the Christian Bible makes several enigmatic references).   However, if the Earth did not rotate, in the absence of gravity within its spherical shell (which is implied by the cloud-universe at its centre, which, QED, should surely possess staggeringly enormous mass), the only other thing which would hold us to the surface - centripetal force - just couldn't exist!   Thus, upon a fairly superficial examination by even the humblest scientific layman, the entire Koreshan Cellular Cosmonogy theory simply collapses like a house of cards!

The Religious Component.
One might well wonder how so many millions of people are so easily persuaded to accept often quite ridiculous concepts such as this, in the name of God.   However, the answer is quite simply that virtually all sentient human beings require some form of external “Benevolent Entity” to cling to and to pin their hopes upon.  Whether it be a miraculous “God”-figure, humanoid or animistic, a magic talisman of some sort, or even just plain Lady Luck, this aching need for some kind of supernatural guardianship and protection is felt by the vast majority of our species.   

 If we were devoid of sapient intellect, as are most of the common animals, we would have no thought or concern for anything beyond the immediate here and now.  So, as creatures of pure instinct, we wouldn't worry about what harm might befall us, or concern ourselves over spiritual matters, or a possible Hereafter.  But we humans are sapient creatures who are also endowed with active, vivid imaginations, and thus we often feel defenceless and vulnerable in the face of a frightening Unknown - especially Death.   Hence the great power, and, in fact,  pressing need of  “religion” in some  form or other among most of our species.

A Relative Cosmos?
Harking back to the concept of the cosmos being located in a relativistic form around the earth's focal centre, then surely - were a suitable spacecraft available - one might be able to travel past or through the aforementioned “Infinity-Point” and out again on the other side, back down to Earth again, increasing in size and mass again, en route?   Or would the spaceship and its crew perhaps simply continue to diminish in size, according to Einstein's Law of Relativity, until it disappeared entirely into infinity?    
Or could it perhaps be that there is some sort of “worm-hole” at that point, which connects with the very Ultimate Infinity of Heaven itself?   As The Immortal Bard of Avon described it, in his customary, poetic way: “The undiscovered country from whose bourn no traveller returns.”  Perhaps both scenarios might, in the end, amount to the same final result!     And perhaps only a great genius of the intellectual stature of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein or Stephen Hawking might, some day be able to furnish us with a sensible answer to this conundrum!    

Alas, I certainly cannot, although that still doesn't prevent me from having my own instinctive and entirely unscientific “gut-feeling” about the actual veracity or falsety of this theory - or from getting the unpleasantly ominous sensation that the Koreshan concave Earth was perhaps initially conceived as a sincere theory, but was subsequently adapted and elaborated upon in order to create another quasi-scientific, religious hoax, perpetrated to extort large sums of money from a crowd of earnest but gullible followers!   Sadly, we will never know, and at this point, my ever-patient reader, I really must wind up this rambling discussion of something which - after all is said and done - really doesn't makes one single tangible scrap of difference whatsoever, one way or the other to us, the occupants of this planet, as we go about our daily lives and affairs!    
A Final Question.
There is one final question that we should all ask ourselves should any of these three theoretic cases, by some strange perchance, turn out to be true.  What would be the reaction of the governments of the powerful nations of the world be to the affirmation of such a discovery?   Would they hasten to pass on to their citizens the exciting news of the discovery of another world - or worlds - within the globe we live upon?    Or would they covertly rush to be the first to enter such an hitherto hidden world and plant their national flag upon its soil, and perhaps claim it as extra “lebensraum” for their excess population?    

Or, worse still, if it were found to be already inhabited, would they wage a merciless war to exterminate its inhabitants, so as to be able to utilise such a  secret inner world for their own nefarious purposes  - and, if it were found (as would seem likely) to be rich in precious minerals and ores - exploit it mercilessly and profit from a seemingly endless supply of  oil or gold, or other scarce commodity, on the outer-world markets?   
Given the appalling track-records in such matters of the richer or more powerful nations like the USA, the Europe Community and China, I believe that we should all be able to answer this question for ourselves.   If such a discovery is ever made, and a powerful government learns of it, then we can rest assured that we, the humble citizens of the surface world, will probably never get to hear about it!   And there, dear readers, I will finally rest my case!

The End

Ó Gerry Forster.  2001.

Recommended reading on these Hollow and inversed Earth theories.

“Hollow Planets” by Jan Lamprecht.   Available for purchase via the Internet at

“The Land of No Horizon” by Kevin and Matthew Taylor.  Available for purchase
via the Internet at

“Mysteries of the Inner Earth” by David Pratt. Available free on the Internet at

(Search the Internet for many other excellent websites dedicated to these topics
of the Hollow Earth and Planets and the Inversed Earth)

The Martian Hypothesis
A Hypothetical History of the Red Planet

By Gerry Forster


                        “A student beginning any research study into a subject with a mind full of preconceived
orthodox indoctrination is like a guest approaching a banquet table with a full stomach.
His hunger and thirst for new knowledge has been dulled, and he will have little appetite
for the feast of new concepts and possibilities that lies spread before him”.
Gerry Forster 2001

Before commencing this quest for new Martian knowledge, let's pause and reflect upon what we're seeking, and what tools we need to bring with us to delve for enlightenment and to uncover new secrets, hitherto concealed under the dust of wasted decades of academic self-assurance and neglect.    The first prerequisite for such a quest is a mind that's wide open to dazzling new possibilities.   A mind that's not already cluttered with the accumulated antiquated old theories and traditional beliefs of long retired and vanished academicians.  We must be prepared to shrug off any such burdens of orthodox preconception and notions that might have been spoon-fed to us by such closed-minded scholars.  Those who never permitted any bright sparkle of intuition or original thought to draw them away from the known and safe “Cow-Path” of dreary institutionalized traditional belief.
If we let them direct our mental footsteps we'll remain no wiser than they were.  Thus our second prerequisite must be a fearless sense of adventure, supported by imagination and insight, as we set forth upon that untrodden path into unknown territories of the mind.     Forget the cautionary maxims of past academics and scholars who were afraid to break new ground.    We must follow our own intuitions and instincts rather than the humbug inscribed in their musty old textbooks.   We should cling only to what is indisputable, proven fact, and abandon all failed and antiquated theories.  

One can't rebuild a great new edifice upon the ruins of a collapsed one, so we must be prepared to clear away the rubble of past, fallen ideas and construct our new concepts and speculations upon the solid bedrock of what we beleive to be the truth.   If our hypothesis becomes shaky, we shouldn't hesitate to demolish it and start over again.   Many a great idea fell down because of poor foundations, so we must be prepared to be ruthless toward all things that appear dubious or impossible.  If we pursue these new tenets vigorously, we will be rewarded by success.  But once we've constructed our hypothesis, however speculative, we must be ready to defend it from attack by those whose too rigidly-cast theories failed them.   So, with this firmly in mind, let's proceed!          
Part One

What Do We Know About Mars?

The fourth terrestrial planet out from the Sun in the Solar System, Mars, is a barren and battered reddish-brown planet, a little over half the size of Earth. It possesses a very thin atmosphere composed of 95% carbon dioxide, a little nitrogen, even less argon, a dash of oxygen and only the merest traces of water vapour.  The planet, which is icy cold, is covered by a thick layer of desiccated dust, a desert of rust that is liberally peppered with smallish ferruginous rocks over most of its surface. Most of its southern hemisphere is overburdened by thick, heavily-cratered rocky highlands which bear the scars of at least two major impacts by very large bodies. These are the Hellas Planitia and  the Argyre Planita depressions.   

 Compared to the relatively smooth and almost unscathed northern hemisphere, the southern half of Mars is considerably more elevated (by some five or six miles) than the flat plain regions of the north, and is clearly the scene of some gigantic catastrophe in the ancient past of the planet.  The dividing line between the two hemispheres is by no means clear-cut, and from a southerly aspect, the southern portion of Mars looks as though it has been heavily splattered by a dense coating of rocky detritus at some stage of its history. Almost as though some vastly gigantic hand had, very forcibly, flung an unimaginably huge shovel full of red-brown concrete upon one side of an enormous basketball, which had then set solid, just as and where it had fallen, randomly upon a large part of the ball's surface.    (It would be very useful if the imaginative reader could bear this particular image in mind, since it will figure again in the following pages.)    

Other Notable Features
Mars has several distinctive features. Besides the two large impact craters mentioned earlier, there are the polar icecaps, of which the northern is the larger and more impressive. The north polar cap is composed of water ice, whilst the south polar cap contains both water ice and frozen carbon dioxide.  There are several very impressive volcanoes, of which, Olympus Mons, the largest, towers to the amazing height of 16 miles.  Olympus Mons is located upon a noticeable swelling upon the Martian surface; the Tharsis Bulge, which itself is elevated by some six or seven miles above the level of the Martian highland.  The bulge bears, beside Olympus Mons, three other volcanoes, Arsia, Pavonis, and Ascraeus Mons, which, although smaller than the former, are still enormous by Earthly standards.  Another large volcano is Elysium Mons, situated on the elevated Elysium Planitia some 4000 miles west of the Tharsis Bulge.  

Perhaps the most impressive surface feature on Mars, from a telescopic viewpoint, is the Mariner Valley (Valles Marineris).  This is evidently an enormous rift valley or split in the Martian crust that runs at a slightly South-easterly angle for some 3,000 miles from just below the eastern edge of the volcanic Tharsis Bulge towards the Hellas Planitia crater.  Both the Mariner Valley and the Hellas crater average a depth of between two to four miles to their floors.    
The Hellas Planitia crater (which, like the smaller Argyre Planitia, and a third, the Isidis Planitia, was thought to be a circular “plain” before it was discovered to be an impact-crater), is around 1300 miles in diameter and has a virtually smooth floor.   This floor would seem hard to explain, in view of the fact that the bolide, or giant fragment of rock which obviously struck Mars with a tremendous and directly vertical impact, thus certainly entering the planet and embedding itself within its interior.  The same applies to the other major impact-crater, Argyre - and possibly Isidis, too - which also have smooth even floors.   But I shall explain this fairly simply when I begin to discuss Mars being a hollow planet* like the Earth!   *(NB. Please see my previous article this absorbing concept! GF)

It is possible that they could have been refilled to some fair extent by upflung detritus falling back into the holes, as is the case with the Meteor Crater in Arizona. And it's possible, too, that they were also sealed by an outflow or upwelling of molten lava deep within the crust - in much the same way a bullet-hole in human or animal flesh becomes sealed by an upwelling of clotting blood.   But how could such a virtually bottomless hole, as the Hellas crater must have been, become so comparatively shallow over the many millennia since the catastrophe occurred?    Perhaps the enormous Martian duststorms which perpetually sweep around the planet could be partially responsible, and that when our Earthling astronauts eventually get around to exploring Mars, they might find these craters to be literally miles deep in rusty sand and dust?   Let us examine this phenomenon a little closer.

Mars a “Shell” Planet?
The reason why I raise this particular issue is because I believe that Mars, like the Earth, is a shell-planet.  That is to say a planet that is hollow at its core, rather than having a solid or semi-molten ball of nickel-iron in its centre.  Its centre of gravity, instead of being at the focal centre of the planetary sphere, is instead in the form of a spherical field of gravitational force around halfway through its crustal shell.  

There are many reasons why the planets may be hollow, and not least among them, is the Exploding Planet Hypothesis (or EPH for short), as outlined by the famous American astronomer and physicist, Dr. Tom Van Flandern, regarding his Planet X, Planet V, and Body C.  Thus, if Mars is hollow at its core, it is then feasible to believe that one (or more) of the impacting-bodies was able to travel virtually right through to the opposite side and thrust up the crust.  

For example. The impacting mass which caused the Hellas Planitia may well be lying embedded in the bulging section of crust opposite to its crater (the Tharsis Bulge), beneath the four major Martian volcanoes, and be directly responsible for both them, and the huge split which is the Mariner Valley.

The same idea might well apply to the huge fragment that punched out the Argyre Crater - though on a somewhat smaller scale  - and be the cause of the Elysium Mons volcano.  Even the Isidis Crater may conceal a third great puncture in the Martian crust, and hold a large meteor-like mass in its depths!    
It is also possible that, if Mars is a shell (hollow) planet, as I believe it is, the reason why we see flat crater-floors in those massive impact-craters, Hellas and Argyre, is due to the “gravitational sphere”.   This, I suspect lies near halfway down through the thickness of Mars'crustal shell*, holding up the fallen-back debris from the enormous impacts.  This matter could not fall back down inside the hollow centre of Mars, because the near-surface gravitational field would have stopped it from going any further.  Thus it would lie directly upon the invisible electromagnetic gravity-sphere's surface, and form solid covers and floors over the gargantuan holes punched through the Martian surface by the huge fragments or bolides from the exploded parent planet.   I trust that the reader can see the logic behind my reasoning here!   
    (* See my explanation of shell-planets on the previous page.  GF)          

Shell versus Solid…  
As I have pointed out elsewhere in these pages, it is very difficult to imagine how a solid ball of rock and iron can be made to explode into such tiny fragments as the asteroids are in comparison to the Earth. Unless one was somehow able to bore a 4,000 mile-deep pit to its centre, and plant a mountain of multi-gigaton nuclear bombs there.   Even then, the resultant explosion might only succeed in breaking the Earth up into a few massive chunks, rather than thousands upon thousands of meteorite-sized fragments!    Certainly, it would take an extremely large body, travelling at unimaginable speed upon a direct collision course to shatter a planet of Earth's size into such tiny fragments.         

However, if the Earth were a globular shell of rock, with a fairly large hollow at its centre, and an explosion occurred inside that hollow, then we could reasonably expect the rocky shell to fragment and fly, like shrapnel, into a million pieces!     But what sort of explosion could take place naturally - even inside a hollow shell-planet?  

Well, apart from a deliberately caused explosion as described above, it is possible that radioactive materials, say, in the form of a neutron-cloud (or something similar) could aggregate themselves into a nucleus of critical-mass and cause a vast nuclear explosion. (The interior of our Sun should provide a few clues here!)

Or there could perhaps be an excessive build-up of hydrogen and other highly flammable gases, within the hollow chamber to a degree of such high pressure that they might spontaneously combust - with similar cataclysmic results.   

Other Possible Alternatives
There are probably many alternatives to these two scenarios which could occur - even more, perhaps, if the hollow interior of such a planet were to be populated by a race of highly-technical beings, bent upon dangerous experimentation with forces unknown to the external population!   Given the possibility (or even the very real likelihood) of the Earth being a hollow planet.  Would it really require such a stretch of the imagination to believe that it could not only be populated by sentient and intelligent humanoid beings like ourselves, but also that it could have been developed into a completely biologically-diverse, living inner world - not too much unlike our own is upon the outside?       
     Whilst I realize that we have already considered this idea of a populated Inner Earth in a previous article, let us pause here to reflect upon the implications that this concept might carry over in terms of the other terrestrial worlds, both present and vanished. For I feel confidently certain that more than one such planet has met the same fate as Van Flandern's “Planet V”, and if this is so, then all of our Sun's planets must be hollow - and, in all probability, even the Sun itself!    

Some Acceptable Data of Mars compared to Earth

                                                           EARTH                              MARS

Average distance from Sun.            93 million miles                142 million miles

Average Sun-orbiting speed           18½ miles per sec              14½ miles per sec

Length of Year (orbit of Sun)         365¾ Earth days               687 Earth days

Length of Day (Axial rotation)       23 hours, 56 mins.             24 hours, 37 mins

Diameter of Planet                           7,826 miles                         4,200 miles (appr)

Number of moons.                           1                                           2    Phobos (15 miles
                                                                                                                                    dia) and Deimos
                                                                                                                                    (6 miles dia)
Tilt of planet's polar axis.               23½ degrees                        25 degrees

Atmospheric constituents              Nitrogen, oxygen, argon     Carbon dioxide with
                                                          and traces of various          small amount water
                                                          other gases                           vapour and traces
                                                                                                        of other gases

Surface Temperatures                   57ºF  average                       +60ºF  (high)
                                                                                                        -220ºF  (low)

Gravitational effect                      >2½ times that of Mars        <½ that of Earth

Mass.   (Ratio)                                1                                               0.108
Volume of planet                            1                                               0.15

Apparent diameter of Sun             31'  59”                                    0'  21”

Distance to Sun in A.U.                  1 A.U.                                       1. 524 A.U.

(Note. Distances given above are in miles rather than kilometres for American readers)

Part Two

Men from Mars?

I know that many scientific thinkers will at once cry out loudly against this possibility, by saying that humans are not physically large enough to have evolved on Mars, since it's not much more than half the size of Earth, and because of this, much larger beings would have developed in its much lower gravity. Or that if Man had “evolved” upon a planet 4 or 8 times larger than Earth, (as Van Flandern's “PlanetV”) Man would be far smaller and much squatter, because of the far higher gravity.  That is, unless it was a “shell” planet, and thus had a lower gravity than if it was solid.  However, I don't see this as any great problem that Man could not have overcome by simple adaptation - just as he will certainly need to, if he does eventually decide to terraform Mars for human habitation!

Because of page-space constraints, I won't go into all the notions that have led me to contemplate this theory. But I believe that, unless the original humans actually emerged from the inner world of our hollow Earth (which is another strong possibility that I have discussing elsewhere) our ancient hi-tech forebears could only have come here as “off-world” refugees, using a small, hollow moon. Possibly even our own Moon which is believed to be hollow - or a large spacecraft as a “lifeboat” or “Ark” from the dying world of Mars, after, or just prior to, the catastrophic demise of that big planet of which Mars may once have been a satellite companion.  

Perhaps they could have been “off-world” settlers on Mars - immigrants from that giant mother-planet, who were pioneering Mars, or even mining its hidden subterranean minerals - who knows?   I certainly don't believe they came from another galaxy or star-sytem, as it's just too far a “stretch” - both physically and imaginatively!

If they did come from Mars, I envisage them having learning of the approaching doom of the parent-planet - whether by an imminent collision, an explosion, or the outbreak of a totally catastrophic nuclear war  (such as we've contemplated here on Earth over the past decades) and taking fairly prompt action to escape the coming disaster.

Again, without going into all the finer details of this particular theory, I can only remark that I believe that our ancestral “off-world” forerunners were very intellectually and technologically-advanced, and that they'd have already mastered space-travel, and perhaps even visited Earth on scouting expeditions, some millennia before the occurrence of the enormous catastrophe which forced them to migrate to the Earth.   

It is also conceivable that this event happened at a time the Earth when was somewhat closer to the Sun and a great deal warmer, since I am convinced that all the Sun's family of planets are steadily spiralling away in their orbits, little by little, as the Sun's youthful powers of gravitational attraction grow gradually weaker with age due to loss of fuel and energy.

Jurassic Journey…
It's not inconceivable that this could have taken place during the Jurassic age of the dinosaurs, which some scientists believe was around 260 million years ago. However, I personally feel this to be far too exaggerated a time-span and would tend to set it at only two or three million years ago, but I will let it lie for the present, since we have no genuine evidence to the contrariwise!    In fact, if some of the many anomalous discoveries such as those alleged humanoid and dinosaur footprints (apparently ambling along together) in the rock along the banks of the Paluxy River in the USA are truly genuine, we already have the evidence that our forefathers have been around on the Earth for aeons - instead of a mere handful of thousands of years!

However, to return to the central thrust of my Martian Origin hypothesis.   If it were so, and a fleet of spacecraft did arrive here from Mars (or even from the inner Earth, come to that), in the remote past, would it not be very likely that, with the passage of time - as their supplies began to dwindle and their technological equipment to corrode and fail - and they found themselves having to do battle against both the intense alien solar radiation and heat, as well as the savage reptilian occupants of the Earth, the few Martian or Inner Earth survivors would have had to physically rise to meet this dual challenge by adaptation or mutation?

Physical Adaptations
This would mean becoming entirely reliant upon their own strength and adopting a brutally harsh and perilous lifestyle, as well as greatly increasing the amount of melanin secreted in their skins against the far higher UV radiation of a planet 50 million miles nearer to the Sun.  This UV would probably also affect their eyes, too, which would have been accustomed to a much dimmer light on a planet far more distant from the Sun.   

Also it would require the rapid development of much stronger physiques, both in bone and musculature, in order to be able to outrun or combat the utterly horrendous reptilian wildlife, as well as all the other natural hazards of a torrid jungle-world.   In short, as many unlucky men have learned, who have been marooned or wrecked on desert islands, or become lost in remote parts of the world, they would have been reduced, virtually overnight, from “high-tech” soft living to sheer savagery and animal cunning!

Decline and Fall…
To what condition might we eventually expect to find of our sophisticated, pale-skinned, soft-living civilized migrants from Mars to have been reduced, after three or four generations amidst the ferocious blazing wilds of an alien planet, when the last pieces of their technological gear had finally failed?   
I would expect them to have become a fierce tribe of wild men and women, with dark, sunburned skins, covered in cancer-sores and the ugly scars of reptilian teeth and talons - but also now with highly-sharpened senses of sight, smell, and hearing.  They would certainly be a filthy, evil-smelling people, viciously greedy and selfish, but they would still be living together in family groups for mutual help and protection against their terrible enemies.    How are the mighty fallen!

Another couple of thousand years or so further along, and we would find their descendants, now much better acclimatized and considerably more numerous, with much healthier physiques, melanin-secreting skins, and probably now living in deep cliff caves or tall sturdy treetops. Here their wild predators could not reach them so easily and they could get some degree of relief from the harsh UV-laden sunlight.  By now, they would also have become skillful at fashioning serviceable weapons and learned the art of laying traps and digging pitfalls for wild reptilian enemies and prey alike.

Also by this time they would have developed a much higher order of tribal living, and probably worshipped at whatever remained of the wrecks of their forebears' spacecraft.   A word-of-mouth mythology would also have begun to spring up among them about ancient ancestors who came down from the skies, or up out of the earth, and founded their race.  Such myths and legends abound in all quarters of the Earth among the more primitive peoples.  South American Indians, for example, believe their ancestors came down from the sky, whilst North American Indians believe that their ancestors emerged from tunnels in the Earth.  These were the first beginnings of religion, in which the tribal elders among them would have become the shamans - the living repositories of ancient knowledge and wisdom and the arbiters of justice.

Occasionally, a child prodigy would no doubt be born who had somehow managed to retain and revive the original creative genes of his ancestors.  Such children would be regarded with awe and reverence and would become retrovisionary oracles of the ancient “wise ones” - the gods who had created them. These would soon become the visionaries and the inventive geniuses of their people. That is, providing they were not murdered by jealous shamans.    
However, to get back to Mars again….

 The Missing Planet…
Curiously enough, I happened to have already come to much the same basic conclusions as Tom Van Flandern, long before I ever went on the Internet and read his theories - having often pondered deeply down the years upon where the asteroids originated and why poor old Mars had once taken such a terrible thrashing!  I also read Donald Patten's “Scars Of Mars” but his particular fragmenting planet Astra, was, in my opinion, far too small.  So I quite naturally chose to support Van Flandern's "EPH" - whilst nevertheless readily accepting many of Patten's more useful notions, but rejecting others.  However, let it be said in Patten's favour that they remark in their theory that: "Planets and the larger satellites are not rigid bodies..."

The primary reason for raising this, is that Tom Van Flandern's theory seems to fit the hollow-planet concept very well, since, if we were dealing with a "shell-planet" - as I prefer to call hollow planets - it means that we can then regard the asteroids as accounting for the major bulk of the fragments of such a shell.  Rather than the current idea that, if they are all put together as a solid mass, they would not even make up a planet the size of our moon!    However, I won't dig too far into it all here, as it would take too long, but Tom Van Flandern believes "Planet V" was a body around eight times the size of our Earth, and that Mars was one of its several moons. (Alas, when I raised the idea of “Shell Planets” with him recently, we differed a little over it having possibly been hollow!)

When the parent planet exploded - as one might expect a shell-planet to be more likely to do than a solid one - Mars was very heavily splattered with a huge amount of its debris all over the side which was facing toward Planet V, and we can observe this six-mile deep coating to this day. The rest of Mars (its northern hemisphere) is as "smooth as a baby's bottom" by comparison, and was probably once the bed of a huge ocean of fresh water.   There was also a very similar explosion of another Mars-size moon of Planet V (called Body "C" by Tom V-F), which is mentioned in his hypothesis as having blown up much later, but I won't get into all that here.

You've probably heard or seen photos of the Hellas Crater (Hellas Planitia) on Mars?  Well, this is where I strongly suspect a huge bolide or fragment, actually "torpedoed" the planet - going almost straight through it, before being stopped by the opposite wall of inner crust, where it forced up a vast "swollen lump" (the Tharsis Bulge), on the Martian surface, and caused four huge volcanoes to burst forth. Olympus Mons is the largest of these at 16 miles high!   The Argyre Crater could be very similar.

The Valles Marineris rift-chasm was, I believe, caused by the same event, and is actually a huge 3,000 mile "split" in the upper crust, which runs between the entrance-point at the Hellas Planitia crater and the central one of the three smaller volcanoes on the Tharsis Bulge.   All of this seems to me to be highly indicative of a shell-planet, in that such a huge impact would most probably have completely destroyed a solid body. (If you fired a musket ball at a "Globe of the World" it would simply go straight through it, leaving only a neat, circular entry wound, and maybe a rather more ragged exit-wound.  But if you hit it with a lump-hammer, you'd destroy it! (The Hellas impact-crater is nearly 1000 miles wide, so imagine the size and mass of the “hammer” that struck Mars!)  

But the point is that the "entry-wound" was so clean, and this implies that the impacting object was able to travel almost right through Mars without shattering it to pieces!   This seems to imply pretty clearly to me that Mars must have a very soft or hollow interior, as well as a fairly flexible crustal shell, for it to have survived such a blow! There is also that other huge impact-crater, Argyre Planitia, in the severely damaged southern hemisphere of Mars, which most probably occurred at the same time, and I suspect that they would both have been caused by the very largest chunks of Planet V during its explosion.  
(Some claim that the Hellas projectile was Planet V's central core! But this doesn't exactly fit in with the “Shell Planet” concept, so I'll just leave it lie!)

The same explosion was also probably responsible for the blowing away of all Mars' surface oceans, as well as most of its atmosphere, which is believed to have been as dense as that of the Earth.  Mars also lost both its magnetosphere and its Van Allen-type shields in this same catastrophe.  Today the naked planet must be bombarded with almost raw solar and cosmic radiation - which bodes ill for any Earthmen explorers!

What caused Planet V to explode is still unclear, but it was either some internal build-up of uncontainable pressure or a very big planetoid collision. I personally tend to suspect the former.  However, having already written the basic outline of a "shell-planet" explanatory hypothesis, outlining how it might have been formed, I won't be dogmatic on this point.  I might try to knock this argument into better shape and send it off to someone of Dr.Tom Van Flandern's stature as a physicist for an evaluation regarding its potential as a viable theory.   (Meanwhile, having put a lot of thought into this whole concept, I can but hope that the reader finds my general hypothesis of interest.  If I can eventually prove this out as a likely scenario, it will mean a huge leap forward for the whole Hollow (or Shell) Planet theory!)

Men From Mars?
Whilst discussing Mars, I wonder how many of my readers have any views on the actual origins of the three principal races of mankind: black, yellow and white?   Since I have been continuing to work behind the scenes on my original “Never-Ending Thesis” about the actual origin of the Human Race, I have thus far unearthed some fairly compelling bits of evidence that not only were the Negroid people possibly the first truly human hominids to occupy the Earth successfully, but also that both they - and the white humans who later followed them - could have originated on a planet more remote from the Sun.  A planet such as Mars - or even its much larger and totally shattered parent planet, some of whose remains now comprise the Asteroid Belts.  (Remember that there's more than one asteroid belt!)  

The famous “Face” in the Cydonia region of Mars, could possibly be linked to this question.  But since we still aren't sure if it really is a constructed artifact, or just a curiously wind and weather-eroded hill of rock, I won't go into it here, but will save it for special separate mention, along with the alleged “Pyramid City”, later in this segment.   

I won't go into any fine detail on race at this point, but things do seem to make much more sense within the framework of this hypothesis - especially the powerful concentration of melanin in Negroid skin.  It is often dark to the point of being blue-black - and is extremely UV protective, whilst that of their white-skinned cousins, even though they have lived several millennia under the same irradiation-levels of sunlight, still tends to sunburn very quickly and often develops severe cancerous skin lesions from prolonged exposure.  (I have suffered the same afflictions myself over many years here in Australia, and have had to have literally hundreds of these “sunspots” and melanomas removed over the past few decades!)   This could be a very clear indicator of a far greater antiquity for the Negroid race, compared to the nordic Caucasoids.

Another important difference between the Negroes and white Caucasians is the tendency for the latter to have much more photosensitive eyes, with lightly pigmented pale blue or greenish irises around their pupils, which requires them to wear dark glasses in bright sunlight.  The Negroid and Hamitic people, however, having dark-brown irises, are not so greatly troubled by sun-glare, and often wear sunglasses as mere fashion adornments.  Australian aborigines also have the added advantage of possessing very dark eyes, deep-set under heavy brow-ridges that give extra protection from sun-glare.

It is a plain historical fact that, although white Australians from Britain and Europe first settled in Australia in the 1770s, covering some six or seven generations over the past 230 years, their descendants are nevertheless still every bit as prone to skin-cancer as the first European settlers were.   There is absolutely no clinical evidence of any adaptation to the fiercer sunlight having begun in white people thus far.

Whilst it's true that the northern Europeans and many white Americans live in a generally more cloudy and temperate region, this is really no barrier to the deadly UV radiation of the Sun.   So my general conclusion is that (unless they actually came from inside the Earth, which is a very possible option that I've discussed elsewhere) the white race may very well be immigrants or refugees from another terrestrial planet much more distant from the Sun.  Also, the entire species of Homo Sapiens may conceivably have come to the Earth in at least two separate groups, at very widely divergent intervals of time.  (Because of this hypothesis, I tend toward the view that the mysterious Homo Neanderthalensis, the supposed first true Earth man - if not Homo Sapiens - might well have lived contemporaneously with the dinosaurs as far back as the Jurassic period, which is claimed to have been some 260 million years ago!

A Leakey Theory?
I personally set very little store by the findings of the Leakeys, that the Rift Valley of East Africa, was the “birthplace” of all mankind, starting with the proconsul and through various interstage anthropoid prototype hominids until they graduating upward by evolution into homo Erectus, and from thence into Homo Neanderthalensis, who is believed to have been a larger-brained contemporary of Homo Sapiens.   Since the Leakeys made most of their partial-fossil discoveries of such alleged remains of “interstage” proto-apemen in Africa, it was always assumed (in the typically white racist manner of the day) that the Negroes were stemmed directly from them.  

Happily, however, there is a growing body of new evidence, which shows that the negroid peoples once lived in many widely-separated regions of the Earth, and that Africa is only one of them!   Consider the giant Olmec-carved stone heads of Negroid “gods” found all over the Mesoamerican jungle, as well as the jet-black Melanesian people of the Pacific. There are also the Aboriginal native people of Australia who, curiously enough, seem to display many classical physical characteristics and facial features which appear to be strangely compatible with the skull and skeletal structures of the Neanderthal people.

This, last point, I should hasten to add, is not intended in any way to denigrate Neanderthal Man or his possible present-day descendants, whom, as mentioned above, actually possessed a larger cranial capacity than modern Cro Magnons do!   Sadly they were the subject of an early racist “pogrom” by their rivals, and eventually disappeared, either by being driven off from settlements and starved out of existence, or by interbreeding with the Cro Magnons.   This seems to indicate to me that the Neanderthals, although bigger and brainier than the Cro Magnons, could very well have been a race of more intelligent and gentler, peace-loving people.   

I can easily imagine a scenario in which both species of humankind hailed originally from Mars, and can envisage the poor, despised Neanderthals being transported to Earth in a kind of spacegoing “Prison-Fleet”, to create a “Devil's Island”-style penal-colony.  The object of this would be to rid Mars of these unwanted people, and also tame the torrid planet Earth and its fearsome saurian wildlife - in much the same way that the British transported their unwanted “criminals” for the same basic reasons and purposes to Australia and New Zealand.   Perhaps the Neanderthals were the original occupants of Mars, and the Cro Magnons were invading conquerors from the parent-planet?   It might have happened anyhow, regardless of the setting, on Mars or on the Earth.  

However, to return to our current subject.   If this was, in fact, the way we Homo Sapiens came to populate the Earth, the Neanderthal (or an eventual Negroid group) must have had a far greater “head-start” in adapting their pigmentation to an Earth at a considerably closer proximity to the Sun.   And, as a matter of additional interest, this theory would also account for the legendary giants, or ancient, antediluvian “mighty men of renown” - since, if they had come from Mars (which is little more than half the size of Earth), they would have been considerably larger in stature because of Mars' much smaller gravitation.    Even today, many of the tallest people on Earth are Negroid!   I have still to figure out why the average Celt or Briton is of smaller stature, but if they had come directly from the much larger, parent planet that exploded, this could explain their comparatively smaller stature.    I should also add that, if Van Flandern's parent “Planet V” (or my “Astrida”) were, say, four or eight times larger than the Earth, it could even explain those squat, dwarfish “Wee Folk” who tend to appear from time to time as “throwbacks” in the homo Sapiens race.  They would be quite typically the inhabitants of a planet with a far greater gravity than that of Earth.   (Although it's also worth bearing in mind that the gravity on a “shell”planet would have been much less than that of an equivalent-sized solid planet - which, in turn, would have permitted a far more normal human stature).

Anyhow, by now, the perceptive reader can probably see where I am going with this, although I still have a great deal of work to do on it before my hypothesis could be described as even faintly close to tenable. (What about the Asiatic races, for example?)  However, I shall continue to plod along with it, since, if such a seemingly "far-out" theory could eventually be proven, it would explain a great many of the mysteries and anomalies which presently surround the human species - as well as our strangely absorbing interest and preoccupation as a race with the planet Mars!

Oh, and by the way, before I press on.  Any thoughtful and constructive comments or suggestions my readers might wish to put forward would be most welcome!   And, just for the enlightenment of any Hollow Earthian readers - I have also, in another article*carefully considered the very possible origin of humankind as alternatively having originated down beneath the surface of our own planet Earth, either in the subterranean honeycomb of caverns, tunnels and grottos of its crust, or even within its hollow centre!  For I really am unshakeably convinced that all of the planets and stars are hollow spheres, whether with solid crusts or blazing, gaseous envelopes.   I hope to be able to clarify and justify this belief once and for all, in a subsequent article in this series* - without seeking recourse to the exaggerated yarns of old Arctic explorers or other wild myths, legends and fictions.        (* Read my article “Is Our Earth Really Hollow?”)

Anomalous Constructions on Mars
Returning now to the famous “Face”on Mars, and the alleged “Pyramid City” at Cydonia.     Much has been made of this monolithic mass of rock which, in an early Mars photo was found to very closely resemble a humanoid face.   I myself was completely sold on the likeness from the moment I first clapped eyes on it.     The resemblance was truly uncanny and looked for all the world as if it had been carved or blasted out of a solid mountain of rock roughly a mile and a half in length and about a mile across. The features seemed quite unmistakeably human, in that first NASA photo. The “Face” was even surrounded by a very Egyptian-looking, symmetrically formed headdress!   

The champions of human life having first originated on Mars had a real “field-day”, and millions of words flooded the Internet, as well as UFO magazines everywhere.   However, NASA remained surprisingly reticent about the “Face” and it was only immense public pressure from supporters and scoffers alike, that persuaded NASA to shoot further views of the Face in subsequent passes over the region.     However, these were quite unlike the first accidental shot, photographed at a different light angle to that upon which the first Face had depended for its hominid features, and if a Face was now distinguishable at all, it appeared much more simian than human.  (I found myself forcibly reminded of “The Planet of the Apes”!)   However, far more recent MOC photographs reveal it to be a truly genuine artefact, constructed by intelligent beings.   

There was also a disorganized group of what looked like pyramidal shapes close by, and although they were all quite dissimilar in shape, size, and number of sides, dedicated UFOlogists named the assemblage the “City”.  Sadly, at that fairly poor stage of Martian photography, I couldn't see them as more than a cluster of curiously formed rocks. But since the advent of the Mars Orbiting Camera my ideas have changed.

I've examined these and the“Face” repeatedly since, and I'm now convinced that they aren't naturally formed Martian monoliths.  They are clearly “man-made” structures, as one can easily see by today's excellent close-up photographs of the Martian surface, without recourse to imagination and wishful thinking!   Even NASA now tends to agree.  

Unfortunately, there are still many old heavily “re-digitalised” photos in circulation, both on the Net and in various books on the subject, and until these obviously “doctored” images are finally weeded out, and new photographs displayed instead, the “Face”, “City”, and “Pyramids” will continue to put off discerning scientific thinkers.

A good many intellectuals still recall, only to well, the parrot-phrase of that great “kidologist”, P.T. Barnum, which states that:  “There's a sucker born every minute!”      

Part Three

Return To Mars

However, to return to my “Martian Hypothesis”.   I feel that perhaps I should have made my stance a little clearer at the outset. Insofar as the hypothetical musings which I am currently scribing - (including that particular “Martian Origin” idea for the human race - plus a selection of Martian animal species in a “Noah's Ark” satellite setting) - is really a general “pot-pouri”collection of alternative theories, suppositions and hypothetical scenarios. One that I have toyed with over the years, largely as rigorous mental exercise, rather than any really serious attempt to challenge existing orthodox and academically-blessed scientific views.  (Which - if I am permitted just a little tad of irony - God forfend I should have the gross impertinence to do!)

In short, what I am presently writing about could probably best be described at this stage, at any rate, as “Realistic Fantasy” - pending the inevitable revelation of proof positive - hopefully with the next decade!    Of course, my interest in racial origins is genuine enough, but not because of any sense of the superiority of one race over another.  It is simply a subject that has always puzzled me.  Why should Homo Sapiens have become separated into certainly three or even five*, distinctly definable racial groups? (*That is, depending upon when and where one was educated!)

Not that any form of racial-bias enters into, or is inferred in these ponderings, of course.  I just cannot help wondering how and why a single, discrete species such as Homo Sapiens Sapiens came to become so diversified - not merely in skin-pigmentation, but also in many other attributes - including physical characteristics, such as in their physiognomy, build and cultural developments!
I just cannot believe that such great differences are purely and simply due to local environmental conditions - like the burning sunshine in Africa or Australia, or the cold winds of the high northern latitudes of Asia and North America, as anthropologists would have us believe.  If this were true, most Arabian people should be black and most North American Indians pale skinned, surely?  Nor do ancient mass-migrations of entire nations of people across continents seem to adequately explain it.

Did Darwin Get It All Wrong?
In my view, Earth just isn't a planet of sufficiently drastic extremes of sunlight or temperature to affect our species in such dramatically diverse ways.  The much more "steady- state" of our wild animals tends to support this viewpoint. They generally tend to show little or no special adaptation to climatic environs.   For example, why do gorillas and chimps - our cousins but two genes removed - still possess thick pelts of body-hair, when humans are naked in comparison - but still share the exact same environment?   Again, I must ask the reader to check this in my article on the Hollow Earth.

I feel that Darwin got it all terribly wrong somehow with his theory of evolution, and that he is constantly being shown by Nature as having been very wildly misled in his interpretations of what he observed.    His obsessive focussing upon the Galapagos Island finches should be proof enough of his tunnel-visioned approach to his subject.  I suspect that, as the son of a rather rigid church-minister, Charles Darwin was probably a very rebellious and arrogant young man (even though well-educated), who was bent upon proving a point or two against his father's strictly Biblical Creationist beliefs.   

I myself have been an avid Evolutionist in my time, as I have also since been an equally keen Creationist - which I still am in many respects.  But I feel that many of the changes which Darwin attributed to “evolution” were, in fact, simply nothing more than short-term adaptations, which still left the opportunity for an animal or a plant to revert back to its original form, should circumstances so require.    That is still the case, even to this day.  A long-domesticated breed of dog or cat, or even chicken, can, and often does, very rapidly return to the feral state and appearance of its remote ancestors when released back into the wild, and within only a few generations.    

Had he been consulted about this, Darwin would very likely have suggested that a French poodle has been forced to“evolve”, through man's interference, into a totally different species than, say, a dingo - which is one of the most classic examples of a trul